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ANNA COMNENA.

monies attending her festival. It was a feast commemorative of the year and the spring, and the hymns sung on this occasion bore the free and joyous character of orgiastic strains. In them Anna Perenna was entreated to make the entire year roll away in health and prosperity (“Ut annare perennarcque commode liceat.”—Macrob., Sat., 1, 12). Now, this new year, this year full of freshness and of benefits invoked, is no other than Anna herself, a personification of the old lunar year. (Compare Hermann und Creuzer, Briefe, &c., p. 135.) Anna is the same word, in fact, as annus, or anus according to the primitive Roman orthography; in Greek tvoc or ēvog, whence the expression évi, kal véa, proving that the word carries with it the accessory idea of antiquity, just as troc appears analogous to vetus. (Compare Lennep, Etymol. Gr., p. 210, seqq. Valckenaer, ad Ammon., p. 196, 197.) Anna Perenna is called the moon, kar’ &;oxiv, and it is she that conducts the moons her sisters, and who at the same time directs and governs the humid sphere: thus she reposes for ever in the river Numicius, and runs on for ever with it. She is the course of the moons, of the years, of time in general. It is she that gives the flowers and fruits, and causes the harvest to ripen: the annual produce of the seasons (annona) is placed under her protecting care.—The Anna Perenna of the Romans has been compared with the Anna Pourna Deri, or Annada, of the Hindu mythology; the goddess of abundance and nourishment, a beneficent form of Bhavani. The characteristic traits appear to be the same. (Compare the remarks of Paterson and Colebrooke, in the Asiatic Researches, vol. 8, p. 69, seqq., and p. 85.—Creuzer's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 501, seqq.) ANNA CoMNENA, a Greek princess, daughter of Alexius Comnenes I., emperor of the East. She was born A.D. 1083, and was originally betrothed to Constantine Ducas; but his death preventing the engagement from being ratified, she subsequently married Niccphorus Bryennius. On the decease of her father, she conspired against herbrother John (Calo-Johannes), who had succeeded him in the empire, and when the design was prevented by the fears or scruples of her husband, she passionately exclaimed that nature had mistaken the two sexes, and had endowed Bryennius with the soul of a woman. After the discovery of her treason, the life and fortune of Anna were forfeited to the laws; the former, however, was spared by the clemency of the emperor. After the death of her husband she retired to a convent, where, at the age of sixty years, she sought to relieve the disappointment of her ambitious feelings by writing a life of her father. The character of this history does not stand very high, either for authenticity or beauty of composition: the historian is lost in the daughter; and instead of that simplicity of style and narrative which wins our belief, an elaborate affectation of rhetoric and science betrays in every page the vanity of a female author. (Gibbon's Decline and Fall, c. 48.) And yet, at the same time, her work forms a useful contrast to the degrading and partial statements of the Latin historians of that period. The details, moreover, which she gives respecting the first Crusaders on their arrival at Constantinople, are peculiarly interesting; and we may there see the impression produced by the simple and rude manners of the heroes of Tasso on a polished, enlightened, and effeminate court. The work of Anna is entitled Alertas, and is divided into fifteen books. It commences with A.D. 1069, and terminates with A.D. 1118. The first edition of the Alexias appeared in 1610, 4to, by Hoeschel, Argent. It contains only the first eight books. Some copies bear the date of 1618. A complete edition was published in 1651, Paris. The best edition, however, will be the one intended to form part of the Byzantine Historians (Corpus Scriptorum Historia Byzantinae), at present in a course of publi

ANNALES.

cation in Germany. 389, seqq.) ANNRLEs, a chronological history which gives an account of all the important events of every year in a state. without entering into the causes which produced them. The annals of Tacitus may be considered in this light. The Romans had journalists or annalists from the very beginning of the state. The Annals of the Pontiffs were of the same date, if we may believe Cicero (de Orat., 2, 13), as the foundation of the city; but others have placed their commencement in the reign of Numa (Vopiscus, Wit. Tacit.), and Niebuhr not until after the battle of Regillus, which terminated the hopes of Tarquin. (Romische Gesch., vol. 1, p. 367.) In order to preserve the memory of public transactions, the Pontifex Maximus, who was the official historian of the republic, annually committed to writing, on wooden tablets, the leading events of each year, and then set them up at his own house for the instruction of the pcople. (Cic., de Orat., 2, 13.) The Pontifex Maximus was aided in this task by his four colleagues, down to A.U.C. 453, and after that period by four additional pontiffs, created by the Ogulnian law. (Cic., de Rep., 2, 14.) These annals were continued to the pontificate of Mucius, A.U.C. 629, and were called Annales Mazimi, as being periodically compiled and kept by the Pontifer Marimus, or Publici, as recording public transactions. Having been inscribed on wooden tablets, they would necessarily be short, and destitute of all circumstantial detail; and being annually formed by successive pontiffs, could have no appearance of a continued history, their contents would resemble the epitome prefixed to the books of Livy, or the Register of Remarkable Occurrences in modern almanacs. But though short, jejune, and unadorned, still, as records of facts, these annals, if spared, would have formed an inestimable treasure of early history. Besides, the method which, Cicero informs us, was observed in preparing these annals, and the care that was taken to insert no fact of which the truth had not been attested by as many witnesses as there were citizens at Rome, who were all entitled to judge and make their remarks on what either ought to be added or retrenched, must have formed the most authentic body of history that could be desired. The memory of transactions which were yet recent, and whose concomitant circumstances every one could remember, was therein transmitted to posterity. By this means they were proof against falsification, and their veracity was incontestably fixed. These valuable records, however, were, for the most part, consumed in the conflagration of the city consequent on its capture by the Gauls; an event which was, to the early history of Rome, what the English invasion by Edward I. proved to the history of Scotland. The practice of the Pontifex Maximus in preserving such records was discontinued after that eventful period. A feeble attempt was made to revive it towards the end of the second Punic war; and from that time the custom was not entirely dropped till the pontificate of Mucius, in the year 629. It is to this second series of Annals, or to some other late and ineffectual attempt to revive the ancient Roman history, that Cicero must allude when he talks of the Great Annals in his work De Legibus (1,2), since it is undoubted, that the pontifical records of events previous to the capture of Rome by the Gauls almost entirely perished in the conflagration of the city. (Liry, 6, 1.) Accordingly, Livy never cites these records, and there is no appearance that he had any opportunity of consulting them, nor are they mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus in the long catalogue of records and memorials which he had employed in the composition of his Historical Antiquities. The books of the pontiffs, some of which were recovered in the search after what the flames had spared, are, indeed, occasionally mentioned. But these were

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works explaining the mysteries of religion, with instructions as to the ceremonies to be observed in its practical exercise, and could have been of no more service to Roman, than a collection of breviaries or missals to modern, history. (Dunlop's Rom. Lit., vol. 2, p.97, seqq., Lond, ed.—Le Clerc, des Journaux chez les Romains, Introd.) ANNRLis lex, settled the age at which, among the Rofmans, a citizen could be admitted to exercise the offices of the state. Originally there was no certain age fixed for enjoying the different offices. A law was first made for this purpose (Lex Annalis) by L. Villius or L. Julius, a tribune of the commons, A.U.C. 573, whence his family got the surname of Annales. (Lir., 40, 43.) What was the year fixed for enjoying each office is not ascertained. It is certain that the praetorship used to be enjoyed two years after the aedileship (Cuc., Ep. ad Fam., 10, 25), and that the fortythird was the year fixed for the consulship. (Cuc., Phil., 5, 17.) If we are to judge from Cicero, who frequently boasts that he had enjoyed every office in its proper year, the years appointed for the different offices by the Lex {#. were, for the quaestorship thirty-one, for the abdileship thirty-seven, for the F. forty, and for the consulship forty-three. ut even under the republic popular citizens were freed from these restrictions, and the emperors, too, granted that indulgence to whomsoever they pleased. ANNibal. Vid. Hannibal. ANNicERRIs, a philosopher of the Cyrenaic sect, and a follower of Aristippus. He so far receded from the doctrine of his master as to acknowledge the merit of filial piety, friendship, and patriotism, and to allow that a wise man might retain the possession of himself in the midst of external troubles; but he inherited so much of his frivolous taste as to value himself upon the most trivial accomplishments, particularly upon his dexterity in being able to drive a chariot twice round a course in the same ring. (Diog. Laert., 2, 87.Suidas, s. v.–Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 196.) ANNo. Vid. HANNo. ANopaea, a mountain of Greece, part of the chain

of CEta. A small pass in this mountain, called by the same name, formed a communication between Thessaly and the country of the Epicnemidian Locri. (He

rodot., 7, 216.) ANser, a Roman poet, intimate with the triumvir Antony, and one of the destroyers of Virgil. (Compare Virg., Eclog., 9, 36. — Servius, ad jor. l. c.) Ovid (Trist., 2, 435) calls him “procar.” ANsibarii, a people of Germany, mentioned by Tacitus (Ann., 13, 55) as having made an irruption, during the reign of Nero, into the Roman territories along the Rhine. Mannert makes them to have been a branch of the Cherusci. The same writer alludes to the hypothesis which would consider their name as denoting “dwellers along the Ems,” and as marking this for their original place of settlement. He views it, however, as untenable. (Geogr., vol. 6, p. 156, seqq.) ANTAEopólis, a city of Egypt on the eastern bank of the Nile, and the capital of the nome Antaeopolites. It derived its name from Antaeus, whom Osiris, according to Diodorus Siculus (1,17), left as governor of his Libyan and AEthiopian possessions, and whom Hercules destroyed. It was a place of no great importance. The modern village of Kau (Qaou) stands near the ruins of the ancient city. (Mannert, vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 388, seqq.—Compare Description de l'Egypte, vol. 4, p. 111.) ANTAEus, I. a monarch of Libya, of gigantic dimensions, son of Neptune and Terra. He was famed for his strength and his skill in wrestling, and engaged in a contest with Hercules. As he received new strength

hero lifted him up in the air and squeezed him to death in his arms. (Apollod., 2, 5.) — II. A governor of Libya and Æthiopia under Osiris. (Duod. Suc., l, 17.)—Both these accounts are, in fact, fabulous, and refer to one and the same thing. The legend of Hercules and Antaeus is nothing more than the triumph of art and labour over the encroaching sands of the desert. Hercules, stifling his adversary, is, in fact, the Nile divided into a thousand canals, and preventing the arid sand from returning to its native deserts, whence again to come forth with the winds and cover with its waves the fertile valley. (Constant, de la Religion, vol. 2, p. 416.) The very position of Antaeopolis, indeed, has reference to the identity of Antaeus with the sands of the desert; for the place was situate in a long and deep valley of the Arábian chain, where the most fearful hurricanes and sand-winds were accustomed to blow. (Compare Rutter, Erdkunde, 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 779.) ANTAGöRAs, a Rhodian poet, who lived at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, where he acquired the reputation of a gourmand. He composed a poem entithed Thebais ; and the Boeotians, to whom he read it, heard him with yawns. (Mich. Apost. Proverb. Cent., 5, S2.) We have one of his epigrams remaining. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 128.) ANTAlcidas, of Sparta, son of Leon, was sent into Persia, where he made the well-known peace with Artaxerxes Mnemon. The terms of this peace were as follows: that all the Greek cities of Asia should belong to the Persian king, together with the island of Clazomena (as it was called) and that of Cyprus: that all other Grecian cities, small and great, should be independent, except the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros, which were to remain subject to the Athenians. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 1. — Consult Schneider, ad loc.) Polybius (1, 6) fixes the year of this celebrated peace, and Aristides (vol. 2, p. 286) the name of the archon (Oedóorog 86' oi, j, eipsum £yévero). The treaty seems to have been concluded in the beginning of the year of Theodotus, about autumn; because the Mantinean war, which was carried on in the archonship of Mystichides, was in the second year after the peace; and because the restoration of Plataea, accomplished after the treaty, took place nevertheless in the year of the treaty, as Pausanias implies. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, 2d ed., p. 102.) ANT ANDRUs, a city of Troas, on the northern side of the Gulf of Adramyttium. According to Thucydides (8, 108), it was founded by an AEolian colony, which had probably dispossessed a body of the Pelasgi in this quarter, since Herodotus (7, 42) names the place the Pelasgic Antandrus. If we follow the ancient mythology, however, we will find different ac, counts of its origin. These are given by Mela (1, 18), who states that the city was called Antandrus accord. ing to some, because Ascanius, the son of Æneas, having fallen into the hands of the Pelasgi, gave them up this city as a ransom; and hence Antandrus, i. e. dur' dwópóg (“in the stead,” or “place, of a man"); while others maintain that it was founded by certain inhabitants of Andros, who had been driven from home by civil dissensions, and that hence the city was called Antandrus, i.e., “instead of Andros,” implying that it was to them a second country. Pliny (5,30), on the other hand, believes that its first name was Edonis, and that it was subsequently styled Cummers. During the Persian times, Antandrus, like many other parts of this coast, was subject to Mytilene, in the island of Lesbos. The Persians, however, held the citadel, which would seem to have stood on a mountain near the city. This mountain is probably the same with the one called Alexandrea, and on which, according to Strabo (606), the controversy between Juno, Minerva, and Venus was decided by Paris. (Manners,

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ANTEMNAE, a city of Italy, in the territory of the Sabines, at the confluence of the Anio and Tiber. It is said to have been more ancient than Rome itself. We are told by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (2, 36), that Antemna, belonged at first to the Siculi, but that afterward it was conquered by the Aborigines, to whom, probably, it owes its Latin name. (Varro, de Ling. Lat., 4.— Festus, s. v. Antemnae.) That it afterward formed a part of the Sabine confederacy is ovident from its being one of the first cities which resented the outrage offered to that nation by the rape of their women. (Liv., 1, 10. – Strabo, 226. – Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 301.) ANTÉNor, I. a Trojan prince related to Priam. He was the husband of Theano, daughter of Cisseus, king of Thrace, and father of nineteen sons, of whom the most known were Polybus (Il., 11, 59), Acamas (Il., 2, 823), Agenor (Il., 4, 533), Polydamas, Helicaon, Archilochus (Il., 2, 823), and Laodocus (Il., 4, 87). He is accused by some of having betrayed his country, not only because he gave a favourable reception to Diomedes, Ulysses, and Menelaus, when they came to Troy, as ambassadors from the Greeks, to demand the restitution of Helen, but also because he withheld the fact of his recognising Ulysses, at the time that hero visited the city under the guise of a mendicant. (Od., 4, 335.) After the conclusion of the war, Antenor, according to some, migrated with a party of followers into Italy, and built Patavium. According to others, he went with a colony of the Heneti from Paphlagonia to the shores of the Hadriatic, where the new settlers established themselves in the district called by them Venetia. Both accounts are fabulous. (Liv., 1, 1. Plan., 3, 13. — Virg., AEm., 1,242. — Tacit., 16, 21.) — II. A statuary, known only as the maker of the original statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, which were carried off by Xerxes, and restored by Alexander. (Pausan., 1,8.—Arrian, Erp. Al., 3, 16.—Plin., 34, 8.) ANtENorides, a patronymic given to the sons of Antenor. ANTÉRos. The original meaning of the name Anteros is the deity who avenges slighted love. By later writers it is applied to a brother of Cupid, but in constant opposition to him ; and in the palaestra at Elis he was represented contending with him. The signification of mutual love is given to the word only by later writers, according to Böttiger. (Schneider, Wörterb., s. v. Pausan., 1, C0. —Id., 6, 23.—Plutarch, Erot., 20.) ANTHEA, one of the three towns on the site of which the city of Patrae, in Achaia, is said to have been built. The other two were Aroe and Messatis. These three were founded by the Ionians when they held possession of the country. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 66.) ANth Épon, I. a city of Boeotia, on the shore of the Euripus, and, according to Dicaearchus, about seventy stadia to the north of Salganeus. (Stat. Gratc., p. 19.) The same writer informs us, that from Thebes to Anthedon the distance was 160 stadia by a crossroad open to carriages. The inhabitants were, for the most part, mariners and shipwrights; at least, so says Dicaearchus; and the fisheries of the place were very important. The wine of Anthedon was celebrated. (Athenaeus, 1, 56.) Pausanias states (9, 22) that the Cabiri were worshipped here; there was also a temple of Proserpina in the town, and one of Bacchus without the walls. Near the sea was a spot called the leap of Glaucus. (Strabo, 404. — Steph. By2., s. v. 'Awāndūv. Pliny, Hist. Nat., 4, 7.) Sir W. Gell reports, that the ruins of this city are under Mount Ktypa, about seven miles from Portcumadi, and six from Egripo. (Itin., p. 147. Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 254.)— II. A town of Palestine, called also Agrippias, on the seacoast, to the south

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west of Gaza. Herod gave it the second name in honour of Agrippa. It is now Daron. (Plin., 4, 7.) ANTHELE, a small town of Thessaly, in the interval between the river Phoenix and the Straits of Thermopylae, and near the spot where the Asopus flows into the sea. In the immediate vicinity were the temples of Ceres Amphictyonia, that of Amphictyon, and the seats of the Amphictyons. It was one of the two places where the Amphictyonic council used to meet, the other being Delphi. The place for holding the assembly here was the temple of Ceres. (Vid. Amphictyones.—Herodot., 7, 200–Strabo, 428.) ANTHEMUs, a town of Macedonia, to the northeast of Thessalonica, and which Thucydides seems to comprise within Mygdonia. (Thucyd, 2, 99.) ANTHEMUsia, I, a district in the northern part of Mesopotamia, which was subsequently incorporated into Osroene. (Amm. Marcell., 14, 9. Eutrop., 8, °)—II. The capital of the district just mentioned, sing east of the Euphrates and west of the city of Edessa. It is also called Anthemus. The name was derived from the Macedonian city of Anthemus. (Plin., 6, 26.-Strab., 514.) ANTHENE, a town of Cynuria in Argolis, once occupied by the AEgineta, together with Thyrea. (Pausan., 2, 38.) It was restored to the Argives after the battle of Amphipolis. (Thucyd., 5, 41.) ANTHERMUs, a Chian sculptor, son of Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He flourished about Olymp. 50, and was the father of the two artists Bupalus and Athenis. (Wid. Bupalus.) As the name Anthermus is not Greek, Brotier reads Archennus, which Sillig follows. (Plun., 36, 5–Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) ANTHEsphoria, a festival celebrated by the people of Syracuse in honour of Proserpina, who was carried away by Pluto as she was gathering flowers. The word is derived from drö Toi opew diffea, i. e., from ca:ing flowers. The Syracusans showed, near their city, the spot where Proserpina was carried off, and from which a lake had immediately proceeded. Around this the festival was celebrated. The lake in question is formed by the sources of the Cyane, whose waters join the Anapus. (Compare Münter, Nachricht von Neap. und Sicil., p. 374.) — Festivals of the same name were also observed at Argos in honour of Juno, who was called Antheia. (Pallur, Onom., 1, 1.) ANTHEstERIA, festivals in honour of Bacchus among the Greeks. They were celebrated in the month of February, called Anthesterion, whence the name is derived, and continued three days. The first day was called IIttosyta, drö Toi Titovc olyetv, because they tapped their barrels of liquor. The second day was called Xoéc, from the measure xod, because every individual drank of his own vessel, in commemoration of the arrival of Orestes, who, after the murder of his mother, came, without being purified, to Demophoön, or Pandion, king of Athens, and was obliged, with all the Athenians, to drink by himself for fear of polluting the people by drinking with them before he was purified of the parricide. It was usual on that day to ride out in chariots, and ridicule those that passed by. The best drinker was rewarded with a crown of leaves, or rather of gold, and with a cask of wine. The third day was called Xúrpot, from airpa, a vessel brought out full of all sorts of seeds and herbs, deemed sacred to Mercury, and therefore not touched. The slaves had the permission of being merry and free during these festivals; and at the end of the solemnity a herald proclaimed, evpdos, Käpec, oik tr' 'Artearipta, i. e., Depart, ye Carian slaves, the festivals are at an end. (AElian, W. H., 2, 41. Potter, Gr. Antiq., vol. 1, p. 422, seqq.) Ruhnken (Auct. Emend ad Hesych, vol. 2, s. v. Atovic) makes the Athenians to have celebrated three festivals in honour of Bacchus . l. Those of the country, in the month Posideon : 2. Those of the city, or the greater festivals, in the month Elaphebolion; and, 3. The Anthesteria or Lena'a, in the month Anthesterion. These last were celebrated within a large enclosure called Lenaeum, and in a quarter of the city termed Limnae, or “the pools.” Meursius had before distinguished the Lenaea from the Anthesteria. (Graec. Fer., vol. 3, Op. col., 917 and 918.) Bockh also regards the Lenaea as a distinct festival from the Anthesteria. (Wom Unterscheide der Attischen Lenaeem, &c., Jahrg., 1816, 1817, p. 47, seqq.) Both the latter opinions, however, are incorrect. (Compare Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 3, p. 319, seqq.) ANTHEus, I. a son of Antenor.—II. One of the companions of Æneas. (org., AEm., 1, 514) — III. A statuary mentioned by Pliny (34, 8) as having flourished in Olymp. 155, and as approved among the artists of his own time. In some editions of Pliny the name is written Antaeus. (Sullig, Dict. Art., s. v.) ANThicx, a town of Thrace, afterward called Apollonia. The name was subsequently changed to Sozopolis, and is now pronounced Stzeboli. (Plin., 4, 11.) ANTHöREs, a companion of Hercules, who followed Evander, and settled in Italy. He was killed in the war of Turnus against Æneas. (Virg., AEn., 10,778.) ANThropoph KGI, a people of Scythia that fed on human flesh. Herodotus (4, 106) calls them the Androphagi, and states that they lived in a more savage manner than any other nation, having no public distribution of justice nor established laws. He informs us also that they applied themselves to the breeding of cattle, clothed themselves like the Scythians, and spoke a peculiar language. Rennell thinks that they must have occupied Polish Russia, and both banks of the river Prypetz, the western head of the Borysthemes. (Rennell, Geogr. of Herod., p. 86, 4to ed.) ANTHYLLA, a city of Egypt, about west from the Canopic branch of the Nile, and northwest from Naucratis. It is supposed by Larcher to have been the same with Gynaecopolis. (Compare Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, p. 596.) According to Herodotus, it furnished sandals to the wife of the Persian satrap, who was viceroy, for the time being, over Egypt. This was in imitation of the royal custom at home, in the case of the queens of Persia. (Herod., 2, 98.-Consult Bahr, ad loc.) Athenaeus says it supplied girdles (1, p. 33. —Compare Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 209.) ANTIA lex, was made for the suppression of luxury at Rome. Its particulars are not known, but it could not be enforced. The enactor was Antius Resto, who afterward never supped abroad for fear of being himself a witness of the profusion and extravagance which his law meant to destroy, but without effect. (Macrob., 3, 17.) ANTIAs, a name given to the goddess Fortune, from her splendid temple at Antium, where she was particularly worshipped. (Vid. Antium.) ANTiclio A, a daughter of Autolycus and Amphithea. She was the mother of Ulysses, but not, it is said, by Laertes. This individual was only the reputed father of the chieftain of Ithaca, and the actual paternity belonged to Sisyphus. It is said that Anticlea killed herself when she heard a false report of her son's death. (Homer, Od, 11, 19–Hygin., Fab., 201,243. —Pausan... 10, 29.) ANTIcLIDEs, a Greek historian, a native of Athens, whose works are lost. (Consult Athenaeus, ed. Schw. —Ind. Auct., s. v., vol. 9.) ANtic RKgus, a detached chain of the ridge of Mount Cragus in Lycia, running in a northeast direction along the coast of the Sinus Glaucus. It is now called Soumbourlou. Captain Beaufort estimates the height at not less than 6000 feet. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 245.) ANtic Rites, a Spartan, who, according to Plutarch, stabbed Epaminondas, the Theban general, at the battle of Mantinea. Great honours and rewards were decreed to him by the Spartans, and an exemption

from taxes to his posterity. (Plut., Wit. Ages., c. 35.) There were, however, other claimants for this honour. The Mantinaeans asserted that one of their citizens, by name Machaerion, gave the fatal blow. The Athenians, on the other hand, make Epaminondas to have fallen by the hand of Gryllus, son of Xenophon. (Compare Pausan., 8, 11–1d., 9, 15; and Wesseling, ad Diod. Suc., 15, 87.) ANticy R.A., I, a town of Thessaly, at the mouth of the Sperchius. (Herodot., 7, 198—Strabo, 428.) It was said to produce the genuine hellebore, so much recommended by ancient physicians as a cure for insanity. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'AvTikvpa.)—II. A town of Phocis, on the isthmus of a small peninsula in the Sinus Corinthiacus. It was celebrated, in common with the one already mentioned, for its hellebore. (Scylax, p. 14. Theophr., 9, 10. – Strabo, 418.) Pausanias affirms (10,36) that the inhabitants of Anticyra were driven from their town by Philip, the son of Amyntas, on the termination of the Sacred War. At a later period it was besieged and taken by Laevinus, the Roman praetor, who delivered it up to the AEtolians. (Liv., 26, 26.) And subsequently, in the Macedonian war, it was occupied by Titus Q. Flamininus, on account of the facilities which its harbour presented for the operations of the Roman fleet in the Corinthian Gulf (Lip., 32, 18.-Pausan., 10, 36– Polyb., 18, 28.—Id., 27, i4.) The site of Anticyra corresponds, as is generally believed, with that of Aspropiti, in a bay of some extent, parallel to that of Salona. “Here is a good port,” says Sir W. Gell (Itin., p. 174), “and some remains of antiquity.” Chandler remarks, that “the site is now called Asprospatia, or the white houses; and some traces of the buildings, from which it was so named, remain. The port is land-locked, and frequented by vessels for corn.” (Trarels, vol. 2, p. 301.)—The ancients had a proverb, Naviget Anticyram, applied to...a person that was regarded as insane, and alluding to the hellebore produced at either Anticyra. (Compare Erasmus, Chil., 1, cent. 8, 52. — Nariget Anticyras, II? evaetev eiç 'Avrtkūpac.) Horace has been supposed by some to allude to three places of this name, but this is a mistake ; the poet merely speaks of a head so insane as not to be cured by the produce of three Anticyras, if there even were three, and not merely two. (Ep., ad Pis., 300.) ANTIpătus, a Greek painter, a pupil of Euphranor. He flourished about 364 B.C. His colouring was severe, and his productions were remarkable for their careful execution rather than their number. His principal pieces were a Wrestler and a Flute-player. He was the instructor of Nicias of Athens. (Plin., H. N., 35, 11.-Buogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 249.) ANTIGENEs, one of Alexander's generals, publicly rewarded for his valour. (Quint. Curt., 5, 14.) ANTIGENIDAs, a famous musician of Thebes, disciple to Philoxenus. He introduced certain innovations in the construction of the flute, and in the art of playing upon it. (Cic., Brut., 97.) ANTIGöNE, a daughter of GEdipus, king of Thebes, by his mother Jocasta. After the death of CEdipus and his sons Eteocles and Polynices, Antigone repaired to Thebes, in order to effect the sepulture of her brother Polynices. Creon, monarch of Thebes, her m-ternal uncle, had forbidden the interment of the young prince under the penalty of death, on account of the war which the latter had waged against his own country. Antigone, however, disregarding all personal considerations, succeeded in sprinkling dust three times on her brother's remains, which was equivalent to sepulture, but was subsequently seized by the guards who had been placed to watch the corpse and prevent its interment. For this she was immured alive in a tomb, where she hung herself. Haemon, the son of Creon, to whom she had been betrothed,

ANTIGONUS.

effected an entrance and killed himself by her corpse, and his mother Eurydice likewise put an end to her existence. This sad story forms the basis of one of the tragedies of Sophocles. (Vid. Sophocles.) ANTIGoNEA, I. a city of Epirus, southwest of Apollonia. (Plin., 4, 1.)—II. One of Macedonia, in the district of Mygdonia, founded by Antigonus, son of Gonatas. (Id., 4, 10.) — III. One in Syria, on the borders of the Orontes, built by Antigonus, and intended as the residence of the governors of Egypt and Syria, but destroyed by him when Seleucia was built, and the inhabitants removed to the latter city.— IV. Another in Asia Minor. (Vid. Alexandrea IX.) ANTIGöNus, I. a general of Alexander's, and one of those who played the most important part after the death of that monarch. In the division of the provinces after the king's death, he received Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phrygia. Two years after the decease of Alexander, he united with Antipater and Ptolemy against Perdiccas, who aimed at the supremacy. Perdiccas having died this same year (B.C. 322), and Antipater being placed at the head of the government, Antigonus was named commander of all the forces of the empire, and marched against Eumenes. After various conflicts, during a war of three years, he succeeded in ...; Eumenes into his power by treachery, and starved him to death. Become now all powerful by the death of this formidable rival, he ruled as king, but without assuming the title, over all Asia Minor and Syria; but his conduct eventually excited against him a formidable league, in which Seleucus, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander arrayed themselves against Antigonus, and the celebrated Demetrius, his son. After varied success, the confederates made a treaty with him, and surrendered to him the possession of the whole of Asia, upon condition that the Grecian cities should remain free. This treaty was soon broken, and Ptolemy made a descent into Lesser Asia and on some of the Greek isles, which was at first successful, but he was defeated in a seafight by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, who took the island of Cyprus, made 16,000 prisoners, and sunk 200 of his ships. After this famous naval battle, which happened 26 years after Alexander's death, Antigonus and his son assumed the title of kings, and their example was followed by all the rest of Alexander's generals. From this period, B.C. 306, his own reign in Asia, that of Ptolemy in Egypt, and those of the other captains of Alexander in their respective territories, properly commence. Antigonus now formed the design of driving Ptolemy from Egypt, but failed. His power soon became so formidable that a new confederacy was formed against him by Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy. The contending parties met in the plain of Insus in Phrygia, B.C. 301. Antigonus was defeated, and died of his wounds; and his son Demetrius fled from the field. Antigonus was 84 years old when he died. (Vid. Demetrius. – Pausan., 1, 6, &c. — Justin, 13, 14, et 15–C. Nep., Wit. Eumen.—Plut, Wit. Demetr.—Eumen. et Arat.)—II. Gonatas, so called from Gonni in Thessaly, the place of his birth, was the son of Demetrius, and grandson of Antigonus He made himself master of Macedonia B.C. 277, and assumed the title of king. In the course of his reign, he defeated, with great slaughter, the Gauls, who had made an irruption into his kingdom. Having refused succours to Pyrrhus of Epirus, he was driven from his throne by that warlike monarch. He afterward recovered a great part of Macedonia, and followed Pyrrhus to the neighbourhood of Argos. In a conflict that ensued there, Pyrrhus was slain. After the death of Pyrrhus, he recovered the remainder of Macedonia, and died after a reign of 34 years, leaving his son, Demetrius the Second, to succeed, B.C. 243. (Justin, 21 et 25.)—III. The guardian of his nephew, Philip, the son of Demetrius, who married the widow of De

A NT

metrius, and usurped the kingdom. He was called Doson (döcov, “about to give,” i.e., always promising), from his promising much and giving nothing. He conquered Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and obliged him to retire into Egypt, because he favoured the AEtolians against the Greeks. He died B.C. 222, after a reign of 11 years, leaving his crown to the lawful possessor, Philip, who became conspicuous by his cruelties and the war he made against the Romans. (Justin, 28 et 29.—Plut., Vnt. Cleom.)—IV. Son of Echecrates, and nephew of Philip, the father of Perseus. He was the only one of the Macedonian nobles who remained loss. when Perseus conspired against his parents; and to him, moreover, Philip owed the discovery of the plot. Charmed with his virtuous and upright character, the monarch intended to make him his successor, but the death of Philip prevented this being done. Perseus succeeded his father, and, a few days after, put Antigonus to death, B.C. 179. (Liv., 40, 54, &c.)—V. Son of Aristobulus II., king of Judaea, was conducted to Rome along with his father, after the capture of Jerusalem by Pompey. When Caesar became dictator, Antigonus endeavoured, but in vain, to get himself re-established in his hereditary dominions, and at last was compelled to apply to Pacorus, king of the Parthians. Pacorus, on the promise of 1000 talents, marched into Judaea at the head of a large army, and replaced Antigonus on the throne; but Marc Antony, at the solicitation of Herod, sent Gabinius against him, who took Jerusalem, and put Antigonus to an ignominious death. He reigned 3 years and 3 months. (Justin, 20, 29, &c.)—VI. Carystius, an historian in the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who wrote the lives of some of the ancient philosophers: also a heroic poem, entitled “AntiF.". mentioned by Athenaeus; and other works. he only remains we have of them are his “Collections of wonderful Stories” concerning animals and other natural bodies. This work was first published at Basle, 1568, and was afterward reprinted at Leyden by Meursius, 1619, in 4to. It forms a part also of the volume entitled Historiarum Mirabilium Auc. tores Graeci, printed at Leyden in 1622, in 4to. ANtilibXNus, a ridge of mountains in Syria, east of, and running parallel with, the ridge of Libanus. (Vid. Libanus-Plin., 5, 20.) ANTILöchus, I. the eldest son of Nestor by Eurydice. He went to the Trojan war with his father, and was killed by Memnon, the son of Aurora, according to Homer (Od., 4, 187), who is followed by Pindar (Pyth., 6, 28), and by Hyginus (Fab., 113), Ovid, on the contrary, makes him to have been slain by Hector (Her., 1, 15). We must therefore alter the text of the latter, and for Antilochum read either Anchialum with Muncker (from Hom., Il., 18, 185), or Amphimachum with Scoppa (from Dares Phrygius, c.

20)—II. A poet, who wrote some verses in praise of.

Lysander, and received a cap full of silver in return. (Plut., Vit. Lysandr., c. 18.) ANTIMXchus, I. a poet of Colophon, and pupil of Panyasis. He was the contemporary of Choerilus, and flourished between 460 and 431 B.C. With Antimachus would have commenced a new era in the history of epic verse, if that department of poetry had been capable of resuming its former lustre. In common with Choerilus, he perceived that the period of the Homeric epic had irrevocably passed ; but in place of substituting the historic epic, as the former did, he returned to mythological subjects : . treatin them, however, in a manner more in accordance wit the taste of the day. The success which he obtained, and the admiration which was subsequently testified for his productions by the Alexandrean school, prove that he was not mistaken in the judgment he had formed of the spirit of the age, and that he augured well respecting the opinion of posterity. The Alexandrean

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