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by taying it in ashes. Anaximenes was deputed by his countrymen as a mediator; but the conqueror, guessing his intention, when he saw him entering the royal tent as a suppliant, cut short his anticipated petition by declaring that he was determined to refuse his request, whatever it might be. Of this hasty expression the philosopher availed himself, and immediately implored that Lampsacus might be utterly destroyed, and a pardon refused to its citizens. The stratagem was successful; Alexander was unwilling to break his promise; and the presence of mind exhibited by its advocate saved the town. Anaximenes was also the author of a history of Greece. (Pausan., 6, 18.-Val. Mar, 7, 3, 4.) ANAzARBus, a city of Cilicia Campestris, situate on the river Pyramus, at some distance from the sea, and taking its name apparently from a mountain called Anazarbus, at the foot of which it was situate. The adjacent territory was famed for its fertility. It afterward took the appellation of Caesarea ad Anazarbum, but from what Roman emperor is not known, though prior to the time of Pliny (5,27). The original appellation, however, finally prevailed, as we find it so desigmated in Hierocles and the imperial Notitia, at which eriod it had become the chief town of Cilicia Secunda. t was nearly destroyed by a terrible earthquake under Justinian. Anazarbus was the birthplace of Dioscorides and Oppian. The Turks call it, at the present day, Ain-Zerbeh. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 354.) ANCAEU's, I. the son of Lycurgus and Cleophile, or, according to others, Astypalaea, was in the expedition of the Argonauts. He was also at the chase of the Calydonian boar, in which he perished. (Apollod., 3, 9—Id., 1, 8–Hygin, Fab., 173 et 248.)—II. King of Samos, and son of Neptune and Astypalaea. He went with the Argonauts, and succeeded Tiphys as pilot of the ship Argo. He reigned in Ionia, where he married Samia, daughter of the Maeander, by whom he had four sons, Perilas, Enudus, Samus, Alithersus, and one daughter called Parthenope. He paid particular attention to the culture of the vine, and on one occasion was told by a slave, whom he was pressing with hard labour in his vineyard, that he would never taste of its produce. After the vintage had been gathered in and the wine made, Ancaeus, in order to falsify the prediction, was about to raise a cup of the liquor to his lips, deriding, at the same time, the pretended prophet (who, however, merely told him, in reply, that there were many things between the cup and the lip), when tidings came that a boar had broken into his vineyard. Throwing down the cup, with the untasted liquor, Ancaeus rushed forth to meet the animal, and lost his life in the encounter. Hence arose the Greek proverb,
The Latin translation is by Erasmus, who, as Dacier thinks, read Téret for Trézet, a supposition not at all probable, since “cadunt” gives the spirit, though not the literal meaning, of Těžet.—The story just given is related somewhat differently by other writers, but the point in all is the same. (Eustath., ad Il., p. 77, ed. Rom. — Festus, s. v. Manum. —Aul. Gell., 13, 17.— Dacier, ad Fest., l.c.) ANCALTTEs, a people of Britain, near the Atrebatii, and probably a clan of that nation. Baxter supposes them to have been the herdsmen and shepherds of the Atrebatii, and to have possessed those parts of Orford. shire and Buckinghamshire most proper for pasturage. Horsley, on the other hand, makes their country correspond to the modern Berkshire. But it is all uncertainty. (Caes., Bell. G., 5, 21.) ANche Mölus, son of Rhoetus, king of the Marrubii in Italy, was expelled by his father for criminal conduct towards his stepmother. He fled to Turnus, and
was killed by Pallas, son of Evander, in the wars of AEneas against the Latins. (Virg., AEn., 10, 389.) ANches Mus, a mountain of Attica, where Jupiter Anchesmius had a statue. It is now Agios Georgios, taking its modern name from a church of St. George, which has displaced the statue. (Leake's Topogr. of Athens, p. 69.) ANchi KLE, a city of Cilicia, west of the mouth of the Cydnus, and a short distance from the coast. It was a place of great antiquity, and the Greek writers assign its origin to Sardanapalus, king of Assyrin. The authority, however, from which they derive their information, is Aristobulus, who is entitled to but little credit in general. The founder was said by them to have been buried here, and they speak of his tomb's still existing in the time of Alexander the Great. On the tomb was the statue of a man in the act of clapping his hands, with an Assyrian inscription to this effect, “Sardanapalus, the son of Anacyndaraxes, built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day; but do thou, oh stranger, cat, drink, and sport, since the rest of hu. man things are not worth this,” i.e., a clap of the hands. (Arrian, Erp. Alez., 2, 5.) It is more than probable, supposing that a Sardanapalus did found the place, that we are to regard him, not as the last king of that name, but some earlier monarch of Assyria, who had pushed his conquests into the western part of Asia. The situation of Anchiale was bad; it had no harbour, no river, no great road, in its immediate vicinity. It disappeared, therefore, at last from history, while Tarsus, more favourably placed, continued to flourish. Pliny calls the name Anchiales; and Arrian, Anchialos. (Mannert, 6, pt. 2, p. 66.) ANch: Ålus, a term occurring in one of Martial's epigrams (11, 94), about which the learned are greatly divided in opinion. Scaliger thinks that it comes from the Hebrew Chai and Alah, and is equivalent to Wivens Deus. ANchis. E Portus, according to Dionysius of Hali. carnassus (Ant. Rom., 1, 32), the real name of Onchesmus in Epirus. ANchises, son of Capys, by Themis, daughter of Ilus, and the father of Æneas. Venus was so struck with his beauty, that she introduced herself to his notice in the form of a nymph, on Mount Ida, and urged him to a union. Anchises no sooner discovered that he had been in the company of a celestial being, than he dreaded the vengeance of the gods. Venus quieted his apprehensions; but, for his imprudence subsequently in boasting of the partiality of the goddess, Jupiter struck him with blindness, or, according to some, enfeebled and maimed him by a stroke of thunder. The offspring of his union with Venus was the celebrated AEneas. When Troy was in flames, he was saved from the victorious Greeks by his son, who bore him away on his shoulders from the burning city. He afterward accompanied Æneas in his voyage to Italy, but died before that land was reached, in the island of Sicily, at the harbour of Drepanum, and was buried on Mount Eryx. (Virg., AEn., 2,647—Id. ib., 3, 707– Heyne, Eccurs., 17, ad Virg., AEn., 2, &c.) ANchisia, a mountain of Arcadia, on which, accord. ing to Pausanias, was the tomb of Anchises. This, of course, is different from the common account, fol. lowed by Virgil, which makes Anchises to have been buried on Mount Eryx in Sicily. At the foot of Mount Anchisia there was a road leading to Orchomenus, which city lay to the northwest. (Pausan., 8, 12.) ANchisi Knes, a patronymic of Æneas, as being sor of Anchises. (Virg., AEn., 6, 348, &c.) ANchöE, a place in Boeotia, where the Cephissus. or rather the Lake Copais, issued from under ground.
It was near Larymna, and on the coast. (Strabo, 404.) ANCHöRA. Wid. Nicaea II.
sacrificed himself for the good of his country, when the earth had opened and swallowed up many buildings. The oracle had been consulted, and gave for answer, that the gulf would never close if Midas did not throw into it whatever he had most precious. Though the king cast in much gold and silver, yet the gulf continued open, till Anchurus, thinking nothing more precious than life, and regarding himself, therefore, as the most valuable of his father's possessions, took a tender leave of his wife and family, and leaped into the earth, which closed immediately over his head. Midas erected there an altar of stone to Jupiter, and that altar was the first object which he turned into gold when he had received his fatal gift from the gods. Every year, when the day came round on which the chasm had been first formed, the altar became one of stone again; but, when this day had passed by, it once more changed to gold. (Plut., Parall., p. 306.) ANCILE, a sacred shield, which fell from heaven in the reign of Numa, when the Roman people laboured under a pestilence. Upon the preservation of this shield depended the fate of the Roman empire, according to the admonition given to Numa by the nymph Egeria, and the monarch thereforq ordered eleven of the same size and form to be made, that if ever any attempt was made to carry them away, the plunderer might find it difficult to distinguish the true one. They were made with such exactness, that the king promised Weturius Mamurius, the artist, whatever reward he desired. (Vid. Mamurius.) They were kept in the temple of Vesta, and an order of priests was chosen to watch over their safety. These priests were called Salii, and were twelve in number; they carried every year, on the first of March, the shields in a solemn procession through the streets of Rome, dancing and singing praises to the god Mars. (Vad. Salii.). This sacred festival continued three days, during which every important business was stopped. It was deemed unfortunate to be married on those days, or to undertake any expedition. Hence Suetonius (Oth., 8) states, that Otho marched from Rome, on his unsuccessful expedition against Vitellius, during the festival of the Ancilia, “nulla religionum cura,” without any regard for sacred ceremoniss, and Tacitus (Hist., 1, 89) remarks, that many ascribed to this circumstance the unfortunate issue of the campaign. The form of the ancile occurs in ancient coins. Representations of it are also given by modern writers on Roman Antiquities. (Consult Lipsius, Mil. Rom. ; Anal., lib. 3, dial. 1.) Plutarch, in explaining their shape, remarks, “they are neither circular, nor yet, like the pelta, semicircular, but fashioned in two crooked indented lines, the extremities of which, meeting close, form a curve (dykóżov).” According to this etymology, the name should be written in Latin Ancyle. Ovid says the shield was called ancile, “quod ab omni parte recisum est,” a derivation much worse than Plutarch's. The name is very probably of Etrurian origin, and the whole legend would appear to be a myth, turning on the division of the Roman year into twelve months by the fabulous Numa. (Plut., Vit. Num., c. 13.—Orid, Fast., 3, 377.) ANcöNA, a city of Italy, on the coast of Picenum, which still retains its name. The appellation is supF. to be of Greek origin, and to express the anguar form of the promontory on which the city is placed. (Mela, 2, 4.—Procop., Rer. Got., 2.) This bold headland was called Cumerium Promontorium ; its modern name is Monte Comero, and sometimes Monte Guasco. The foundation of Ancona is ascribed by Strabo (241) to some Syracusans, who were fleeing from the tyranny of Dionysius. These Syracusans of Strabo are by many critics supposed to be the same with the Siculi of Pliny, to whom that writer attributes the origin of
this city. (Plin., 3, 13.—Compare Solin., 8.) But, on
the other hand, it is contended, that the foundation of
Ancona must be anterior to the reign of Dionysius, since it is noticed in the Periplus of Scylax (p. 12) as belonging to the Umbri; and, therefore, that the Siculi of Pliny must be that ancient race who settled in Italy at a very remote period, and afterward passed over into Sicily. (Bardetti, pt. 2, c. 10–Olivieri, della fond di Pesaro dissert., p. 13.—Gius. Colucci, Delle Antichità Picene, vol. 1, diss. 1.) Ancona is spoken of by Livy (41, 1) as a naval station of great importance in the wars of Rome with the Illyrians. (Compare Tacit., Ann., 3, 9.) It was occupied by Caesar soon after his passage of the Rubicon. (Bell. Civ., 1, 11–Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 16, 12.) It continued to be a port of consequence in Trajan's time, if we may judge from the works erected by that emperor, which are still extant there. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 280, seqq.) ANcus MARcius, the fourth king of Rome, was grandson to Numa by his daughter. His name Ancus was said to be derived from the Greek dyków, because he had a crooked arm, which he could not stretch out to its full length; an etymology of no value whatever, the term in question being very probably Etrurian. Like his ancestors, he first turned his attention to the re-establishment of religion, and had the ritual law transcribed on tables, that all might read it. He then directed his arms against the Latins with success, and carried away several thousand of this nation to Rome, whom he settled on the Aventine. He extended his conquests into Etruria, and along both banks of the Tiber to the seacoast, where he founded Ostia, the oldest of the Roman colonies, as the harbour of Rome. He built the first bridge over the Tiber, and annexed additional defences to the city. The oldest remaining monument in Rome, the prison formed out of a stone quarry in the Capitoline Hill, is called the work of Ancus. It was on the side of the hill above the forum (the place of meeting for the plebeians); and until an equality of laws was introduced, it served only to keep the plebeians and those who were below them in custody. The original common law of the plebs was regarded as the fruit of his legislation, in the same manner as the rights of the three ancient tribes were looked upon to be the laws of the first three kings. And because all landed property, by the principles of the Roman law, proceeded from the state, and, on the incorporation of new communities, was surrendered by them, and conferred back on them by the state, the assignment of public lands is attributed to Ancus. This act, being viewed as a parcelsing out of public territories, was probably the cause which led the plebeians to bestow the epithet of “good” upon him in the old poems. The new subjects could not be admitted into a new tribe, as the Luceres had been, since the number of tribes was completed. They constituted a community which stood side by side with the people formed by the members of the thirty curia, as the body of the Latin towns had stood in relation to Alba. This was the beginning of the plebs, which was the strength and the life of Rome, the people of Ancus as distinguished from that of Romulus; and this is a fresh reason for Ancus being placed in the middle of the Roman kings. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist., p. 86, Twiss's abridgment.) Ancus reigned, according to the fabulous Roman chronology, twenty-four years. (Liv., I, 32, seqq.—Florus, 1, 4.—Dion. Hal., 3.9, &c.) ANCYRA, I. a city of Galatia, west of the Halys. According to Pausanias (2,4), it was founded by Midas, and the name was derived from an anchor (dyarpa) which was found here and preserved in the temple of Jupiter. This city was greatly enlarged by Augustus, whence the grammarian Tzetzes is led to style him the founder of the city, and under Nero it was styled the metropolis of Galatia. Its situation was extremely well adapted for inland trade, and Ancyra became a kind of stapleplace for the commodities of the East. It is famous also as having been the spot where the Monumentum Ancyranum was found in modern times, a spurious inscription on a temple erected in honour of Augustus, which gives a history of the several actions and public merits of Augustus, and which shows also that he had been a great patron of the Ancyrani. Ancyra is now called by the Turks Angouri, and by the Europeans Angora, and is the place whence the celebrated shawls and hosiery made of goats' hair were originally brought. Near this place, Bajazet was conquered and made prisoner by Timur, or, as the name is commonly, though incorrectly, written, Tamerlane. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 46, seqq.)—II. A town of Phrygia, on the confines of Mysia. Strabo (576) places it in the district of Abasitis, near the sources of the river Makestus, which flows into the Rhyndacus. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 111.) ANDABATAs, gladiators who fought blindfolded, whence the proverb Andabatarum more pugnare, to denote rash and inconsiderate measures. The name comes from the Greek ávasarat, because they fought in chariots or on horseback. (Consult Erasmus, Chil., p. 461.) ANdANIA, a city of Messenia, situate, according to Pausanias (4, 33), at the distance of eight stadia from Carnasium. It had been the capital of Messenia before the domination of the Heraclidae. (Pausan, 4, 3.) Strabo (360) places it on the road from Messene to Megalopolis. It is also mentioned by Livy (36, 31) as situated between these two cities. Sir W. Gell (Itin., p. 69) observed its ruins between Sakona and Krano, on a hill formed by the foot of Mount Tetrage. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 147.) ANDEcIvi or ANDEs, a people of Gaul, east of the Namnetes, and lying along the northern bank of the Liger or Loire. Their capital was Juliomágus, now Angers, and their territory corresponded in part to what is now the department de la Mayenne. (Caes., B. G., 2, 35.) ANDEs, I. a people of Gaul. Wid. Andecavi.-II. A village near Mantua, where Virgil was born. (Compare Hieron., Chron. Euseb., 2, and Sil. Ital., 8, 594.) Tradition has long assigned to a small place, now named Pietola, the honour of representing this birthplace of Virgil; but as this opinion appears to derive no support from the passages in which the poet is supposed to speak of his own farm, the prevailing notion among the learned seems to contradict the popular reo which identifies Andes with Pietola. (Maffei, erona Illustr., vol. 2, p. 1.-Viso, Memorie Istoriche, vol. 1, p. 31.-Bonelli, Mem. Mantor., vol. 1, p. 120.) It may be observed, however, that Virgil's birthplace and his farm may not necessarily have been one and the same : in this case it would seem that no argument could be objected to a local, but very ancient and wellestablished tradition. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 69, seqq.) ANdocides, an Athenian orator, son of Leogoras, and born in the first year of the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 468. He commanded the Athenian fleet in the war between the Corinthians and Corcyreans, and was af. terward accused of having been concerned in mutilating the Hermas, or statues of Mercury, a crime of which Alcibiades was regarded as one of the authors. Andocides, having been arrested for this sacrilege, escaped punishment by denouncing his real or pretended accomplices. Photius informs us, that among these was Leogoras, but that Andocides found the means of obtaining his father's pardon. (Phot., Bibl., vol. 2, p. 488, ed. #. The same author mentions various other incidents in the life of this orator, which compelled him at last to quit Athens. He returned during the government of the four hundred, and was cast into rison, whence, however, he succeeded in escaping. e returned a second time to his native country after the fall of the thirty tyrants. Having failed in an em.
no longer dared to show himself in Athens, but died in exile. Andocides employed his abilities as an orator merely in his own affairs. The four discourses of his which have come down to us are important for the history of Greece. The first has reference to the Mysteries of Eleusis, which he had been accused of violating (IIepi Mvarmptov). The second (IIept ka06óov), treats of his (second) return to Athens. The third (IIepi Elpswmg), “Concerning Peace,” was pronounced in the fourth year of the 95th Olympiad, on occasion of the peace with Sparta; the fourth is directed against Alcibiades (Karā 'AAkututóov). Taylor, led into an error by a passage of Plutarch (Wit. Alcib., 13. —Ed. Reiske, vol. 2, p. 21), thinks that this discourse was delivered by Phaeax, one of the antagonists of Alcibiades; but Ruhnken has shown this opinion to be incorrect. (Hist. Crit. Orat. Gr. — p. 54, of the edition of Rutilius Lupus.-Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 205, seqq.) The discourses of Andocides are given in Reiske's edition of the Greek orators; in that of Bekker, and in the edition of Dobson, Lond., 1828, 16 vols. 8vo. ANdoMKtis, a river of India, falling into the Ganges. According to D'Anville, the modern Sonn-sou. (Wid. Sonus.) ANDRICLUs, a mountain of Cilicia Trachea, north of the promontory Anemurium. (Strab., 670.) ANDRIscus, an obscure individual, a native of Adramyttium in Asia Minor, who, from his strong resemblance to Philip, son of Perseus, the last king of Macedonia, was induced to pass himself off for that prince, and hence received the name of Pseudophilippus, or “the false Philip.” Having deceived the Macedonians, he induced them to revolt against the Roman power, and gained at first some advantages, but was at length defeated by Caecilius Metellus, and led in triumph, B.C. 148. (Flor, 2, 14.—Well. Paterc., 1, 11.) AND Rocydes, I. a painter of Cyzicus, contemporary with Pelopidas and Zeukis, the latter of whom he attempted to rival. Two of his productions are mentioned by the ancient writers, a painting of a battle and a portrait of Scylla, the latter being celebrated for the accuracy with which the fish accompanying the monster were represented. (Plut., Vit. Pelop., 25.—Plin., 35, 10–Sillig, Duct. Art., s. v.)—II. A physician in the time of Alexander the Great, who, in writing to the king, in condemnation of the use of wine, observed, to quote the Latin version of Pliny, “Vinum poturus rer, memento te bibere sanguinem terra : cicuta hominum venenum est, cicutao vinum.” (Plin., 14, 5.) Androgéus, son of Minos and Pasiphaë. He was famous for his skill in wrestling, and overcame every antagonist at Athens during the contest at the Panathenaic festival, and AEgeus, through envy, sent him against the Marathonian bull, by which animal he was destroyed. According to another account, he was waylaid and assassinated while proceeding to Thebes to attend the games of Laius, and his murderers were the combatants whom he had conquered at Athens, and who were led by envy'to perpetrate the deed. Minos declared war against Athens to revenge the death of his son, and peace was at last reestablished on condition that AEgeus sent yearly seven boys and seven girls from Athens to Crete, to be devoured by the Minotaur. (Vid. Minotaurus.) The Athenians established festivals, by order of Minos, in honour of his son, and called them Androgeia. (Apollod., 3, 15. — Hygin.., Fab., 41. – Virg., AEm., 6, 20.) The whole story of Androgeus is an allegorical one, and has an agricultural reference. Androgeus is the man of the earth, the cultivator ('Avôpáyeog). The Marathonian bull, by whose fire, according to one account (Serv. ad Virg., AEn, 6, 20), he was injured in the conflict, recalls to mind the fire-breathing bulls of Colchis, the land of Æetes, the first man of the earth. Minos, and a new name is given him; Eurygyes (Eüpvyümc), “the far-plougher,” or “the possessor of wide-extended acres” (eipúc and yūm), and it is worth noticing, that, after having been slain, and previous to his new appellation, he was reawakened to life by AEsculapius, or the sun. (Compare Hesych., vol. 1, p. 1332, ed. Alberti, and Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 4, . 107.) p ANdroMXche, a daughter of Eétion, king of Hyo Thebe, in Mysia, married Hector, son of riam, and became the mother of Astyanax. She was equally remarkable for her domestic virtues, and for attachment to her husband. In the division of the prisoners by the Greeks, after the taking of Troy, Andromache fell to the share of Pyrrhus, who carried her to Epirus, where she became the mother of three sons, Molossus, Pielus, and Pergamus. Pyrrhus subsequently conceded her to Helenus, the brother of Hector, who had also been among the captives of the prince. She reigned with Helenus over part of Epirus, and became by him the mother of Cestrinus. (Homer, Il., 6, 22 et 24.—Virg., AEm., 3, 485–Hygin.., Fab., 123.) AND Româchus, I. an opulent Sicilian, father of the historian Timaeus. He collected together the inhabitants of the city of Naxos, which Dionysius the tyrant had destroyed, and founded with them Tauromenium. Andromachus, as prefect of the new city, subsequently aided Timoleon in restoring liberty to Syracuse. (Diod. Sic., 16, 7 et 68.) — II. A general of Alexander, to whom Parmenio gave the government of Syria. He was burned alive by the Samaritans, but his death was avenged by Alexander. (Quant. Curt., 4, 5.) — III. A brother-in-law of Seleucus Callinicus. —IV. A traitor, who discovered to the Parthians all the measures of Crassus, and, on being chosen guide, led the Roman army into a situation whence there was no mode of escape—V. A physician of Crete in the age of Nero: he was physician to the emperor, and inventor of the famous medicine, called after him, Theriaca Andromachi. It was intended at first as an antidote against poisons, but became afterward a kind of panacea. This medicine enjoyed so high a reputation among the Romans, that the Emperor Antoninus, at a later period, took some of it every day, and had it prepared every year in his palace. It consisted of 61 ingredients, the principal of which were squills, opium, pepper, and dried ripers " This absurd compound was in vogue even in modern times, as late as 1787, in Paris. (Galen, de Theriac., p. 470 — Id. de Antidot, lib. 1, p. 4333. — Sprengel, Hist. Med., vol. 2, p. 56.) ANdroMEDA, a daughter of Cepheus, king of Æthiopia, by Cassiope. She was promised in marriage to Phineus, her uncle, when Neptune inundated the coasts of the country, and sent a sea-monster to ravage the land, because Cassiope had boasted herself fairer than Juno and the Nereides. The oracle of Jupiter Ammon being consulted, returned for answer that the calamity could only be removed by exposing Andromeda to the monster. She was accordingly secured to a rock, and expected every moment to be destroyed, when Perseus, who was returning through the air from the conquest of the Gorgons, saw her, and was captivated with her beauty. He promised to dehiver her and destroy the monster if he received her in marriage as a reward. Cepheus consented, and Perseus changed the sea-monster into a rock, by showing him Medusa's head, and unbound Andromeda. The marriage of Andromeda with Perseus was opposed by Phineus, but, in the contest that ensucci, he and his followers were changed to stone by the head of the Gorgon. Andromeda was made a constellation in the heavens after her death. Consult remarks under the article Perseus. (Apollod, 2, 4. — Hygin., Fab., 64.—Manil., 5,533.)
ANDronicus Livius. Vid. Livius.
ANdroNicus, I. a peripatetic philosopher, a native of Rhodes, who flourished about 80 B.C. He arranged and published the writings of Aristotle, which had been brought to Rome with the library of Apellicon. He commented on many parts of these writings; but no portion of his works has reached us, for the treatise Tept tratov, and the Paraphrase of the Nicomachean ethics, which have been published under his name, are the productions of another. The treatise Tepi Tatlov was published by Hoesschel in 1593, in 8vo, and was afterward printed conjointly with the Paraphrase, in 1617, 1679, and 1809. The Paraphrase was published by Heinsius in 1607, 4to, at Leyden, as an anonymous work (Incerti Auctoris Paraphrasis, &c.), and afterward under the name of Andronicus of Rhodes, by the same scholar, in 1617, 8vo, with the treatise Tepi Tatov added to it. The two works were reprinted in this form at Cambridge, in 1679, 8vo, and at Oxford, 1809, 8vo. — II. Cyrrhestes, an astronomer of Athens, who erected, B.C. 159, an octagonal marble tower in that city to the eight winds. On every side of the octagon he caused to be wrought a figure in relievo, representing the wind which blew against that side. H. top of the tower was finished with a conical marble, on which he placed a brazen Triton, holding a wand in his right hand. This Triton was so contrived that he turned round with the wind, and always stopped when he directly faced it, |. with his wand over the figure of the wird at that time blowing. Within the structure was a water-clock, supplied from the fountain of Clepsydra. Beneath the eight figures of the winds lines were traced on the walls of the tower, which, by the shadows cast upon them by styles fixed above, indicated the hour of the day, as the Triton's wand did the quarter of the wind. When the sun did not shine, recourse was had to the water-clock within the tower, which building thus supplied both a vane and a chronometer. The structure still stands, though in a damaged state. To the correctness of the sundials, the celebrated Delambre bears testimony, and he describes the series as “the most curious existing monument of the practical gnomonics of antiquity.” There are two entrances, facing respectively to the northeast and northwest: each of these openings has a portico supported by two columns. When Stuart explored this building, the lower part of the interior was covered to a considerable depth by rubbish; and the dervishes who had taken possession of the building performed their religious rites on a wooden platform which had been thrown over the fragments. All this, however, he was permitted to remove, and he sound manifest traces of a clepsydra or water-clock carefully channelled in the original floor. (Stuart and Rerett's Athens Abridged, p. 8, seqq.—Wordsworth's Greece, p. 146.)
ANDros, an island in the AEgean Sea, cne of the Cyclades, lying to the southeast of the lower extremity of Euboea. It bore also several other appellations, enumerated by Pliny (4, 12). According to this writer, it is ten miles from the promontory of Geraestus, and thirty-nine from Ceos. The Andrians, as we learn from Herodotus (8, 111 and 121), were compelled to join the armament of Xerxes; and, after the irattle of Salamis, they were called upon by Themistocles, at the head of an Athenian squadron, to pay a large sum of money as a contribution: with this demand they declared themselves unable to comply, observing that they were close beset by the two deities; Poverty and Want, which never quitted the island, and Themistocles, after a fruitless attempt to reduce them by force, withdrew to Euboea. We learn, however, from Thucydides (2,55, and 4, 42), that the island was subsequently reduced and rendered tributary to the Athenians. In the Macedonian war, Livy relates (31,45), that the town of Andros was taken by Atta' lus and the Romans. The modern name of the island is the same with the ancient, or else varies from it only in dropping the final letter. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, p. 410.) ANEMoREA, a town of Phocis, mentioned by Homer (Il., 2, 521) in conjunction with Hyampolis, and doubtless in the immediate vicinity of that city, with which it was even sometimes confounded. (Compare the French Strabo, Ecclaireiss., No. 34, vol. 3, Append., p. 154.) Strabo affirms, that it obtained its name from the violent gusts of wind which blew from Mount Catopterius, a peak belonging to the chain of Parnassus. He adds that it was named by some authors Anemolea. (Strabo, 423. — Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 186.) ANGELion, an artist, invariably named in connexion with Tectacus, as his constant associate. It is uncertain whether they excelled chiefly in casting brass or in carving marble. They are supposed by Sillig to have flourished about 548 B.C. Mention is made in particular, by the ancient writers, of a statue of Apollo by these artists. According to Müller, they imitated a very ancient statue of the Delian Apollo, made, as Plutarch states, in the time of Hercules. (Sillig, Duct. Art., s. v.) ANgli, a people of Germany, at the base of the Chersonesus Cimbrica, in the country answering now to the northeastern part of the Duchy of Holstein. From them the English have derived their name. There is still, at the present day, in that quarter, a district called Angeln. (Tacit., Germ., 40. — Vid. Saxones.) ANGRus, a river of Illyricum, pursuing a northern course, according to Herodotus, and joining the Brongus, which flows into the Danube. o 4, 49.) ANGUITIA, or ANgitia, a grove in the country of the Marsi, to the west of the Lacus Fucinus. The name is derived, according to Solinus, from a sister of Circe, who dwelt in the vicinity. It is now Silva d'Albi. (Solin., 8–Serp. ad Virg., AEm., 7, 759.) ANicKtus, I. a son of Hercules by Hebe, the goddess of youth. (Apollod, 2, 7.)—II. A freedman who directed the education of Nero, and became the instrument of his crimes. It was he who encouraged the emperor to destroy his mother Agrippina, and who gave the first idea of the galley, which, by falling on a sudden to pieces, through secret mechanism, was to have accomplished this horrid purpose. (Suet., Wit. Ner.) AN1c1A, Gens, a family at Rome, which, in the flourishing times of the republic, produced many brave and illustrious citizens. AN1c1us Gallus, I. triumphed over the Illyrians and their king Gentius, and obtained the honors of a triumph A.U.C. 585. He obtained the consulship A.U.C. 594, B.C. 150-II. Probus, a Roman consul, A.D. 371, celebrated for his humanity. Axia Rus, a river of Elis, in the district of Triphylia, to the north of Lepraeum. This stream formed into marshes at its mouth, from the want of a fall to carry off the water. The stagnant pool thus created exhaled an odour so fetid as to be perceptible at the distance of twenty stadia, and the fish caught there were so tainted with the infection that they could not be eaten. (Strabo, 346.) Pausanias, however, affirms (5, 5) that this miasma was not confined to the marshes, but could be traced to the very source of the river. It was ascribed to the centaur's having washed the wounds inflicted by Hercules's envenomed shafts in the stream. The Anigrus received the water of a fountain said to possess the property of curing cutaneous disorders. This source issued from a cavern sacred to the Nymphs, called Anigriades. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 3, . 114.) p ANio, a river of Italy, the earlier name of which was Anien, whence comes the genitive Anienis, which is
joined in inflection with the later nominative Anio–.
It rose in the Apennines, near the Sabine town of Treba, and pursued its course at first to the northwest; it then turned to the southeast, and joined the Tiber three miles north of Rome. It is not so full a stream as the Nar, but was considered, however, by the Romans as the most important among the tributaries of the Tiber, and hence received also the appellation of Tiberinus, whence comes by corruption the modern name Tererone. The Anio was regarded as the boundary between Latium and the country of the Sabines, not, however, in a very strict sense, for on the left bank lay Antemna, and Collatia, two Sabine towns, while the Albani and other Latins had founded Fidenae, on the right bank of the Anio, in the Sabine territory. (Mannert, vol. 9, p. 517.) The Anio, in its course, passed by the town of Tibur, the modern Tivoli, where it formed some beautiful cascades, the admiration of the present as well as of former times. Of late, however, the scenery has been marred by an earthquake. It has been doubted by some writers whether there was always a fall of the Anic at Tibur. But, without pretending to examine what change the bed of the river may have undergone in remote ages, we may affirm that, since the days of Strabo, no alteration of consequence has taken place; for that geographer (238) talks of the cataract which the Anio, then navigable, formed there: so also Dionysius of Halicarnassus (5, 37), and several of the poets. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 64.) A Nistorgis, a city of Spain, in the southern part of Lusitania, near Pax Julia, called also Conistorgis. (Mannert, vol. 1, p. 343.) Some have doubted, however, whether these two cities were the same. (Cellarius, Geogr. Ant., vol. 1, p. 77.—Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 389.) ANius, son of Apollo and Rhoeo or Rhoio. He was high-priest of Apollo, and gave Aeneas a hospitable reception when the Trojan prince touched at his island. He had by Dorippe three daughters, OEno, Spermo, and Elaia, to whom Bacchus had given the power of changing whatever they pleased into wine, corn, and oil. When Agamemnon went to the Trojan war, he wished to carry them with him to supply his army with provisions; but they complained to Bacchus, who changed them into doves. Thus far we have given Ovid's account. (Met., 13, 642. — Compare Virg., Æn., 3, 80.) Tzetzes, however, states, that Anius endeavoured to prevail upon the forces of Agamemnon to remain with him nine years, and told them that, in the tenth year, they would take Troy. He promised to nurture them also by the aid of his daughters. Tzetzes cites as his authority the author of the Cyprian epic (ad Lycoph, 570). Creuzer sees in all this an agricultural myth, Rhoeo being the pomegranate, or, in other words, a new Proserpina, and her three children the daughters of the seed. (Symbolik, vol. 4, . 379.) p ANNA, a goddess, in whose honour the Romans in stituted a festival. She was, according to the common account, Anna, the daughter of Belus, and sister of Dido, who, after her sister's death, gave up Carthage to Iarbas, king of Gaetulia, who had besieged the place, and fled to Melita, now Malta. From Melita she proceeded to Italy, and was there kindly received by Æneas. Lavinia, however, conceived so violent a jealousy against her, that Anna, warned in a dream, by Dido, of her danger, took flight during the night, and threw herself into the Numicius, where she was transformed into a Naiad. The Romans instituted a festival, which was always celebrated on the 15th of March, in her honour, and generally invoked her aid to obtain a long and happy life; thence, according to some, the explanation of the epithet Anna Perenna assigned to her after deification. (Ovid, Fast., 3,653.—Sil. Ital., 8, 79, &c.) The key to the different legends relative to Anna Perenna is to be found in the rites and cere.