Obrazy na stronie

slaves and exiles, A.U.C. 292, and was soon after overthrown. (Liv., 3, 15.—Flor., 3, 19.)—The name of Appius was common in Rome, particularly to many consuls whose history is not marked by any uncommon event. Apries, a king of Egypt, of the 26th dynasty, and called, in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, Pharaoh Hophra. He ascended the throne after his father Psammis, B.C. 594. Apries distinguished himself by foreign conquest; he took Sidon, conquered the island of Cyprus, and enjoyed for a long period great prosperity. After a reign, however, of twenty-six years, his subjects revolted in favour of Amasis, by whom he was overcome and put to death. The immediate cause of the revolt was an unsuccessful expedition against the people of Cyrene, in which many lives were lost; and from this circumstance we may readily infer, that the extravagant projects of their kings were but little in unison with the feelings and wishes of the Egyptian people. (Herodot., 2, 161, seq. — Compare Heeren, Ideen, vol. 2, pt 2, p. 404) Apsines, a Greek rhetorician of Gadara, in Phoenicia, who flourished during the reign of Maximin, about 236 B.C. We have from him a treatise on Rhetoric, and also a work on the questions discussed in the schools of the rhetoricians. They are contained in the Rhetores Gracci of Aldus, Venice, 1508, fol. APsynthii, or Absynthii, a people of Thrace, named by Herodotus (6, 34, and 9, 119) as bordering on the Thracian Chersonese, and having overpowered the Dolonci. (Vid. Mithradates.) Dionysius Periegetes (577) speaks of the river Apsynthus. Apsus, a river of Macedonia, falling into the Ionian Sea between Dyrrhachium and Apollonia, and dividin their respective territories. It has been rendere memorable from the military operations of Caesar and Pompey on its banks. The present name of the stream is Ergent or Beratino. (Cas., B. Cup., 4, 13–Lucan, 5,461.) Apriora, a Cretan city, to the east of Polyrrhenia, and eighty stadia from Cydonia. (Strabo, 479.) Its name was supposed to be derived from a contest waged by the Sirens and Muses in its vicinity, when the former, being vanquished in the trial of musical excellence, were so overcome with grief that their wings dropped from their shoulders. (Steph. Byzant., s. v. 'Atrepa.) Strabo informs us that Kisamus was the naval station of Aptera. The vestiges of Aptera were observed by Pococke to the south of Kisamos, and they are laid down in Lapie's map between that place and Jerami or Cydonia. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 378.) Apule14 leges, proposed by L. Apuleius Saturninus, A.U.C. 653, tribune of the commons; about dividing the public lands among the veteran soldiers, settling colonies, punishing crimes against the state, and furnishing corn to the poor at 10-12ths of an as a modius. (Cic., pro Balb., 21. — Id., de Leg., 2, 6– Flor., 3, 16.) Apuleius, a Platonic philosopher of the second century, was a native of Madaura, an African city on the borders of Numidia and Gaetulia. His family was respectable, both in station and property, his father being chief magistrate of Madaura. He received the carly part of his education at Carthage, where he imbibed the first knowledge of the Platonic philosophy, and thence removed in succession to Athens and Rome. Apuleius, who inherited a handsome fortune, began life with that contempt for riches which in the ancient world in particular sofrequently distinguished aspirants after learning and philosophy. He liberally rewarded all those who had any share in his instruction, and was otherwise so generous and profuse, that, on his return home after his travels, he found his patrimony exhausttd; and, being exceedingly desirous of entering into

the fraternity of Osiris, was obliged to part with his clothes to pay the necessary expenses of the inaugural ceremonies. He now began to acquire a more prudent estimate of the value of property, and undertook the profession of a pleader, in which he obtained considerable fame and emolument. Not only so, he embraced also an opportunity which offered of improving his condition by marrying Pudentilla, an elderly widow of considerable property, to whom his youth and agreeable qualities had strongly recommended him. This union exceedingly exasperated the relations of the lady; and AEmilianus, the brother of her former husband, instituted a suit against Apuleius, before the proconsul of Africa, for employing magical arts to obtain her love. The apology which he delivered on this occasion is still extant, and it is regarded as a performance of considerable merit. It was, of coarse, successful ; for it was not very difficult to convince a sensible magistrate, that a widow ofthirteen years' standing may be induced to marry a handsome, eloquent, and accomplished young man, without being moved thereto by filters or magic. Of the remainger of the life of Apuleius nothing is known, except that several cities honoured him with statues for his eloquence, and that he wrote much both in prose and verse. Like Apollonius of Tyana, miracles have been ascribed to him, which have been placed in comparison with those of the Gospel. The origin of these reports, which did not circulate until after his death, is by no means ascertained ; as, with the exception of the foregoing foolish accusation, he does not appear to have been charged with the practice of magic in his lifetime; although it is not improbable that his anxiety, while on his travels, to get initiated in the secret mysteries and religious ceremonies of the different places which he visited, might have laid a foundation for the opinion entertained after his death of his supernatural acquirements. Be this as it may, Marcellinus, in the fifth century, requested of St. Augustin to exert his utmost efforts to refute the assertions of those who falsely declared “that Christ did nothing more than what was done by other men, and who produced their Apollonius, Apuleius, and other masters of the magical art, whose miracles they assert to have been greater than his.” Perhaps this notion has been grounded on a misapprehension of his story of “The Golden Ass,” in which a Milesian fable, invented by Lucius of Patrae, and abridged from him by Lucian, is enlarged and embellished. This humorous production was by many believed to be a true history, and among the rest St. Augustin entertained his doubts, while Bishop Warburton deems it a work written in opposition to Christianity, and with a view to recommend the Pagan religion “as a cure for all vices.” The same learned author also explains the beautiful allegory of Cupid and Psyche, which makes a long episode in the “Golden Ass,” upon the same principles. Dr. Lardner is of a different opinion; and probably Bayle comes nearest the truth, who regards the eccentric production as a mere satire on the frauds of the dealers in magical delusion, and on the tricks of priests, and other crimes, both of a violent and deceptive character, which are so frequently committed with impunity. Apuleius, indeed, appears, from the greater part of his writings, to have been more of a wit than a philosopher, in the ancient acceptation of the character; his productions, with the exception of his view of the doctrines of Plato, being too florid, oratorical, sportive, and sometimes even wanton, for the gravity of philosophy. His style is a very peculiar one, abounding in far-fetched, tumid, and unusual forms of expression, and by no means remarkable for purity. We must not, however, suppose, as some have done, that the terms thus employed by him are of his own coining, since the greater part of them are found in the old grammarians, and he does not seem, therefore, to have employed any of them

without sufficient authority. (Ruhnken, Praef. ad edit. At this point, therefore, we may fix the confines of Oudendorp, p. 111, seq.). In his apology, however, the Apuli and Dauni, and trace those of the latter which was intended for the atmosphere of the forum, and the Peucetii by a line drawn from the mouth of he is free from much of this affectation of manner, and the Aufidus to Silvium, now Garagnone, in the Apenwhat Ruhnken calls his tumor Africanus,” and ex- nines, so as to include Canna and Canusium within presses himself, for the most part, with clearness and the Daunian territory.—Apulia was famous for the precision. His printed works have gone through up- excellence of its wool, and particularly the district of ward of forty-three editions. The first, which was mu- Luceria. (Strabo, 284.—Hor., Od., 3, 15.—Plin., 3, tilated by the Inquisition, is very rare; it was print- li-Ptol., p. 6.)—The old Latin traditions speak of ed at Rome, by order of Cardinal Bessarion, 1647. Daunus, a king of the Apulians, who was expelled Among those which succeeded may be mentioned the from Illyria, and retired to this part of Italy. Accordeditions of H. Stephens, 8vo, 1585; of Elmenhorst, ing to the tradition which conducts the wandering he8vo, 1621; of Scriverius, 12mo, 1624; that in Usum roes of the Trojan war to Italy, Diomede settled in Delphini, 2 vols. 4to, 1688. The best edition, how- Apulia, was supported by Daunus in a war with the ever, is that of Oudendorp, Lugd. Bat., 1786–1823, Messapians, whom he subdued, and was afterward 2 vols. 4to, with prefaces by Ruhnken and Boscha. treacherously killed by his ally, who desired to moThe “Golden Ass,” or, to give its Latin title, Meta- |nopolize the fruits of the victory. Roman history morphoseón, sive de Asino Aureo, libri xi., has been informs us of no other Apulian kings, but mentions translated into almost all the modern European lan- || Arpi, Luceria, and Arpinum, as important cities. The guages; and of the episode of Psyche there have Aufidus, a river of Apulia, has been celebrated b been many separate editions and translations. Mol- Horace, who was born at Venusia, a city in this terriler published a dissertation on the life and writings tory. The second Punic war was carried on for a conof Apuleius, Altdorff, 8vo, 1681. A list of all his siderable period in Apulia. Puglia, the modern name, productions is given in the Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. is only amelancholy relic of the ancient splendour which 343, seqq.—Compare Bahr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, poets and historians have celebrated. It now supports p. 582. more sheep than men. As regards the early settleApulia, a country of Magna Graecia, lying along ment of Apulia, compare Niebuhr, Rom. Hist, vol. 1, the coast of the Hadriatic. We are led to infer, from p. 122, seqq., Cambridge transl.—Wachsmuth's Rom. Strabo's account of the ancient coast of Italy, that the Hist., § 61.—Micali, Storia degli Antichi Popoli Italname of Apulia was originally applied to a small tract tani, vol. 1, p. 339.-Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, of country situate immediately to the south of the Fren- p. 264, seqq. tani. (Strabo, 283.) But whatever may have been Aqua, a term joined to a large number of proper the narrow confines of the portion of the country oc-| names, and serving to indicate the sources of rivers, cupied by the Apuli, properly so called, we know that small streams, water-courses, aqueducts, &c. The in the reign of Augustus the term Apulia was em- following are most worthy of mention:—I. Antiqua, ployed in a far more extended sense, including indeed near the modern village of Altwasser in Silesia. It the territories of several people much more celebrated was famed for its chalybeate properties.—II. Belletta, in history than the obscure tribe above mentioned, but now Aiguebellette, or Aiguebelle, in Savoy, on the who sunk in proportion as this common name was Arco.—III. Claudia, an aqueduct built by the Emperbrought into general use. It may be remarked, indeed, or Claudius, A.U.C. 880, and conveying water from the as a singular circumstance, that whereas, under the Anio to Rome.—IV. Crabra, a small river running Romans, all former appellations peculiar to the different from Tusculum to Rome, and emptying into the Tiber, people who inhabit this part of the peninsula were lost in to the east of the Palatine Hill.—V. Marcia, an aquethat of Apulia, the Greeks, to whom this name was un- duct commenced by the praetor Marcus Titius, about known, should have given the same extension to that 608 A.U.C., and finished by Marcius Rex in 610. It of Iapygia, with which the Romans, on the other hand, passed near Tibur, and through the country of the Pewere entirely unacquainted. The term Iapygia appears ligni and Marsi, and supplied Rome with its best water. to have been confined at first to that peninsula which (Plin., 31, 3.)—VI. Tepula, springs near Tusculum, closes the Gulf of Tarentum to the southeast, and to ten miles southeast of Rome. Their water was conwhich the name of Messapia was likewise sometimes ap- veyed by an aqueduct to the Capitoline Hill, about plied; but we find, at a later period, that Polybius gives |627 A.U.G., and in 719 was united with the Aqua Juto Iapygia the same extensions which the Roman histo- lia, a small river near the modern Marino, by Agrippa. |

rians and geographers assign to Apulia. The bounda- —The plural form Aquae is also frequently joined to ries under which Apulia, in its greatest extent, seems' proper names, to indicate places in the neighbourhood to have been comprehended, were as follows: to the of warm springs, &c. Thus we have, I. Aquae Badenorth this province was separated from the Ager Fren- nas, a city in Germany, now Baden, on the Rhine.—II. tanus by the River Tifernus; to the west it may be Pannonicae, a city in Pannonia Superior, now Baden conceived as divided from Samnium by a line drawn in Austria, on the river Schwöchat, three miles southfrom that river to the Aufidus, and the chain of Mount east of Vienna—III. Allobrogum, a city of the AlloVultur: to the south, and on the side of Lucania, it broges in Gallia Narbonensis, now Air, in the departwas bordered by the river Bradanus. (Cluver., Ital. ment of Mont Blanc, two miles and a half to the north Ant., 2, p. 1219.) Within these limits then we must of Chambery—IV. Bilbitanorum, a city of Hispania place, with Polybius, Strabo, and the Latin geogra- Tarraconensis, to the west of Bilbilis. It is now Al

hers, the several portions of country occupied by the hama, on the Xalon, in Aragon. — V. Calentes, a }. Peucetii, and Messapii. In describing the town of the Arverni in Gaul, now Chaudes Aigues.— boundaries of Apulia Proper, we must follow the au- VI. Calidae, a city of the Belgæ, in Britain, now Bath thority of Strabo, as he is the only writer who has in Somersetshire.—VII. Flavia, a town in Hispania noticed the existence of a district under this specific Tarraconensis, supposed to have been situate among name. He evidently conceives it to have been con- the Callaici Bracarii. It is now the Portuguese Villa tiguous to the Ager Frentanus on the one side, and to Chiaves, twelve miles from Braganza-VIII. MatDaunia on the other. (Strabo, 283.) Pliny likewise tiacae, a town of the Mattiaci in Germany, now Wiesseems to confirm this arrangement, when he tells us ' baden, the chief city of the Duchy of Nassau.-IX. (3, 11) that the Apulian Dauni extended from the Sextiae, a city of the Salyes, in Gallia Narbonensis, to river Tifernus to the Cerbalus; though it must be the north of Massilia, founded by the consul Sextius observed, that Strabo appears to limit these Apuli to Calvinius, about A.U.C. 630. It was also called Cothe * the Lacus Urianus, now Lago Varano. |lonia Julia, after Julius Caesar, and Colonia

gusta, after Augustus. It is now Air, eight miles southeast of Avignon. In its vicinity Marius defeated the Ambrones and the Teutones. Aquaeductus, an aqueduct. Mention of these is frequently made in the Roman writers. Some of them brought water to the capital from more than the distance of sixty miles, through rocks and mountains, and over valleys, supported on arches, in some places above 109 feet high, one row being placed above another. The care of them originally belonged to the censors and a diles. Afterward certain officers were appointed for that purpose by the emperors, called curatores aquarun, with 720 men paid by the public, to keep them in repair. These persons were divided into two bodies: the one called Familia Publica, first instituted by Agrip

pa, under Augustus, consisting of 260 men; the other

Familia Caesaris, of 460, instituted by the Emperor Claudius. The slaves employed in taking care of the waters were called Aquarii. The construction of aqueducts is treated of by Vitruvius and Pliny, and their description is curious, not only as giving the methods used by the ancients in those stupendous works, but as indicating a knowledge of some hydrodynamical laws, the discovery of which is usually assigned to a much later period. Frontinus, also, a Roman author, who had the superintendence of the aqueducts in the reign of Nerva, has left a treatise on these erections. Froin his enumeration, there were nine aqueducts which brought water to Rome in his time. The water of these varied in its qualities, that of some being preferred for drinking, of others for bathing, for irrigating the gardens, or cleansing the sewers. The best drinking-water they brought into Rome was the Aqua Marcia, being most highly prized, according to Pliny, for its coldness and salubrity. The aqueduct at Nemausus, the modern Nismes, is probably one of the earliest constructed by the Romans out of Italy. Its origin is attributed to Agrippa. Aqueducts, however, became eventually common throughout the whole Roman empire, and many stupendous remains still exist to attest their former magnificence. (Consult Stuart's Dictionary of Architecture, vol. 1, s. v.) Aquila, a native of Sinope in Asia Minor. He first applied himself to the study of mathematics and architecture, and the Emperor Hadrian, according to Saint Epiphanius, made him a superintendent of pubiic buildings, and gave him in charge the restoration and enlargement of Jerusalem, under its new name of AElia Capitolina. This commission afforded him an opportunity of becoming acquainted with Christianity, which he accordingly embraced, and received the rite of baptism. Becoming subsequently addicted, however, to judicial astrology, he was excommunicated, and then attached himself to Judaism. Aquila is rendered famous by his Greek version of the Old Testament, which he published A.D. 138. It is the first that was made after the Septuagint translation, and appears to have been executed with great care, notwithstanding what Buxtorf urges against it, who denies to its author, on very feeble grounds, a thorough acquaintance with the Hebrew tongue. Aquila's method was to translate word for word, and to express, as far as this could conveniently be done, even the etymological meaning of terms. Although his version was undertaken with the view of opposing and superseding that of the Septuagint, of which last the churches made use after the example of the apostles, still the ancient fathers found it in general so exact, that they often, in preference, drew their texts from it. St. Jerome, who had at first censured it, afterward praised its exactness. The Hellenistic Jews preferred it also for the use of their synagogues. Some fragments of it are preserved in the Hexapla of Origen. Aquila joined to a second edition of his version some Jewish traditions which he had obtained from the Rabbi Akiba, his preceptor. This edition was still more fa

vourably recerved by the Hellenistic Jews than the pre. vious one had been. The Emperor Justinian, however, interdicted the reading of it, because it only made the Jews more stubborn in their error. (Biogr. Univ., vol 2, p. 345, seq.) Aquileia, I. a celebrated city of Italy, in the terri. tory of Venetia, between the Alsa and Natiso, and about seven miles from the sea. It appears to have been first founded by some Transalpine Gauls about 187 B.C.; but being soon after taken possession of by the Romans, it was made a Latin colony five years af. ter its establishment. (Liv., 39, 22; 45, 54.—Id., 40, 54.) The earliest author that mentions Aquileia is Polybius, who, in a fragment preserved by Strabo (208), speaks of it as having some valuable gold-mines in its neighbourhood. Eustathius, in his commentary on Dionys. Perieg., asserts that its name was derived from the Latin word Aquila, as denoting the legionary standard of the Romans, who had been encamped here. Aquileia soon became the bulwark of Italy on its northeastern frontier. It was already an important military post in the time of Caesar (B. Cur., 1, 2), and continued to increase in prosperity and consequence till the fasl of the Roman empire. In Strabo's time it had become the great emporium of all the trade of Italy with the nations of Illyria and Pannonia; these were furnished with wine, oil, and salt provisions, in exchange for slaves, cattle, and hides. The passage of Mount Ocra, the lowest point of the Julian or Carmic Alps, was easy for land-carriage; and at Nauportus on the other side, a navigable stream conveyed vessels to the Saare, and from that river into the Danube. (Strabo, 214.—Id., 207.-Mela, 2, 4,-Sueton., Aug., 20.Id., Tib., 7.-Id., Vesp., 6.--Tac., Hist., 2, 46, and 85, &c.) Ausonius assigns to Aquileia the ninth place among the great cities of the empire. It withstood successfully a severe siege against Maximinus, who, being unable to take the place, was slain by his own soldiers. (Herodian, 8.) But it could not hold out against the fury of Attila; its resistance served only to increase the savage serocity of the conqueror, who caused it to be sacked and razed to the ground. (Cassiodor., Chron. Procop., Vand. Rer., 1. — Freculf, Chron.) The port of Aquileia was situate at the mouth of the Natiso (Plin., 3, 18), and is now called Porto di Grado. The modern Aquileia stands near the ruins of the ancient city. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 128.)—II. A town of Etruria, marked in the ancient Itineraries as the first stage from Florentia or Florence. It is supposed to have been in the immediate vicinity of Incisa. (Cluv., Ital. Ant., 1, 570–Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 214.) Aquilius, I. Nepos, Manius, a Roman consul, and colleague of Marius, who was intrusted with the war against the slaves in Sicily. This war was continued during the succeeding year, when Aquilius, as proconsul, still held the command. In a conflict with the foe, the two commanders, it is said, agreed to decide the affair by single combat. Aquilius, being a man of great strength, laid his antagonist dead at his feet by a single blow ; and the Romans thereupon rushing in, gained the victory after a severe conflict. Aquilius was honoured with an ovation. After this he was accused of extortion, but acquitted on account of his successful operations in Sicily. Being subsequently sent into Asia against Mithradates, he was defeated by that monarch in Bithynia, and, having been afterward treacherously delivered into his hands, was put to death with every circumstance of ignominy. Mithradates is said to have even poured melted gold down his throatin token of, and as a punishment for, his cupidity. (Lit., Epit., 77. —Appian, Bell. Mithrad., 26. — Cic., Agrar., 2, 30.) —II. Gallus, a Roman lawyer, who flourished about 65 B.C. He was a pupil of Scaevola's, and was intimate with Cicero, having been a colleague of his in the quaestorship. Cicero represents him as a man of acuteness, and of ready talent in replying to an opponent. He wrote a treatise, “de dolo malo,” which Cicero eulogizes very highly; another, “depostumorum institutione,” a third, “ de stipulatione,” &c. (Cuc., Brut., 42. Ill., de Off, 3, 14, &c.)—III. Sabinus, a Roman lawyer, who flourished in the third century of our era. His wisdom and acquirements gained for him the appellation of Cato. He was elected consul A.U.C. 214, and again in 216. According to some, he was the father or brother of Aquilia Severa, the vestal virin whom Heliogabalus compelled to become his wife. Ione of his works have reached us. (Lamprud., Vut. Heliogab. Cassiod, Chron. Rutil., in Vit. Juriscons.) Aquilon1A, I. a city of Samnium, on the Volscian frontier, about 20 miles from Cominium, and the same distance from Bovianum. Its site is now occupied by the little town of Agnone, near the source of the Trigno. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 229.) — II. Another city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, nearly midway between Beneventum and Venusia. Its site corresponds to that of the modern Lacedogna. (Plin.,.3, 11.—Ptol, p. 67.) Aquinum, I. a town of Cisalpine Gaul, south of Mutina, or Modena. (Plan., 3, 15.) It is placed by Cluverius at the modern Acquario.—II. A city of Latium, on the Latin Way, a little beyond the place where the road crosses the Liris and Melfis. It is now Aquino. Both Strabo (237) and Silius Italius (8, 404) describe it as a large city. Aquinum was the birthplace of Juvenal, as that poet himself informs us. (Sat., 3,318.) Here also was born the Emperor Pescennius Niger, and in modern times the celebrated Thomas Aquinas. The place was famous for its purple dye. (Horat., Ep., 10, 26.) AquitANIA, a country of Gaul between the Garumna or Garonne, and the Pyrenees. As it was less than either of the other two divisions of Gaul, Augustus extended it to the Ligeris or Loire. (Wid. Gallia.) The Aquitani, according to Strabo (190), differed from the Gallic race both in physical constitution and in language. They resembled, he tells us, the Iberians rather than the Gauls. According to Caesar, the Aquitani, besides a peculiar idiom of their own, had also peculiar institutions. Now, historical facts inform us that these institutions bore, for the most part, the Iberian character; that the national attire was Iberian; that there were the strongest ties of amity and alliance between the Aquitanic and Iberian tribes. We find, then, an accordance between historical proofs and those deduced from an examination of languages, to warrant the belief that the Aquitani were of Iberian extraction. (Consult Thierry, Hist. des Gaul., vol. 1, p. xxiii., Introd—Id., vol. 2, p. 11, seqq.) ARA Lugdun 3Nsis, an altar erected to Augustus, at the confluence of the Arar and Rhone, near the city of Lugdunum or Lyons, by sixty Gallic communities. It was reared after the tumult excited in Gaul by the proclaiming of the census had been quelled by Drusus. (Lit., Epit., 137. — Strab., 192.) The spot became famous under Caligula for the literary contests which took place there. A crowd of orators and poets flocked to the scene from the remotest quarters of the empire, notwithstanding the severity of the regulations which are said to have prevailed here. The vanquished were compelled to bestow rewards upon the victors, and compose pieces in their praise; while those whose productions showed least talent were obliged to efface their own writings with a sponge or with the tongue, or else, as an alternative, to submit to be scourged, and then cast into the neighbouring stream. (Sueton., Calig., 20.—Dio Cass., 54, 32.-Jur., Sat., 1,44.) The spot was called by the writers of the middle ages Attanacum, and is now the point of Annai. (Lemaire, ad Jur., l.c.) Arabia, a large country of Asia, forming a peninsu

labetween the Arabian and Persian Gulfs. Its length, from the Cape of Babelmandeb to the extreme angia on the Euphrates, is about 1800 British miles, and its mean breadth 800. The Arabians recognise for their ancestors Joktan, or Khatan, the son of Eber, and Ishmael, the son of Abraham. Arabia was called by the inhabitants of Palestine, the Eastern, and by the Babylonians, the Western, country. Hence the Arabians were sometimes denominated Orientals, and sometimes the people of the West. (2 Chron., 9, 14.— Jer., 3, 2.) The derivation, moreover, commonly assigned to the term Arab is in accordance with this latter idea, making it signify an inhabitant of the West, as Arabia lay to the west of Upper Asia. (Consult, however, Wahl, Vorder und Mittel Asien, vol. 1, p. 327, in not., where other explanations are given.)—The Arabs anciently denominated themselves, and do to this day, by either of these names: Megasthenes and Ptolemy divided the country into the Happy, Petraea, and the Deserted; an arrangement unknown, however, to the inhabitants of the east. Arabia Felix, or the Happy, derived this appellation from its rich produce. This tract is a peninsula, which is so bordered by the Red Sea (more properly called the Arabian Gulf), b the Mare Erythraeum, and by the Persian Gulf, that it would be perfectly surrounded, were a line drawn from the inland extremity of the Persian Gulf to port Ailan or Ælan, situate near the eastern extremity of the Red Sea. Arabia Petraea was so called, either from its stony character (Térpa, “a rock” or “stone”), or, what is far more probable, from an ancient fortified emporium, called Petra. It was bounded on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the west by Egypt and the Mediterranean, on the south by the Red Sea, which here divides and runs north in two branches, and on the north by Palestine. Idumaa, otherwise called Seir, is the northeastern part of Arabia Petraea. Arabia Desertà is that tract which has Arabia Felix on the south, Babylonia and the Euphrates on the east, the Euphrates and Syria on the north, and Gilead on the west. Instead, however, of the division just given, the more natural one is that which distinguishes the coast, covered with aloes, manna, myrrh, frankincense, indigo, nutmegs, and especially coffee, from the interior, consisting of a desert of moving sand, with thorns and saline herbs. The climate is very various. Regions where it rains half the year alternate with others where dew supplies the place of rain for the whole season. The greatest cold prevails on high places, and the most oppressive heat in the plains. Damp winds . succeed to the dry simoom, which is as dangerous to life as the harmattan and khamseen in Africa. The soil consists of sandy deserts and the most fruitful fields. Wheat, millet, rice, kitchen vegetables, cof. fee (which grows on trees in Arabia, its home, and on bushes in America, the plants being kept low for the sake of gathering their fruit more easily), manna, sugar-cane, cotton, tropical fruits, senna-leaves, gums, aloes, myrrh, tobacco, indigo, odorous woods, balsam, &c., are the rich products of Arabia. There are also precious stones, iron, and other metals (gold excepted, which the ancients, however, seem to have found pure in rivers and in the earth). The animals are mules, asses, camels, buffaloes, horned cattle, goats, noble horses, lions, hyaenas, antelopes, foxes, apes, jerboas; birds of all sorts, pelicans, ostriches, &c.; esculent locusts, scorpions, &c.—The Arabians are still, as in the most ancient times, Nomades, of patriarchal simplicity. The older Arabian historians understand by Arabia only Yemen (Arabia Felix). Hedsjac (the rocky) they regard as belonging partly to Egypt, partly to Syria; and the rest of the country they call the Syrian Desert. The princes (tobbat) of this land were anciently entirely of the race of Khatan, to which belonged the family of the Homeyrites, who ruled over Yemen two thousand years. The Arabians of

Yemen and a part of the desert of Arabia lived in cities, and practised agriculture : they had commerce also with the East Indies, Persia, Syria, and Abyssinia. The rest of the population then, as now, led a wandering life in the deserts—The religion of the Arabians, in the time of their ignorance (as they call the period before Mohammed), was, in general, adoration of the heavenly bodies, or Sabaism ; varying much, however, in the different tribes, each of whom selected a different constellation as the highest object of worship.–For a thousand years the Arabians manfully defended the freedom, faith, and manners of their Å. against all the attacks of the Eastern conquerors, protected by deserts and seas, as well as by their own arms. Neither the Babylonian and Assyrian, nor the Egyptian and Persian kings, could bring them under their yoke. At last they were overcome by Alexander the Great; but immediately after his death, they took advantage of the disunion of his generals and successors to recover their independence. At this period the northern provinces of the country were bold enough to extend their dominion beyond the limits of Arabia. The Arabian Nomades, especially in winter, made deep inroads into the fertile Irak or Chaldaea. They finally conquered a portion of it, which is hence still called Irak Araby. Thence the tribe of Hareth advanced into Syria, and settled in the country of Gassan, whence they received the appellation of Gassanides. Three centuries after Alexander, the Romans approached these limits. The divided Arabians could not resist the Roman arms everywhere successfully; their country, however, was not completely reduced to a province ; the northern princes, at least, maintaining a virtual independence of the emperors. The old Homeyrites in Yemen, against whom an unsuccessful war was carried on in the time of Augustus, preserved their liberty. Their chief city, Saba, was destroyed by a flood. With the weakness of the Roman government, the struggle for absolute independence increased, which a union of all the Arabian tribes would have easily gained ; but, weakened and scattered as they were, they spent several centuries in this contest, during which the mountainous country of the interior (Nedschid) became the theatre of those chivalrous deeds so often sung by Arabian poets, till a man of extraordinary energy united them by communicating to them his own ardour, and union was followed by augmented force—Christianity early found many adherents here, and there were even several bishops who acknowledged as their metropolis Bosro in Palestine, on the borders of Arabia. Yet the original worship of the stars could not be entirely abolished. The former opposition of the Arabians to the despotism of Rome drew to them a multitude of heretics, who had been persecuted in the orthodox empire of the East, especially the Monophysites and the Nestorians, who were scattered through all the East; and the religious enthusiasm of those exiles rekindled the flame of opposition. The Jews also, after the destruction of Jerusalem, became very numerous in this country, and made many proselytes, particularly in Yemen. The last king of the Homeyrites (Hamjarites) was of the Jewish faith, and his persecutions of the Christians, A.D. 502, involved him in a war with the King of Æthiopia, which cost him his life and his throne. To the indifference excited by so great a variety of sects is to be referred the quick success of Mohammed in establishing a new religion. He raised the Arabians to importance in the history of the world, and with him begins a new epoch in the history of this people. (Iahn's Bibl. Archaeol., p. 8, Upham's transl—Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 316, seqq.) ARAbicus sinus, that part or branch of the Mare Erythraeum which interposes itself between Egypt and Arabia. It is now called the Red Sea. The meaning of this modern appellation must be looked for not in

any colour of its waters or sands, but in the name of Idumea (or the land of Edom), whose coasts this seo touches on the north. Edom, in the Hebrew tongue, signifies red, and was the name given to Esau for selling his birthright for a mess of red pottage. This country, which his posterity possessed, was called after his name, and so was the sea which adjoined it. The Greeks, however, not understanding the reason of the appellation, translated what is in Hebrew the Sea of Edom, by putpa bazaaaa. Thence comes the Latin form Mare rubrum, and the modern name Red Sea. It is otherwise called Golfo di Mecca. (Compare Well's Sacred Geogr., No. 160.-Calmet's Dict., vol. 5, p. 63, Eng. transl.—Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 359.) The shores of this gulf consist principally of limestone rocks. The bottom is covered with a carpet of greenish coral, and, in calm weather, when it comes into view, is not unlike a series of verdant submarine forests and meadows. The coral, however, is inferior in quality to that of the Mediterranean. (Plin., 32, 2.) The beautiful fuci attracted the admiration of antiquity (Artemid., ap. Strab., 766), and procured for the Arabian Gulf in Hebrew the name of Bahr Sooph, i.e., “the sca of algae.” (Malte-Brun, 2, 84, Brussels cd.) Arabius, ARAbis, or ARBIs, a river of Gedrosia, near its eastern boundary, running into the Indian Ocean, now the Araba or Il-Mend. (Arrian, 6, 21.) ARAccA and AREccA, a city of Susiana, east of the Tigris, now Wasit. It has attracted the attention of the learned by reason of the affinity of its name with that of Erech, mentioned in the Old Testament among the cities constructed by Nimrod. (Ammian. Marcell., 23, 21. Bochart, Gergr. Sacr., col. 236–Michaelis, Spicileg., vol. 1, p. 220, seqq.) ARAchNAEus Mons, a chain of mountains in Argolis, running along the upper coast in a southeastern direction. In the time of Inachus it was called Sapyselaton. (Pausan., 2, 25. – Compare Siebelis, ad loc.) Hesychius reports that it also bore the name of Hysselinus (s. v. "Yacázavov.—Compare Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Apaxvalov). Mount Arachnaeus is mentioned by Æschylus (Agam., 299) as the last station of the telegraphic fire by which the news of the capture of Troy was transmitted to Mycenae. The modern name is Sophico, according to the latest maps. Part of this chain, communicating with the mountains of Nemea and Phlius, bore the name of Celossa. (Strabo, 382. Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 282.) ARAchne, a Maeonian maiden, who was so proud of her skill in weaving and embroidering, in which arts Minerva had instructed her, that she ventured to deny her obligations to the goddess, and even challenged her to a trial of skill. Minerva, assuming the form of an old woman, warned her to desist from her boasting; but, when she found that her admonitions were vain, she resumed her proper form, and accepted the challenge. The skill of Arachne was such, and the subjects she chose (the love-transformations of the gods) were so offensive to Minerva, that she struck her several times in the forehead with the shuttle. The highspirited maiden, unable to endure this affront, hung herself, and the goddess, relenting, changed her into a spider (dpårvm)—The name of this insect, most probably, gave rise to this fable, though the story itself would seem to be of Oriental origin, the art of . having come into Western Asia from Babylonia an the countries adjacent. (Orid, 6, 1, seqq. Keightley's Mythology, p. 122. — Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 749.) ARAchosia, a province of the Persian empire, lying to the west of the river Indus, and north of Gedrosia. The Greek writers usually call the inhabitants Arachöti ("Aparotot), sometimes Arachöta ('Apaxórat, Dion. Perieg. 1096). Arachosia was of considerable importance as a frontier province, and had always, therefore, a satrap or governor of its own. both

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