Obrazy na stronie

cius Scipio, and expelled Manilius from the senate for saluting his wife at what Cato deemed an improper time. Still, however, most of his proceedings when censor indicate a man who aimed, by every method, at keeping up the true spirit of earlier days. Hence, though his measures, while holding this office, caused him some obloquy and opposition, they met in the end with the highest applause, and, when he resigned the censorship, the people erected a statue to him in the temple of Health, with an honourable inscription, testifying his faithful discharge of the duties of his of: fice. Cato's attachment to the old Roman morals was still more plainly seen in his opposition to Carneades and his colleagues, when he persuaded the senate to send back these philosophers, without delay, to their own schools, through fear lest the Roman youth should lose their . character in the pursuit of Grecian learning. The wholelo career of Cato was one continued warfare. He was continually accusing others, or made the subject of accusation himself. Livy, although full of admiration for his character, still does not seek to deny, that Cato was suspected of having excited the accusation brought against Scipio Africanus, which compelled that illustrious man to retire from the capital. He was also the means of the condemnation of Scipio Asiaticus, who would have been dragged to prison had not Tiberius Gracchus generously interfered. As for Cato himself, he was fifty times accused and as often acquitted. He was eighty-five years of age when he saw himself compelled to answer the last accusation brought against him, and the exordium of his speech on that occasion was marked by a peculiar and touching simplicity: “It is a hard thing. Romans, to give an account of one's conduct before the men of an age different from that in which one has himself lived.”—The last act of Cato's public life was his embassy to Carthage, to settle the dispute between the Carthaginians and King Massinissa. This voyage of his is rendered famous in history, since to it has been attributed the destruction of Carthage. In fact, struck by the rapid recovery of this city from the loss it had sustained, Cato ever aster ended every speech of his with the well-known words, “Practerca censco Carthaginem esse delendam” (“I am also of opinion that Carthage ought to be destroyed”). Whatever we may think of his patriotism in this, we certainly cannot admire his political sagacity, since the ruin of Carthage, by removing all dread of a once powerful rival, only tended to accelerate the downfall of Roman freedom itself. Cato died a year after his return from this embassy, in the eightyfifth year of his age.—Although frugal of the public revenues, he does not appear to have been indifferent to riches, nor to have neglected the ordinary means of acquiring them; nay, # Plutarch speaks truly, some of the modes to which he had recourse for increasing his resources were anything but reputable. Towards the end of his life he was fond of indulging in a cheerful glass, and of inviting daily some of his neighbours to sup with him at his villa; and the conversation on these occasions turned, not, as one might have supposed, chiefly on rural affairs, but on the praises of great and excellent men among the Romans. He was twice married, and had a son by each of his wives. His conduct as a husband and father was equally exemplary.—Cato may be taken as a specimen of the Sabino-Samnite character. If his life be regarded as that of a mere private man, it offers only acerbity and rigour: it presents, however, a wholly different aspect if one contemplates him as the representative of the early Italian popular character. Many features of this same character strikingly resemble the modern. Who does not, in Cato's vehement bitterness, retrace a leading feature of the modern Italian, so vehement and implacable when his feelings are once irritated! Who knows not that in Italy is most frequently to

be found the strange combination of grovelling cupidity and boundless indifference towards external goods” As to what regards the first point, we need not, as in other cases, betake ourselves to Plutarch's collection of anecdotes; we can judge of it from Cato's own work on husbandry and household economy. At the very outset of the book, he sees nothing to find fault with in a respectable man's endeavouring to enrich himself by trade; for profit and gain appear to him an important object of life; only he looks upon the mercantile profession as too hazardous in its nature.—While we recognise with pleasure, even in Cato's generation, the j Sabine discipline in the simplicity of life, rural employments, and social cheerfulness of the Roman country nobleman, yet we perceive with horror that the treatment of slaves, even in ancient Italy and according to old Roman manners, was still more degrading to humanity than in Greece. Cato bought slaves like hounds or foals, when they were young, in order to sell them again when grown up; he treated them exactly like hounds or foals; used them well, because they had a money value, but otherwise viewed them merely as live-stock, not as persons. This, however, we find less surprising, since, even in his warlike undertakings, Cato opposed rigour and cruelty, as genuine Roman policy, to Scipio's mildness. His advice, however, to the farmer, as to the mode in which old and sickly slaves are to be disposed of, shows an utter want of good feeling. He classes them with old and worn-out iron implements, and recommends them to be sold : “Ferramenta retera, serrum senem, serrum morbosum, et si quid aliud supersu rendat.” (R. R., 2, p. 12, ed. Bip.)—Among the literary labours of Cato, the first that deserves mention is the treatise De Re Rustica (“On Agriculture”). It appears to have come down to us in a mutilated state, since Pliny and other writers allude to subjects as treated of by Cato, and to opinions as delivered by him in this book, which are nowhere to be found in any part of the work now extant. In its present state, it is merely the loose, unconnected journal of a plain farmer, expressed with rude, sometimes with almost oracular, brevity; and it wants all those elegant topics of embellishment and illustration which the subject might have so naturally suggested. It consists solely of the dryest rules of agriculture, and some receipts for making various kinds of cakes and wine. Servius says, it is addressed to the author's son, but there is no such address now extant. The most remarkable feature in this work of Cato's is its total want of arrangement. It is divided, indeed, into chapters, but the author apparently had never taken the trouble of reducing his precepts to any sort of method, or of following any general plan. The hundred and sixty-two chapters, of which this work consists, seem so many rules committed to writing, as the daily labours of the field suggested. He gives directions about the vineyard, then goes to his corn-fields, and returns again to the vineyard. His treatise, therefore, was evidently not intended as a regular and wellcomposed book, but merely as a journal of incidental observations. That this was its utmost pretension, is farther evinced by the brevity of the precepts, and the deficiency of all illustrations or embellishment. Of the style, he of course would be little careful, as his Memoranda were intended for the use only of his family and slaves. It is therefore always simple, and sometimes rude, but it is not ill-adapted to the subject, and suits our notions of the severe manners of its author and the character of the ancient Romans.—Besides this book on agriculture, Cato left behind him various works, which have almost entirely perished. He left a hundred and fifty orations (Cicero, Brutus, c. 17), which were existing in the time of Cicero, though almost entirely neglected, and a book on military discipline (Vegetius, 1, 8), both of which, if now extant. would be highly interesting, as proceeding from one who was equally distinguished in the camp and forum. A good many of his orations were in dissuasion or favour of particular laws and measures of state. By his readiness and pertinacity, and his bitterness in speaking, he completely wore out his adversaries (Liv., 39, 40), and earned the reputation of being, if not the most eloquent, at least the most stubborn, speaker among the Romans. Both Cicero and Livy have expressed themselves very fully on the subject of Cato's orations. The former admits that his “language is antiquated, and some of his phrases harsh and inelegant: but only change that,” he continues, “which it was not in his power to change—add number and cadence—give an easier turn to his sentences, and regulate the structure and connexion of his words, and you will find no one who can claim the preference to Cato.” Livy principally speaks of the facility, asperity, and freedom of his tongue.—Of the book on military discipline, a good deal has been incorporated into the work of Vegetius; and Cicero's orations may console us for the want of those of Cato. But the loss of the seven books, De Originibus, which he commenced in his vigorous old age, and finished just before his death, must ever be deeply deplored by the historian and antiquary. Cato is said to have begun to inquire into the history, antiquities, and language of the Roman people, with a view to counteract the influence of the Greek taste introduced by the Scipios. The first book of the valuable work, De Originibus, as we are informed by Cornelius Nepos, in his short life of Cato, contained the exploits of the kings of Rome. Cato was the first author who attempted to fix the era of the foundation of Rome, which he calculated in his Origines, and determined to have been in the first year of the 7th Olympiad, which is also the estimate followed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. The second and third books treated of the origin of the different states of Italy, whence the whole work has received the name of Origines. The fourth and fifth books comprehended the history of the first and second Punic wars; and in the two remaining books, the author discussed the other wars of the Romans till the time of Servius Galba, who overthrew the Lusitanians. The whole work exhibited great industry and learning, and, had it descended to us, would unquestionably have thrown much light upon the early periods of Roman history and the antiquities of the different states of Italy. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, himself a sedulous inquirer into antiquities, bears ample testimony to the research and accuracy of that part which treats of the origin of the ancient Italian cities. –Cato was the first of his countrymen who wrote on the subject of medicine. This was done in a work entitled “Commentarius quo medetur Filio, Servis, Familiaribus.” In this book of domestic medicine, duck, pigeons, and hare were the food he chiefly recommended to the sick. His remedies were principally extracted from herbs; and colewort or cabbage was his favourite cure. (Pliny, 20, 9.) The recipes, indeed, contained in his work on agriculture, show that his medical knowledge did not exceed that which usually exists among a semi-barbarous race, and only extended to the most ordinary simples which nature af. fords – Aulus Gellius (7, 10) mentions Cato's Libri quastionum Epistolicarum; and Cicero his Apophthegmata (De Officiis, 1, 29), the first example, probably, of that class of works which, under the appellation of Ana, became so fashionable and prevalent in France.—The only other work of Cato's which we shall here mention is the Carmen de Moribus. This, however, was not written in verse, as might be supposed from the title. Precepts, imprecations, or prayers, or any set formulae whatever, were called Carmima. Missed, however, by the title, some critics have erroneously assigned to the censor the Disticha de

Moribus, now generally attributed to Dionysius Cato, who lived, according to Scaliger, in the age of Commodus and Septimius Severus. (Plutarch, Vit. Cat. Maj. Biogr. Univ., vol. 7, p. 399, seqq.— Dunlop's Roman Literature, vol. 2, p. 16, seqq.)—The pretended fragments of the Origines, published by the Dominican, Nanni, better known by the name of Annius Viterbiensis, and inserted in his Antiquitates Varia, printed at Rome in 1498, are spurious, and the imposition was detected soon after their appearance. The few remains first collected by Riccobonus, and pub. lished at the end of his treatise on History (Basle, 1759), are believed to be genuine. They have been enlarged by Ausonius Popma, and added by him, with notes, to the other writings of Cato, published at Leyden in 1590–The best edition of the work on Agriculture is contained in Gesner's Scriptores Rei Rustica, 2 vols. 4to., Lips., 1735–II. Marcus, son of Cato the Censor, by his first wife. He distinguished him. self greatly in the battle of Pydna, against Perses, king of Macedonia, and received high eulogiums from Paulus AEmilius, the Roman commander on that oc. casion, whose daughter Tertia he afterward married He died while filling the office of praetor. (Plut., Vit Cat. Maj., c. 20 et 24.) — III. Salonius, or, as Plu tarch calls him, Saloninus (Xazovivoc), son of Cata the Censor, by his second wife. This second wife was the daughter of one Salonius, who had been Cato's secretary, and was, at the time of the marriage, a member of his retinue. Salonius, like his half-brother Marcus, died when praetor. He left, however, a son named Marcus, who attained to the consulship, and who was the father of Cato the younger, commonly called Uticensis. (Plut., Vit. Cat. Maj., c. 27.)—IV: Walerius, a celebrated grammarian in the time of Sylla. He was deprived of all his patrimony during the excesses of the civil war, and then directed his attention to literary pursuits. He wrote a poem entitled Dira in Battarum, “Imprecations on Battarus.” It was directed against the individual who had profited by his disgrace, to appropriate to himself all the property of the former. Suetonius, who has preserved some account of him, mentions two other poems of his, the one entitled Lydia, the other Diana, and also a third work, probably in prose, called Indignatio, in which he gives an account of his misfortunes. These three works are lost. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 152.)—V. Dionysius, a writer supposed to have flourished in the age of Commodus and Septimius Severus, and who is regarded as the author of the Disticha de Moribus. (Compare Scaliger, Lect. Auson., 232. — Cannegieter, Rescrip. Borhorn. de Catone, c. 18. Bahr, Gesch. Rom. Litt., vol. 1, p. 154.) — VI. Marcus, surnamed Uticensis, from his death at Utica, was great-grandson to the censor of the same name, and born B.C. 93. A short time after his birth he lost both his parents, and was brought up in the mansion of Livius Drusus, his uncle on the mother's side. Even in early life Cato displayed a maturity of judgment and an inflexible firmness of character far above his years; and Sarpedon, his instructor, being accustomed to take him frequently to the residence of Sylla, who had been his father's friend, the young Cato, then but fourteen years of age, struck with horror at the bloody scenes that were passing around him, asked his preceptor for a sword that he might slay the tyrant. His affectionate disposition was clearly displayed in his strong attachment to Caepio, his brother by the mother's side, as may be seen by a reference to the pa. ges of Plutarch. Being appointed to the priesthood of Apollo, he changed his residence, and took his share of his father's estate; but, though the fortune which he thus received was a considerable one, his manner of living was simpler and more frugal than ever. He formed a particular connexion with Antipater of Tyre, the stoic philosopher, made himself well acquainted with the tenets of this school, and ever after remained true to its principles, pushing them even to the extreme of austerity. His first appearance in public was against the tribunes of the people, who wished to remove a column of the Porcian Basilica, or Hall of Justice, which incommoded their benches. This Basilica had been erected by his great-grandfather the censor, and the young Cato displayed on the occasion that powerful and commanding eloquence which afterward rendered him so formidable to all his opponents. His first campaign was in the war against Spartacus, as a simple volunteer, his halfbrother Caepio being a military tribune in the same army; and he distinguished himself so highly, that Gellius, the praetor, wished to award him a prize of honour, which Cato, however, declined. He was then sent as military tribune to Macedonia. There he learned that Caepio was lying dangerously ill at AEnos in Thrace, and instantly embarked for that place in a small passage-boat, o, the roughness of the sea and the great peril which atj the attempt, but only arrived at AEnos just after Caepio had breathed his last. Stoicism was here of no avail, and the young Roman bitterly lamented the companion of his early years. According to Plutarch, there were some who condemned him for acting in a way so contradictory to his philosophical principles; but the heavier and more unfeeling charge was the one brought against him by Caesar, in his work entitled “Anti-Cato.” It was there stated, that, after all the lavish expenditure in which Cato had indulged in performing the funeral obsequies of Caepio, and after having declined repayment from the daughter of the latter, he nevertheless passed Carpio's ashes through a sieve in search of the gold which might have melted down with them ' When the term of his service in Macedonia had expired, he travelled into Asia, and brought back with him the stoic Athenodorus to Rome. He was next made qua-stor, and discharged with so much impartiality the duties of this difficult office, and displayed so much integrity in its various details, that, on the last day of his quaestorship, he was escorted to his house by the whole assembly of the people. So high, indeed, was the opinion entertained by his countrymen of the purity of his moral character, that when, at the Floral games given by the aedile Messius, Cato happened to be a spectator, the people, out of respect for him, hesitated about ordering the dancers to lay aside their vestments, according to long-established custom, nor would they allow this to be done until he had departed from the theatre. (Val. Max., 2, 10, 8.) When the conspiracy of Catiline was discovered, Cato supported by every means in his power the acts of Cicero, and was the first that gave him publicly the honourable title of “Father of his Country.” Opposing after this the ambitious movements of the first triumvirate, they managed to have him removed to a distance, by sending him out as governor of the island of Cyprus. Having executed this trust with ability and success, and having deposited in the treasury nearly seven thousand talents of silver, he again took part in public affairs at Rome, and again continued his opposition to the triumvirate. When, however, the rupture took place between Pompey and Caesar, he sided with the former, and was left behind by him at Dyrrhachium to guard the military chest and magazine, while he pushed on after Caesar, who had been forced to retire from the siege of that city. Cato, therefore, was not present at the battle of Pharsalia. On receiving the news of this event, he sailed to Corcyra with the troops under his orders, and offered the command to Cicero, who declined it. He then proceeded to Africa, where he hoped to meet with Pompey, but on reaching Cyrene he heard of his death, and was also

to Juba, king of Mauritania, where Varus had col.

lected a considerable force. Cato immediately resolv

ed to join them, and, in order to effect this, was com

pelled to make a long and painful march across a des.

ert region, in which his troops suffered severely from hunger, thirst, and every hardship, but which privations his own example enabled them manfully to en

dure. After seven days of suffering his force reach

ed Utica, where a junction between the two armies

took place. The soldiers wished to have him for their

general, but he yielded to what he conceived to be the

superior claims of Scipio, who held the office of pro

consul; and this fault on his part, of which he soon

after had reason to repent, accelerated the ruin of the

cause in which he had embarked. Scipio having wish

ed, for Juba's gratification, to put all the inhabitants

of Utica to the sword, Cato strenuously opposed this cruel plan, and accepted the command of this impor

tant city, while Scipio and Labienus marched against Caesar. Cato had advised them to protract the war;

but they hazarded an engagement at Thapsus, in which they were entirely defeated, and Africa submitted to the victor. After vainly endeavouring to prevail upon the fragments of the conquered amy, as they came successively to Utica, to unite in defending that city against the conqueror, Cato surnished them with all the ships in the harbour to convey them whithersoever they wished to go. When the evening of that day came, he retired to his own apartments, and employed himself for some time in reading the Phaedon of Plato, a dialogue that turns upon the immortality of the soul. He endeavoured at the same time to lull the suspicions of his friends, by seeming to take a lively interest in the sate of those who were escaping by sea from Utica, and by sending several times to the seaside to learn the state of the wind and weather. But towards morning, when all was quiet, he stabbed himself. He foll from his bed with the blow, and the noise of his fall brought his son and servants into the room, by whose assistance he was raised from the ground, and an attempt was made to bind up the wound. Their efforts to save him were in vain; for Cato had no sooner recovered his self-possession, than he tore open the wound again in so effectual a manner that he instantly expired. He died at the age of 48; and when Caesar heard of his fate, he is said to have exclaimed, “I grudge thee thy death, Cato, since thou hast grudged me the saving of thy life.”—Such was the end of a man whom a better philosophy, by teaching him to struggle with his predominant faults instead of encouraging them, would have rendered truly amiable and admirable. He possessed the greatest integrity and firmness; and, from the beginning of his political career, was never swayed by fear or interest to desert that which he considered the course of liberty and justice. He is said to have foreseen Caesar's designs long before they were generally suspected; but his well-known animosity against him rendered his authority on the subject less weighty; and his zeal led him to miscalculate the strength of the commonwealth, when he earnestly advised the senate to adopt those measures which gave Casar a pretence for commencing hostilities. During the civil war he had the rare merit of uniting to the sincerest ardour in the cause of his party a steady regard for justice and humanity: he would not countenance cruelty or rapine because practised by his associates or coloured with pretences of public advantages. But philosophical pride overshadowed the last scenes of his life, and led him to indulge his selfish feelings by suicide, rather than live for the happiness of his family and friends, and mitigate, as far as lay in his power, the distressed condition of his country. His character, however, was so pure, and, since Pompey's death, so superior to that of all the leaders engaged with him in the same cause, and praise; and his name has become a favourite theme of panegyric in modern times, as that of the most upright and persevering defender of the liberties of Rome. (Plut., Wit. Cat. Min. Biogr. Univ., vol. 7, p. 405, seqq. Encyclop. Metropol., Div. 3, vol. 2, p. 261.)—VII. M. Porcius, son of the preceding, was spared by Caesar, but led a somewhat immoral life, until he effaced every stain upon his character by a glorious death at Philippi. (Plut., Wit. Cat. Min., c. 73.) CATTI or Chatti (Xàrrot, Strab–Xárrat, Ptol.— Catti, Tacit. — Chatti, Plin.), a powerful nation of Germany, little known, however, to the Romans, since that people, though they made some incursions into their country, never had a fixed settlement therein. Caesar knew nothing more of them than that they lived in the vicinity of the Ubii, and that in the interior a wood called Bacenis separated them from the Cherusci. Tacitus describes them more closely, and assigns the Decumates Agri for their southern boundary, and the Hercynian forest for their eastern. The country of the Catti would seem to have comprehended the territory of Hesse and other adjacent parts. The name Catti or Chatti, and the more modern Hassen and Hessen, appear to be identical. (Compare Wenk, Hessischen Landesgeschichte, vol. 2, p. 22. — Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 183, seqq.) A fortress of the Catti, called Castellum, still bears the name of Cassel; but their capital Mattium is now Marpurg. Catullus, Caius Valerius, a celebrated poet, born of respectable parents in the territory of Verona, but whether in the town so called, or on the peninsula of Sirmio, which projects into the Lake Benacus, has been a subject of much controversy. The former opinion has been maintained by Maffei (Verona Illustrata, pt. 2, c. 1) and Bayle (Dict. Hist, art. Catullus), and the latter by Gyraldus (De Poet., dial. 10), Schöll (Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 1, p. 310), Fuhrmann (Handbuch der Class., vol. 1, p. 187), and most modern writers. The precise period, as well as place, of the birth of Catullus, is a topic of debate and uncertainty. According to the Eusebian chronicle, he was born A.U.C. 666, but according to other authorities in 667 Sarii Onomast., vol. 1, p. 148) or 668. In consequence of an invitation from Manlius Torquatus, one of the noblest p. of the state, he proceeded in early youth to me, where he appears to have kept but indifferent company, at least in point of moral character. He imp. his fortune so much by his extravagance, that e complains he had no one

informed that Pompey's father-in-law, Scipio, had gone that his opponents could not refuse him their respeci oman mode of re-establishing a an attempt which hitherto had been thought impossi

“Fractum qui veteris pedem grabati, In collo sibi collocare possut.”

This, however, must partly have been written in

jest, as his finances were always sufficient to allow him to keep up a delicious villa on the peninsula of Sirmio, and an expensive residence at Tibur. With a view of improving his pecuniary circumstances, he adopted the usual §

by Caesar in that year. He had satirized the dictator, who revenged himself, like a man of the world and a man of sense and good temper, by asking the satirist to sup with him. The distracted and unhappy state of his country, and his disgust at the treatment which he had received from Memmius, were perhaps sufficient excuse for shunning political employments; but when we consider his taste and genius, we cannot help regretting that he was merely an idler and a debauchee, He loved Clodia (supposed to have been the sister of the infamous Clodius), a beautiful but shameless woman, whom he has celebrated under the name of Lesbia, as comparing her to the Lesbian Sappho. Among his friends he ranked not only most men of pleasure and fashion in Rome, but many of her eminent literary and political characters, as Cornelius Nepos, Cicero, and Asinius Pollio. His enemies seem to have been as numerous as his loves or friendships, and competitions in poetry or rivalship in gallantry appear always to have been a sufficient cause for his dislike; and where an antipathy was once conceived, he was unable to put any restraint on the expression of his hostile feelings. His poems are chiefly employed in the indulgence and commemoration of these various passions. They have been divided into lyric, elegiac, and epigrammatic, an arrangement convenient from its generality, but to which all cannot with strictness be reduced. He seems to have been the earliest lyric poet of Latium, notwithstanding the claim of Horace to the same honour. Much of his poetry appears to have been lost: the pieces that remain to us exhibit, in singular contrast, the sensual grossness which is imbibed from depraved habits and loose imaginations, together with gleams of sentiment and taste, and the polish of intellectual cultivation. Those who turn with disgust from the coarse impurities that sully his pages, may be inclined to wonder that the term of delicacy should ever have been coupled with the name of Catullus. But to many of his effusions,

distinguished both by fancy and feeling, this praise is

justly due. Many of his amatory trifles are quite unrivalled in the elegance of their playfulness; and no author has excelled him in the purity and neatness of his style, the delightful ease and rare simplicity of his manner, and his graceful turns of thought and happiness of expression. . Some of his pieces, which breathe the higher enthusiasm of the art, and are coloured with a singular picturesqueness of imagery, increase our regret at the manifest mutilation of his works. No one of his poetical predecessors was more versed in Greek literature than Catullus, and his extensive knowledge of its beauties procured for him the appellation of Doctus : unless we understand by the term in question, not “learned,” but rather knowing and accomplished; what the old English writers generally signify by “cunning,” as “cunning in music and the mathematics.” Catullus translated many of the shorter and more delicate pieces of the Greeks,

diminished fortune, and accompanied Caius Memmi. ble, though the broad humour of their comedies, the

us, the celebrated patron of Lucretius, to Bithynia, where he was appointed praetor to that province. His situation, however, was but little meliorated by this expedition, and, in the course of it, he lost a beloved

vehement pathos of their tragedies, and the romantic interest of the Odyssey, had stood the transformation. His stay in Bithynia, though little advantageous to his fortune, rendered him better acquainted than he

brother who was along with him, and whose death was might otherwise have been with the productions of lamented in verses never surpassed in delicacy or pa- Greece; and he was therefore, in a great degree, inalmost sufficient to close. It is by this passage that trance of the Calbis into the sea. (Cramer's Asia

thos. He came back to Rome with a shattered constitution and a lacerated heart. From the period of his return to Italy to his decease, his time appears to have been chiefly occupied with the prosecution of licentious amours in the capital or in the solitudes of Sirmio. The Eusebian chronicle places his death in A.U.C. 696, and some writers fix it in 705. It is evident, however, that he must have survived at least till 708, as Cicero, in his Letters, talks of his verses against

debted to this expedition (on which he always appears to have looked back with mortification and disappointment) for those felicitous turns of expression, that grace, simplicity, and purity which are the characteristics of his poems, and of which hitherto Greece alone had afforded models. Indeed, in all his verses, whether elegiac or heroic, we perceive his imitation of the Greeks; and it must be admitted that he has drawn from them his choicest stores. His Hellenisms are


es to himself are all Greek; and even in the versification of his odes we see visible traces of their origin. Nevertheless, he was the inventor of a new species of Latin poetry; and as he was the first who used such variety of measures, and perhaps invented some that were new, he was amply entitled to call the poetical volume which he presented to Cornelius Nepos Lepidum Novum Libellum. The beautiful expressions, too, and idioms of the Greek language, which he has so carefully selected, are woven with such art into the texture of his composition, and so aptly paint the impassioned ideas of his amorous muse, that they have all the fresh and untarnished hues of originality.—The best editions of Catullus are, that of Wulpius, Patav., 4to, 1737, and that of Doring, Lips., 8vo, 1788, reprinted in London, 1820. The works of this poet have also been frequently edited in conjunction with those of Tibullus and Propertius, of which the best edition is perhaps that of Morell, Paris, fol., 1604. (Bahr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 253, seqq. Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 1, p. 236, 310, seqq. Elton's Specimens, vol. 2, p. 31.—Dunlop, Rom. Lit., vol. 1, p. 454, seqq.) CATülus, Q. Lutatius, I. a Roman naval commander, famous for his victory over the fleet of the Carthaginians, consisting of 400 sail, off the AEgates Insulae; forty of the Carthaginian vessels were sunk, seventy taken, and the remainder dispersed. This celebrated victory put an end to the first Punic war. (Wid. A gates Insulae.)—II. A celebrated Roman, the colleague of Marius in the consulship, and who jointly triumphed with him over the Cimbri. He was condemned to death by Marius, during the tyrannical sway of the latter, and suffocated himselfin a newly-plastered room by the steam of a large fire. (Plut., Wit. Mar. ~ Well. Paterc., 2, 22.) CATuriges, a Gallic nation, dwelling among the Cottian Alps. (Plin., 3, 20.) Their capital was Caturiga, traces of which are found, according to D'Anville, at Chorges, between Gap and Embrun, in the department des Hautes-Alpes. (Lemaire, Ind. Geogr. ad Caes., p. 228, seq.) Caucasus, the name of the highest and most extensive range of mountains in the northern part of Asia, and which the ancients erroneously considered as a continuation of the chain of Taurus. According to Strabo, it extended from the Euxine to the Caspian Sea. It divided Albania and Iberia towards the south, from the level country of the Sarmatae on the north. The inhabitants of these mountains formed, according to some, seventy, and according to others, 300 different nations, who spoke various languages, and lived in a savage state. The breadth of this chain, according to the best Russian authorities, is about 400 miles between the mouth of the Don and Kooma; about 756 between the straits of Caffa and the peninsula of A shcron; and about 350 between the mouths of the Phasis and the city of Derbend. The etymology of the name of Caucasus, so celebrated in history and poetry, is not agreed upon; the most probable opinion is that which connects it with the Asi, the early divinities of Asia. (Vid. Asi.) The range of Caucasus cannot be compared with the Alps in point of elevation, though in resemblance it may, as the middle of the chain is covered with glaciers, or white with eternal snows. The highest summit is only 5900 feet above the level of the Black Sea. The two principal passages of Caucasus are mentioned by the ancients under the name of the Caucasian and Albanian gates. The first is the defile which leads from Mosdok to Tiflis. It is the narrow valley of four days’ journey, where, according to Strabo, the river Aragon, now called Arakui, i. It is, as Pliny calls it, an enormous work of nature, which has cut out a long opening among the rocks, that an iron gate would be

the barbarians of the north threatened both the Roman and the Persian empire. It is now called Dariel. The Albanian pass of the ancients was, according to common opinion, the pass of Derbend along the Caspian Sea. Later and better authorities sanction the belief, however, that it was the same with the Sarmatian pass, and coincides with a defile passing through the territory of Ooma-khan, along the frontier of Daghestan, and then traversing the district of Kagmamsharie. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 12, Brussels ed.) CaucóNEs, a people of Paphlagonia, who occupied the coast of the Euxine from the Maryandynes as far as the river Parthenius. Some pretend that they were of Arcadian origin, in common with the Pelasgi, and roamed about like this latter people (Strab., 345), while, according to others, they were of Scythian extraction. (Strab., 542.) A portion of these Caucones are said to have passed into Greece, and occupied a territory in the division of Elis, called Ceole, or “the hollow.” Another part settled in Triphylian Elis. It is of the latter that Herodotus speaks (1, 147; 4, 148. —Compare Larcher, Hist, d'Herod., vol. 8, p. 106, Table Geographique). CAUDIUM, a city of Samnium, the position of which is not perfectly agreed upon by antiquaries: most of them, indeed, place it, with Holstenius, who examined the whole of this tract with great accuracy, at Arpaia. But D'Anville assigns it a situation a few miles farther towards Beneventum. In the vicinity of Caudium was the famous defile called Furcae Caudinae, where the Roman army was compelled by the Samnites to pass under the yoke. The present valley of Arpata is thought to answer to this pass. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 243.) Aulonia or CAULoN, a city of Brutium, in lower Italy, on the seacoast, a short distance south of Cocintum Promontorium, and between that and the Zephyrian Promontory. It was one of the earliest colonies founded by the Achaeans on these shores (Strab.,261.— Scymn., Ch., v. 317), and the name originally, perhaps, was Aulon. (Steph. Byz., s. v. At A&v.) That it held a distinguished rank among the republics of Magna Graecia we may collect from Polybius (2, 39), who records its alliance with Crotona o Sybaris. It was razed to the ground by Dionysius of Syracuse, who removed the inhabitants to his capital (Diod. Sic., 14, 106), but it must have arisen again from its ruins, since, during the war with ... it espoused the cause of that prince, and was, in consequence, attacked and pillaged by the Mamertini, who were the allies of the É. (Pausan., 6, 3.) The town was subsequently occupied by the Brutii, who defended it against the Romans during the second Punic war. The siege was raised by Hannibal. (Liv., 27, 12 et 15. — Plut., Wit. Fab. Maz.) Banio, and the other Calabrian topographers, fixed its site at Castro vetere; but the opinion of the best-informed antiquaries is in favour of Alaro. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol.2, p. 402.) CAUNUs, a city of Caria, at the foot of Mount Tarbelus, west of the Sinus Glaucus. It appears to have been the capital of a people, whom Herodotus regarded as differing from the Carians in some important particulars, and possessing more of the character of an indigenous nation. (Herod., 1, 172.) This city, though possessing the advantages of a good harbour and a very fertile territory, was nevertheless reckoned particularly unhealthy during the summer by reason of the excessive heat; the abundance of fruit was also prejudicial to the health of its inhabitants. Under the Byzantine emperors, Caunus formed part of Lycia. (Hierocl., p. 685.—Compare the Acts of Councils and Notitia.— Geogr. Sacr., p. 248.) The site of Caunus is now occupied by a small town and seaport named Kanguez or Kheugez, about four miles to the south of the en

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