Obrazy na stronie

Minor, vol. 2, p. 193, seqq.) The figs of this place were famous. Cicero (de Div., 2, 4) mentions the cry of a person who sold Caunian figs at Brundisium, as d too. against Crassus when setting out, at the time, on his Parthian expedition. The cry of the figvender was Cauneas (supply ficus eme, or vendo), and this to a Roman ear would sound very much like cape ne eas, pronounced rapidly, that is, like caus' n' eas, the letter p being sounded by the Romans like u. (Schneider, L. G., vol. 1, p. 357, seqq.) CAYstER or CAYstrus, a rapid river of Asia, rising in Lydia, and, after a meandering course, falling into the Egean Sea near Ephesus. Near its mouth it formed a marsh called Asia Palus, or the Asian marsh, and the same with the "Aquo: Aetusov of Homer, much frequented by swans and other water-fowl. The Cayster is now called the Kitchik Minder, or Little Maeander, from its winding course. (Plin., 5, 29.— Strab., 642. — Hom., Il., 2,470. — Virg., Georg., 1, 383.−Id., AEm., 7, 699.—Ovid, Mct., 5, 386.-Martial, Ep. 1, 54, 6.) CEBENNA Mons, a range of mountains in Gaul, commencing in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages, running thence in a northern direction into the country of the Ruteni, communicating by a side-chain with the mountains of the Arverni to the northwest, while the main range pursues its course towards the northeast and north, connecting itself, in the former direction with Mount Jura, and in the latter with Mount Vogesus (Vosge). The modern name of the range is the Cerennes, in the departments of l'Aveyron, la Lozère, and l’Ardèche. (Caes., B. G., 7, 4 et 56.) Pliny calls this range Gebenna (3, 4); Ptolemy, Strabo, and the Greeks in general, style it Kéusuevov Čpoc. Avienus (Or. Marit., 614) calls the adjacent region Cumenice. (Compare Wernsdorff, ad loc.—Lemaire, Indez Geogr. ad Caes., s. v., p. 229.) CEBEs, I. a Greek philosopher, and disciple of Socrates, and also one of the interlocutors whom Plato introduces in his dialogue entitled Phaedon. He was born at Thebes, and composed three dialogues, called Hebdomé ("E6óóum), Phrynuchus (oppūvuxog), and Pnaz, or the Picture (IIsva;). The last is the only one which has come down to us. It is commonly cited by its Latin title Cebetus Tabula (i.e., picta), and is a moral sketch or picture of human life, written in a pleasing and simple style. Some critics have raised doubts as to the authenticity of this little work. It breathes, indeed, a very pure vein of morality, but is not composed, as they think, in the true spirit of the Socratic school; and they are disposed, therefore, to regard it as the work of some stoic, perhaps Cebes of Cyzicus (No. II.), who wished to show that happiness consisted in the practice of virtue. But it is expressly attributed to Cebes by Lucian (de Mercede Conduct., c. 42), and after him by Tertullian (de Praescript, adv. Heret., c. 39), Diogenes Laertius (2, 125), Chalcidius, and Suidas. Wolff was the first among the moderns who ventured to call in question this testimony of the ancients, and he has been followed on the same side by the Abbé Sevin (Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 3, p. 75–Compare the dissertation of Garnier, in the same collection, vol. 49, p. 455). No work of antiquity has met with a wider circulation. It has been translated into almost all the modern languages, even into the Arabic.—The best editions of Cebes are, that of Schweighaeuser, Argent., 12mo, 1806, and that of Thieme, Berol., 8vo, 1810, with German notes of great merit. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, 346.) — II. A philosopher of Cyzicus, who lived in the time of Marcus Aurelius. (Compare Athenaeus, 4, p. 156.—Ed. Schweigh., vol. 2, p. 109, and Garnier, Dissert. sur le Tableau de Cebes.— Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 49, p. 455.) CEBRENE, a city of Troas, capital of a small district named from it Cebrenia. This district was separated

by the Scamander (the Simois of Homer) from the territory of Scepsis, as Strabo informs us, and the Cebrenians and the people of Scepsis were almost continually at war, until Antigonus removed the inhabitants of both places to Antigonia, afterward Alexandrea Troas. (Strab., 597.) According to Ephorus, Cebrene had received a colony from the AEolian Cyme. (Ap. Harpocr., s. v. Kébpm.a.) Xenophon affirms that it was a place of great strength. (Hist. Gr., 3, 1, 14). The site is called at the present day Kutchulan-tepe. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 119.) CEarus, a river of Moesia, flowing into the Danube, and separating Upper from Lower Moesia. It is now either the Ischa, a small Bulgarian stream, or the Zibriz. (Dio Cass., 51, 25.) CecroPIA, the original name of Athens, in honour of Cecrops, its first founder. (Wid. Cecrops.) CEcRöpidAE, a name given to the Athenians by the poets, as the fabled descendants of Cecrops. (Wid. Cecrops.) Cecrops, according to the Attic legend, an autochthon or indigenous personage, and the earliest monarch of the country, after Ogyges. His form was half human, half that of a serpent. In his days, it is said, the ods began to choose favourite spots among the dwell ings of men for their own residence, or, as the expres. sion seems to mean, particular deities were worshipped with especial homage in particular cities. It was at this time, therefore, that Minerva and Neptune strove for the possession of Attica. The question was to be determined by the natural principle of priority of occupation. It was asserted by Neptune, that he had appropriated the territory to himself, by planting his trident on the rock of the Acropolis at Athens, before the land had been claimed by Minerva. He pointed to it there standing erect, and to the salt-spring which had then issued, and was flowing from the fissure of the cliff, that had opened for the reception of the trident. On the other hand, Minerva alleged that she had taken o of the country at a still earlier period than had been done by the rival deity. She . in support of her claim, to the olive, which had sprung at her command from the soil, and which was growing near the fountain produced by the hand of Neptune from the same place. Cecrops was required to attest the truth of her assertion. He had been witness of the act, and testified accordingly ; whereupon the twelve gods, according to one version of the fable, but, according to another, Cecrops himself, decided in favour of Minerva, who then became the tutelary deity of Athens. (Apollod., 3, 14, 1.) Cecrops married Agraulos, daughter of Actaeus, and became the father of three daughters, Pandrosos, Herse, and Agraulos. After a reign of many years, spent in introducing among his subjects the blessings of civilization, he died, ion; the kingdom to Cranaus, another autochthon. (Apollod., l. c.)—Thus much for the fable, which has become in our histories so much grave matter of fact. The truth appears to be, that the whole series of Attic kings who are said to have preceded Theseus, including, perhaps, even Theseus himself, are mere fictions, owing their existence to misunderstood names and false etymologies, to attempts to explain ancient customs and religious rites, and to a wish to exalt the antiquity of a nation or a family by giving it a founder in a remote age. At the head of the list of Attic kings is commonly placed Ogyges. The evidence of his historical existence is so slight that his name hardly appears deserving of remark. Whether we make it equivalent, as some do, to dipraioc, or trace it, with other etymologists, to a root yūym, meaning night or darkness, in either case the name is merely figurative, and is intended to refer, not to an individual, but to a period of remote and obscure antiquity.—Next in order comes Cecrops, whom we ought to regard as being, in genuine Attic


fable, the first king of Attica; the true autochthon from whom, according to the popular faith, the Attic people had their origin. The story of his being half man, half serpent, is only an expression of his autochthonous nature. For in Herodotus (1,78), the explanation given by the Telmessians of the serpents devoured by the horses at Sardis is, 59tv cival y}c traida, “that the snake is a child of earth.” The story of his leading a colony from Sais, in Egypt, to Athens, is a comparatively late invention, and entitled to no credit. (Philol. Museum, 5, p. 357.) The very name Cecrops (Kékpot!) itself appears to be nothing else than a synonyme of airóxtov. The Téttuš, or cicada, was always regarded by the Athenians as a symbol of their autochthonia. As the eggs of this insect fall to the ground from the stalks on which they are deposited (Aristot., Hist. An, 5, 24), and are hatched in great numbers in showery weather, it was natural that the vulgar should consider the earth as producing them. Now one of the names of the cicada is képkun! (AElian, Hist. An., 10, 44), the original form of which would seem to have been opékop, referring, as well as Téttuš, to the peculiar sound which the insect emits. Cecrops, therefore (Kerpop, KpéKolp), is in reality nothing more than the cicada itself, the emblem of autochthonia, converted into the first king of Athens. This is rendered still more probable by the names of his daughters. As the ancients supposed the cicada to be produced from the ground, so they thought that it was wholly nourished by the dew. Hence the names IIávópodoc (“All-dewy”) and "Epam (“Dew"), given to two of the daughters of the fabled Cecrops. The third name, "Aypavāoc (“Field-paper”), is equally appropriate to the cicada, of whose music the ancients thought so highly, that it was doubted whether the Ionians did not wear the golden cicada in their hair in honour of Apollo. (Schol. ad Aristoph., Nub., 971.)—But what becomes of the legend respecting the part that Cecrops bore in the controversy between Neptune and Minerva! It is not difficult to perceive, that in this tradition a record is preserved of the rivalry that arose between two classes of the Attic population, the one devoted to maritime pursuits, and aiming at commercial eminence, the other contented with their own domestic resources, and preferring the tranquil occupations of agricultural and pastoral life, which were typified by the emblematic symbol of peace. The victory of Minerva, which it commemorates, is a true and significant expression of the condition of this country, and of the habits of its people, from the days of Cecrops to those of Themistocles. (Wordsworth's Greece, p. 93.)—Cranaus comes next in the list of Attic kings. He was also an autochthon, contemporary with the flood of Deucalion. He married Pedias, and the issue of their wedlock was Atthis. What is this but the legend of a union between the inhabitants of the hills (Kpava) yi, the rocky country) with those of the plains of Attica (IIeóttic, the plain country)' and thus Attica ("Attic) was formed by uniting the rugged district with that belonging to the plain. And yet a hundred histories have repeated the name of Cranaus as a king of Attica!—This state of prosperity, however, does not appear to have been of long duration; for Atthis is said to have died in early youth; and the flood of Deucalion to have inundated the country during the reign of Cranaus, who was himself driven from the throne by the king next in succession, named Amphictyon. This appellation, indicating, as it does, a collector of neighbouring people into one community, appears to indicate an attempt made in this, the next age, to organize afresh the social elements, which had been disturbed by the convulsions of the previous generation, and to combine them together into one federal body. This design seems to have been attended with success, and to have produced results favourable to the cultivation

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of the arts of civilized life. For the immediate successor of Amphictyon, and the representative of the state of the Athenian nation, as it existed in that period, was Erichthonius. Erichthonius was, in the language of mythology, the son of Vulcan and Minerva, or, as that tradition may be interpreted, it was in this age that the manual labours which enjoyed the especial patronage of those two deities began to attract the attention and assume the importance which afterward rendered them the source of affluence and of glory to the possessors of the Athenian soil. (Wordsworth's Greece, p. 92, seqq.—Philological Museum, 5, p. 345, seqq.) CELAENAE or CELENE, a city of Phrygia, in the southwest, at the sources of the Marsyas. This was a small river which flows into the Maeander, and which, according to Xenophon, was named after Marsyas, whom Apollo caused to be flayed alive, and whose skin he hung in the cave where the river rises. Cyrus the Younger had a palace there, with a park filled with wild beasts, where he exercised himself in hunting. Within the enclosure of this palace rose the Maeander, and flowed through the park; the Marsyas rose in the market-place. At the sources of the latter, Xerxes, after his return from Greece, built a palace and citadel. The inhabitants of Celaenae were in after days carried off by Antiochus Soter to the city of Apamea, founded by him a few miles to the southeast, at the confluence of the Marsyas and Maeander. (Liv., 38, 13.−Xenoph., Anab., 1.) CELAENo, one of the harpies, daughter of Neptune and Terra. (Virg., AEm., 3, 245.) CELENDERIs, a city on the coast of Cilicia Trachea, to the northeast of the Anemurian promontory. It was founded by the Phoenicians, and afterward received a Samian colony. Celenderis appears to have been a place of great strength, built on a high and craggy precipice, surrounded by the sea. (Tacit., Ann., 2,80.) It is now Chelindreh. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 328.) CELEREs. Wud. Equites. CEleus, a king of Eleusis, father to Triptolemus by Metanira. He gave a kind reception to Ceres, who taught his son the art of cultivating the earth. (Hesiod, Op. et D., v. 423–Apollod., 1, 5, 1–Pausan., 1, 14.—Virg., Georg., 1, 165.) Celsus, I. Aulus CoRNEllus, a celebrated physician. His native city is unknown; some writers contending for Reme, others for Verona. (Compare Fabricius, Bibl. Lat., 2, 4, p. 36, seqq.) Even his very name is partly involved in doubt, some making it Aurelius Cornelius Celsus, others Aulus. The time in which he lived has also been made a subject of controversy. One class of writers infer, from a passage in Columella (R. R., 1, 1, 14; compare 3, 17, 4, and 4, 8, 1), that he was born in the time of Tiberius, and lived until the reign of Trajan. (Schulling, Quaest. de Corn. Celsi Vita, Lips., 1824, p. 19 and 75.) Another class place his birth under the reign of Augustus. (Compare Le Clerc, Hist, de la #}. vol. 1, p. 517, seqq. Schulze, Compend. Hist. Med., p. 298, seqq.) The most probable opinion is, that he lived under Augustus and Tiberius, but wrote his works under the latter. Celsus composed a large work, on the plan, in some measure, of an encyclopædia, in which he treated of philosophy, jurisprudence, agriculture, and medicine. It was entitled “De Artibus.” Unhappily, however, only the eight books (from the 6th to the 14th) which treat of medicine have come down to us. The best editions are that of Ruhnken, Lugd. Bat., 1785, and that of Milligan, Lond., 1826.—Roman literature, otherwise so barren of good medical authorities, can boast of possessing in Celsus one, who, for elegance, terseness, learning. good sense, and practical information, stands unrivalled. Every branch of the profession has been treated

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of by him, and it may be well said of him, Nikit quod tetigit non ornapit. So ...'. a specimen of professional knowledge, selected by a sound judgment, and adorned with philosophy, is nowhere else to be met with. As a Roman historian said of Homer, that he who can believe him to have been born blind must himself be devoid of every sense, so may we venture to affirm respecting Celsus, that he who can suppose him to have been a mere compiler, and never to have practised the art of medicine, must be totally destitute of all professional experience. His preface contains an admirable exposition of the principles of the different sects which had risen up in medicine before his time; and in the remaining part of the 1st book there are many pertinent remarks on the best method of preserving the health. In the 2d, which treats of the general symptoms and phaenomena of diseases in general, he has copied freely from Hippocrates, having, no doubt, discovered that “to copy mature was to copy him." The last part of this book is devoted to the subject of diet and regimen; and here his views will, with a few exceptions, even now be admitted by the unprejudiced to be wonderfully correct. Dr. Cullen, with all his prejudices against ancient authors, allows that, “in most instances, his judgment, if understood well, might be found perhaps to be very good.”—In the 3d book he has treated of fevers; and here his distinctions, remarks upon critical days, and treatment, will be found to be particularly deserving of attention. Venesection and cold applications to the head are the general remedies which he most approves of, and happy would it have been for mankind if the masters of the profession had been content to follow this simple plan of treatment, instead of being carried away by such specious theories as the Cullenian and Brunonian, which all must now admit have introduced very mistaken and fatal views of practice. The other parts of his work it is unnecessary to go over minutely; but we would point out, as particularly valuable, his divisions and treatment of ulcers. It is remarkable that no one has treated of diseases of the “obscoenae

rtes” with the same precision that he has done. so. different shades of cutaneous diseases, which are found so difficult to define, he has marked with a surprising degree of precision. But, of the whole work, the most interesting part, perhaps, is the 7th book, which treats of the operations of surgery. His account of those performed upon the eye may be instanced as particularly excellent. The operating for couching the cataract is described in much the same manner as it is now performed. The ancients were not acquainted with the mode of extracting. The operation of lithotomy, as described by him, though not exactly the same as that now generally practised, has, even at the present day, its admirers, among whom we may mention the celebrated Dupuytren, who has revived it at Paris, and considers it to possess the advantage over the common plan of affording a freer passage to the stone. Mr. Charles Bell, of London, has also operated much in the same way upon boys, to whom, by-the-by, Celsus restricts his practice. Celsus has the merit of being the first author who makes mention of the application of the ligature to arteries for stopping hemorrhage. The ligature is also mentioned by Heliodorus in a short tract on amputation preserved by Nicetas, by Galen in nearly twenty places, by Aëtius, Paulus AEgineta, Avicenna, Rhazez, Avenzoar, and Albucasis; so that it cannot with any propriety be called a modern invention.—In the last book he treats minutely of fractures and dislocations; and here, of course, he avails himself of the correct views previously laid down by Hippocrates. One may venture to affirm that, even at the present day, he who is thoroughly acquainted with the writings of Celsus, and has learned to reduce his knowledge to practice, will prove a useful and distinguished

member of his profession.—II. A Platonic, or, according to others, Epicurean philosopher, who lived towards the close of the reign of Hadrian. His name is famous as that of one of the bitterest enemies of Christianity. From a motive of curiosity, or, perhaps, in order to be better able to combat the new religion, Celsus caused himself to be initiated into the mysteries of Christianity, and to be received into that secret society which St. Clement of Rome is supposed to have founded. (Compare Kestner, Agape, oder der geheume Weltbunde der Christen, &c., Jena, 1819, 8vo.) It appears, however, that the sincerity of the neophyte was distrusted, and that he was refused admittance into the higher ceremonies. The discontent to which this gave rise in the breast of Celsus, inflamed his resentment against the Christians, and he wrote a work against them, entitled 'A27th); 26 yoc, “A true discourse,” in which he employed all the resources of his intellect and eloquence to paint Christianity as a ridiculous and contemptible system, and its followers as a sect dangerous to the well-being of the state. There is no falsehood to which he has not recourse in order to represent in an untrue light the Christian scheme of morals, to parody and falsify the text of the Old and New Testaments, and to calumniate the character of Jesus Christ and his disciples. He styles Christianity a doctrine tending to pervert and corrupt the human race (26) or Avuatvöuevoc row rôv divtpāTov Buôv), and exhorts the government to extirpate the sect, if it wishes to save the empire. The discourse itself is lost; but Origen, who refuted it, in a work divided into eight books, has given us so complete an extract from it, that, by the aid of this, we can follow all the principal reasonings of the author. Celsus wrote also a work against magicians and sorcerers (Karā Mūyen), which is cited by Origen and Lucian. The latter, who was his friend, addressed to him his memoir on Alexander, the false prophet, in which he extols the wisdom of Celsus, his love for truth, and his amiable manners. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 103, seqq.)—III. Albinovanus, a friend of Horace, warned against plagiarism (Epist. 1, 3, 15) and pleasantly ridiculed (Epist. 1, 8) for his foibles. CELt.A., a general name for the whole Gallic race, but, in a special sense, an appellation given to the most indigenous and extensive of the three great tribes that occupied Gaul in the days of Caesar. (Vid. Gallia.) Celtibéri, a people of Spain, brave and powerful, who occupied the greater part of the interior of the country. According to Diodorus Siculus (5, 33), they were composed of two nations, the Celtae and Iberi, whence their name, which, perhaps, was used for distinction' sake from that of the Celtae beyond the Pyrenees in Gaul. Their cavalry were excellent, and fought equally well on foot and on horseback. Niebuhr considers the fact far from proved that the Celts of Iberia were strangers from Gaul who had migrated into that country. No definite tradition of this event is, according to him, to be found, not even in Diodorus. This assertion, however, is altogether untenable, and is based upon the strange hypothesis that different races of human beings were originally created, and that mankind did not spring from one common parent. (Compare Niebuhr, Rom. Hist, vol. 2, p. 256.) The Celtiberi were reduced beneath the Roman sway in the Sertorian war, after a long and brave resistance. They were divided into six tribes, the Bellones. Arevaci, Pelendones, Ditthi, Belli, and Lusones. The country of the Celtiberi was sometimes called Celtiberia, and bordered, on the east, upon the Edetani and the range of Mount Ortospeda; on the north upon the Iberus; on the west upon the Tagus and the Carpetani: on the south upon the Oretani. It comprised, therefore, what is now the southwestern part of Aragon, the southern part of Nararre, the eastern portion of Old Castle, and the northeastern division of New Castile. (Plin., 3,

C E N C EN 3. – Id. 4, 22. — Liv., Epit., 48. — Eutrop., 4, 16.— wrote a small work entitled “De die Natali,” which was Isidor., Hisp. Chron. Goth., p. 173.) so called because composed on occasion of the birthCeltici, a people of Lusitania, whose territory lay day of his friend Cerellius. It treats of the time below the mouth of the Tagus, and between that river of birth, of the influence of one's Genius, as well as and the Turdetani. They were of Celtic origin, as that of the stars, upon the birth-period of an individtheir name imports, and their country answered to ual; and embraces many other topics of a chronolowhat is now the southern part of Alontejos. Their gical, mathematical, and cosmographical character.

chief town was Pax Julia, now Beja. (Plin., 3, 1.—
Id., 4, 21.) -
CENAEUM, a promontory of Euboea, which formed the
extreme point of the island towards the northwest.
The modern name is Lithada. (Strab., 444.—Plun.,
4, 12.—Ptol., p. 87.)
CENchkEA, I. a harbour of Corinth, on the Saronic
Gulf, from which this city traded with Asia, the Cyc-
lades, and the Euxine. (Strabo, 380.) It was about
seventy stadia from the city itself; and the road thither
appears, from the account of Pausanias, to have been
lined with temples and sepulchres. Dr. Clarke ob-
serves, that the remains at Cenchreas faithfully corre-
spond with the description given by Pausanias of the
spot. Sir W. Gell says the place is still called Ken-
chres. (Itin. of the Morea, p. 207.)—II. A village of
Argolis, near the frontiers of Arcadia, southwest of
Argos. . A tumulus was here erected to some Argives
who had fallen in a battle with the Spartans. (Strabo,
CENchkEis, a small island off the Spiracum Prom-
ontorium of Argolis. (Plin., 4, 11.)
CENch Rius, a river of Ionia near Ephesus and Mount
Solmissus, where the Curetes, according to some, con-
cealed and protected Latona after her delivery, when
she was pursued by the power of Juno. (Strab., 639.
—Tacit., Ann., 3, 61.)
CENIMAGNI, a people of Britain, north of the Trino-
bantes, on the eastern coast, forming part of the great
nation of the Iceni. (Vid. Iceni. i. however,

Canio, therefore, who edited the work in 1583, separ-
lated the latter part of this production from the rest,
and regards it as a fragment of an unknown author,
“De naturali institutione.” The style of Censorinus
is good, though not free, of course, from the blemishes
natural to his time. We have also a fragment, de Me-
tris, by this same writer. He composed also a work
on accents, and another on geometry, but these last two
have not reached us. The best edition of Censorinus
is that of Havercamp, Lugd. Bat., 1743, 8vo, reprinted
in 1767. (Bahr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 661.)
The latest edition is that of Gruber, Nuremb., 1805,
CENTAURI, a Thessalian race fabled to have been
half men, half horses.—The Centaurs and Lapithae are
two mythic tribes, which are always mentioned to-
gether. The former are spoken of twice in the Iliad,
under the appellation of wild-creatures (Piper), and
once under their propername. (Il., 1,268.—Ib., 2,742.
—Ib., 11,832.) We also find the name Centaurs in the
Odyssey (21,303.) They seem to have been a rude
mountain-tribe, dwelling on and about Mount Pelion.
It is very doubtful whether Homer and Hesiod con-
ceived them to be of a mingled form, as they were
subsequently represented. ; the fight of the Cen-
taurs and Lapithae on the shield of Hercules, the lat-
ter appear in panoply fighting with spears, while the
former wield pine-clubs. (Hesiod, Scut. Herc., 178,
seqq.) Pindar is the earliest poet extant who express-
ly describes them as semi-ferine. According to him

rejects the term Cenimagni, where it occurs in the (Pyth., 2, 78, seqq.), the offspring of Ixion and the text of Caesar (B. G., 5, 21), on the ground that this | cloud (rid. Ixion) was a son named Centaurus, who. race are nowhere else mentioned among the British when grown up, wandered about the foot of Mount tribes, and he proposes to read in place of it, Iceni, Pelion, where he united with the Magnesian mares, who Cangi. The author of the Greek paraphrase of Caesar brought forth the Centaurs, a race partaking of the has Kevlaavos, whence Vossius conjectured the true form of both parents, their lower parts resembling their reading to be Cenomani, and supposed this nation to dams, their upper their sire. The common account have crossed over from Gaul. (Lemaire, Ind. Geogr. makes the Centaurs to have been the immediate offad Caes., p. 231, seqq.) spring of Ixion and the cloud. By his wife Dia, Ixion

CENINA. Wid. Caenina. had a son named Pirithous, who married Hippodamia,

CENoMXN1, a people of Gaul, belonging to the nation, daughter of Adrastus, king of Argos. The chiefs of of the Aulerci. (Vid. Aulerci.) his own tribe, the Lapithae, were all invited to the wed

CENsöREs, two magistrates of great authority at ding, as were also the Centaurs, who dwelt in the Rome, first created A.U.C. 312. The office of the neighbourhood of Pelion. Theseus, Nestor, and other censors was chiefly to estimate the fortunes, and to in strangers were likewise present. At the feast, Euryspect the morals of the citizens. For a full account tion, one of the Centaurs, becoming intoxicated with

of their duties, &c., consult Adams, Rom. Ant. CENsorinus, I, one of the ephemeral Roman emperors who appeared in so great numbers under the reign of Gallienus, and are known in later Roman history as “the thirty tyrants.” (Treb. Pollio, in Hist. Aug. Script., vol. 2, p. 254, ed. Hack.) Censorinus had

the wine, attempted to offer violence to the bride; the other Centaurs followed his example, and a dreadful conflict arose, in which several of them were slain. | The Centaurs were finally driven from Pelion, and obliged to retire to other regions. (Orud, Met., 12, 210, seqq. Diod. Soc., 4, 70.) — According to the

been distinguished in camps and in the senate ; he had earliest version of this legend, Eurytion, the Centaur, been twice consul, twice praetorian prefect, three times being invited to the mansion of Pirithous, got intoxiF. of Rome, and four times proconsul. After cated, and behaved so ill, that the heroes rose, and,

aving passed through this honourable career, he re- dragging him to the door, cut off his ears and nose, tired to the country, being now advanced in years, and which was the occasion of “strife between the Cenlame from a wound he had received in the war against taurs and men.” (Od., 21, 295, seqq.) When Herthe Persians during the reign of Valerian. It was un- cules was on his way to hunt the Erymanthian boar, der these circumstances that he was proclaimed em- he was entertained by the Centaur Pholus; and this peror, A.D. 269, in spite, as it would appear, of his gave rise to a conflict between him and the other Cenown wishes; and by a species of pleasantry he was taurs, which terminated in the total discomfiture of the surnamed, or rather nicknamed, Claudius, in allusion to latter. — The most celebrated of the Centaurs was

his lameness (claudus, “lame”). The strict disci- ||Chiron, the son of Saturn by the nymph Phily ra.

pline, however, which he wished to introduce, gave of. fence, and he was slain by the very soldiers who had raised him to the throne. (Treb. Poll., Vit. Cens.)— II. A mmarian and philosopher, who flourished under Maximus and Gordianus, about A.D. 238. He

(Vid. Chiron.)—It is the opinion of Buttmann (Mythologus, vol. 2, p. 22), that the Centaurs and Lapithae are two purely poetic names, used to distinguish two opposite races of men; the former, the rude horseriding tribes, which tradition records to have been spread over the north of Greece; the latter, the more causes, they judged all together.

civilized race, which founded towns, and gradually drove their wild neighbours back into the mountains. He therefore thinks the exposition of Centaurs as Airpiercers (from Kevreiv Tiju aipav) not an improbable one, for that very idea is suggested by the figure of a Cossack, leaning forward with his protruded lance as he gallops, along. He regards, however, the idea of <<vravpoo having been in its origin simply kévrap as much more probable. Lapithae may, he thinks, have signified Stone-persuaders (from Adaç restlew), a poetic appellation for the builders of towns. He supposes Hippodamia, as her name seems to intimate, to have been a Centauress, married to the prince of the Lapithat, and thus accounts for the Centaurs having been at the wedding. (Mythologus, l. c.—Keightley's Mythology, p. 316, seqq.)—Knight takes a very different. view of the legend. The horse, as he observes, was sacred to Neptune and the Rivers, and was employed as a general symbol of the waters. The Centaurs appear to him to have been the same symbol partly humanized. According to this explanation, the legend respecting the Centaurs and Lapithae will have reference to the draining of some parts of Thessaly by that old Pelasgic race. (Knight's Enquiry, &c., § 111, seqq.—Class. Journ., vol. 25, p. 34, seqq) CENTRIris, a river of Armenia Major, flowing under the ramparts of Tigranocerta, and falling into the Eu. phrates. The Greeks gave it the name of Nicephorius, “that brings victory,” probably on account of some battle gained in its vicinity during the time of the Syrian kings. It separated Armenia from the country of the Carduchi, and is now the Bitlis-Soo. (Xen., Anab., 4, 3–Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, p. 236.) CENTRöNEs, a people of Gaul, * the Alpes Graiae, who, along with the Graioceli and Caturiges, were defeated by Caesar in several engagements. Their chief city was Forum Claudii Centronum, now Centron. (Lemaire, Index Geogr. ad Caes., p. 231.) CENTUM CellAE, a seaport town of Etruria, northeast of Caere. It is better known under the name of Trajani Portus, that emperor having caused a magnificent harbour to be constructed there, which Pliny the younger has described in one of his epistles (6, 31). Two immense piers formed the port, which was semicircular, while an island, constructed artificially of immense masses of rock, brought there by vessels and sunk in the sea, served as a breakwater in front and supported a pharos. The coast being very destitute of shelter for vessels of burden, this work of Trajan was of great national benefit. Previous to Trajan's improvements the place was verythinly inhabited, and received its name from the mean and scanty abodes scattered here and there along the shore. Centum Cellae having been destroyed by the Saracens, the inhabitants built another town at some distance inland, but afterward they reoccupied the site of the old city, which, from that circumstance, obtained its present name of Civita Vecchia. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 201, seqq.—Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, p. 373.) CENTUMviri, the members of a court of justice at Rome. There were originally chosen three from each of the 35 tribes of the people, and, though 105, they were always called Centumvirs. They were afterward increased to the number of 180, but still kept their original name. They seem to have been first instituted soon after the creation of the praetor peregrinus. The causes that came before them in the time of the republic are enumerated by Cicero. They judged then chiefly concerning testaments and inheritances. (Cic., Or., 1, 38. — Val. Maz., 7, 7. Quintil., 4, 1, 7.) After the time of Augustus, however, they formed the council of the praetor, and judged in the most important causes. When the number of the Centumviri reached 180, they were divided into four councils, sometimes only into two, and sometimes, in important

A cause before them could not be adjourned. (Plun., Ep., 1, 18.— Id., 4, 24.) Ten men were appointed, five senators and five equites, to assemble these councils, and preside in them in the absence of the praetor. (Sueton., Aug., 36.) Trials before the centumviri were held usually in the Basilica Julia, sometimes in the forum. (Consult Heineccius, Antiq. Rom., ed. Haubold, 4, 6, 9, p. 664.)

CENTURIPA (rù Kevróptira-Ptol., Kevroëpurat.— Sil. Ital., CENTURIPE), an ancient city of the Siculi, on the eastern shore of Sicily, near Catana. After the Roman conquest of the island it became an important place in the corn-trade to Italy. The modern Centorbi appears to mark the ancient site. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 416.)

CEos (also called CEA, Plin., 4, 12. — Ovid, Met., 7, 368, &c.), an island of the AEgean, one of the Cyclades, opposite the promontory of Sunium in Attica. It was famed for its fertility and rich pastures. Pliny (4, 12) writes, that it had been torn from Euboea, and was once 500 stadia in length, but nearly four parts were carried away by the sea on the side of Boeotia. Herodotus states, that it was an Ionian colony peopled from Africa, and furnished a few ships both at Artemisium and Salamis (8, 1). From this island, as Varro reports, a greater degree of elegance was introduced in female dress. (Plin., l.c.) It once possessed four towns, named Iulis, Carthasa, Coressia, and Poeessa, but in Strabo's time only the two former remained, the population of the others having been transferred to them. Iulis was the birthplace of Simonides, and is probably represented by the modern Zea, which gives its name to the island. It is said that the laws of this town decreed, that every man, on reaching his sixtieth year, should destroy himself by poison, in order to leave to others a sufficient maintenance. This ordinance is said to have been promulgated when the town was besieged by the Athenians. (Strabo, 486. — AElian, V. H., 3, 37. — Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 401, seqq.)

CEPHALLENIA, an island in the Ionian sea, southwest of Ithaca, from which it is separated by a strait of six miles. It is now Cefalonia, and forms one of the seven Ionian islands. Strabo (456) asserts, that it was about three hundred stadia in circuit, or thirty-eight miles; Pliny (4, 12), forty-four miles; but both are very far short of the real measurement, which is little less than one hundred and twenty miles. The more ancient name of this large island was Samos, as we learn from Homer. (Od., 4,671.) But the poet elsewhere speaks of the Cephallenians as the subjects of Ulysses. (Il., 2,631.) All the writers of antiquity agree in deriving the name of Cephallenia from Cephalus, who settled here after his expedition against the Teleboat, in which he accompanied Amphitryon. (Strabo, l.c.) The Cephallenians did not share in the glory of the victory of Salamis, but one of their cities sent a few soldiers to Plataea. (Herodot., 9, 28.) Prior to the Peloponnesian war, the whole island was conquered by an Athenian fleet commanded by Tolmides. But its subjugation does not appear to have been permanent, since Thucydides mentions, that, towards the commencement of the war, it was brought under the dominion of Athens, without a struggle, by a fleet of one hundred triremes (2,30). There were four cities in the island, Palle or Pale, Cranii, Same, and Proni. Besides these well-known cities, Stephanus Byzantinus assigns to Cephallenia a town called Taphos, of which some remains are said to exist near the modern village of Taphios, on the western coast of the island. (Doducell's Tour, vol. 1, p. 75.) Strabo reports, that, towards the close of the Roman republic, C. Antonius, the colleague of Cicero in his consulship, resided in Cephallenia during his exile, and acquired such an influence over the inhabi

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