Obrazy na stronie

fing the Strymonic Gulf; and it commands the only easy communication from the coast of that gulf into the great Macedonian plains, which extend for sixty miles from beyond Melenko to Philippi. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 292, seqq.) AMphis, a Greek comic poet of Athens, contemporary with Plato. His works are lost, though some of the titles of his pieces have reached us. (Consult Schweigh. ad Athen., vol. 9, Inder Auct., s. v.) ANP:lissa, I. a daughter of Macareus, fabled to have given her name to the city of Amphissa-II. The chief city of the Locri Ozolae. We find, from Sorabo, that it stood at the head of the Crissaean Gulf, and Æschines (in Ctes., p. 71) informs us that its distance from Delphi was sixty stadia: Pausanias reckons one hundred and twenty. , Amphissa was said to have derived its name from the circumstance of its being surrounded on every side by mountains. (Aristot, ap. Harpocrat., Ler.—Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Auguaga.) Amphissa was destroyed by order of the Amphictyons, for having dared to restore the walls of Crissa, and to cultivate the ground, which was held to be sacred; and lastly, on account of the manner in which they molested travellers who had occasion to pass through their territory. (Strabo, 419. — AEschin. in Ctes., p. 71, seqq.). At a later period, however, it appears to have somewhat recovered from this ruined state when under the dominion of the AEtolians. In the war carried on by the Romans against this people, they besieged Amphissa, when the inhabitants abandoned the town and retired into the citadel, which was deemed impregnabie. (Lir., 37, 5.) It is generally agreed, that the modern town of Salona represents the ancient Amphissa. Sir William Gell (Itinerary, p. 196) observes, that the real distance between Delphi and Amphissa is seven miles. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 111.) AMphithrotruM, an edifice of an elliptical form, used for exhibiting combats of gladiators, wild beasts, and other spectacles. The word is derived from duos and 9&arpov, from the spectators being so ranged as to see equally well from every side. The first durable amphitheatre of stone was built by Statilius Taurus, at the desire of Augustus. The largest one was begun by Vespasian, and completed by Titus, now called Colisaum, from the Colossus, or large statue of Nero, which Vespasian transported to the square in front of it. It is said to have contained 87,000 spectators, to have been 5 years in building, and to have cost a sum equal to 10 millions of crowns. 12,000 Jews were employed upon it, who were made slaves at the conquest of Jerusalem. Its magnificent ruins still remain. —There are amphitheatres still standing in various dej of perfection, at several other places besides tome—at Pola in Istria, at Nusmes, at Arles, Bourdeaux, and particularly at Verona.-The place where the gladiators fought was called the arena, because it was covered with sand or sawdust to prevent the gladiators from sliding, and to absorb the blood. AMphitrite, a daughter of Nereus and Doris, and the spouse of Neptune. She for a long time shunned the addresses of this deity; but her place of concealment was discovered to Neptune by a dolphin, and the god, out of gratitude, placed this fish among the

stars Amphitrite had, by Neptune, Triton, one of the sea-deities. (Ovid, Metamorph., 1, 14.—Hesiod, Theog.)

AMphitryon, a Theban prince, son of Alcaeus and Hipponome. His sister Anaxo had married Electryon, sting of Mycenae, whose sons were killed in a battle by the Teleboans. (Vid Alcmena.)

AMphitryoni KDEs, a surname of Hercules, as the supposed son of Amphitryon. (Virg. AEm., 8, 103.)

AMPHRVsus, a river of Thessaly, flowing into the Sinus Pagasaeus, above Phthiotic Thebes Near this stream, Apollo, when banished from heaven, fed the flocks of King Admetus. Hence, among the Latin

poets, the epithet Amphrysus becomes equivalent to Apollineus. (Lucan, 6, 367–Virg., AEn, 6,398.) AMPsAGAs, a river of Africa, forming the boundary between Mauritania Caesariensis and Numidia, and falling into the sea to the east of Igilgilis, or Jigel. On a branch of it stood Cirta, the capital of Numidia. The modern name is Wad-ul-Kubar, i. e., the Great River. (Ptol.—Mela, 1, 6–Plan., 5, 3.) AMsANctus, or AMsANcti WAllis Et Lacus, a celebrated valley and lake of Italy, in Samnium, to the southwest of Trivicum. Virgil (Æm., 7, 563) has left us a fine description of the place. The waters of the lake were remarkable for their sulphureous properties and exhalations. Some antiquaries have confounded this spot with the lake of Cutiliae, near Reate; but Servius, in his commentary on the passage of Virgil just referred to, distinctly tells us that it was situate in the country of the Hirpini, which is also confirmed by Cicero (de Div., 1) and Pliny (H. N., 2, 93). The latter writer mentions a temple consecrated to the goddess Mephitis, on the banks of this sulphureous lake, of which a good description is given by Romanelli, taken from a work of Leonardo di Capoa. (Romanelli, vol. 2, p. 351.) The lake is now called Mufiti, and is close to the littie town of Fricento. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 251.) AMULius, son of Procas, king of Alba, and younger brother of Numitor. The crown belonged of right to the latter, but Amulius dispossessed him of it, put to death his son Lausus, and fearing lest he might be dethroned by a nephew, compelled Rhea Sylvia, the daughter of Numitor, to become a vestal, which priest...; bound her to perpetual virginity. Notwithstanding, however, all these precautions, Rhea became the mother of Romulus and Remus by the god Mars. Amulius thereupon ordered her to be buried alive for having violated her vow as a priestess of Vesta, and the two children to be thrown into the Tiber. They were providentially saved, however, by some shepherds, or, as others say, by a she-wolf; and when they attained to manhood, they put to death the usurper Amulius, and restored the crown to their grandfather Numitor. (Ovid, Fast., 3, 67. Liv., 1, 3, seqq.Plut., Vit. Rom., &c.) AMY c1 Portus, a harbour on the Thracian Bosporus, north of Nicopolis, and south of the temple of Jupiter Urius. Here Amycus, an ancient king of the Bebryces, was slain in combat with Pollux. His tomb was covered, according to some, with a laurel, and hence they maintain that the harbour was also called Daphnes Portus. Arrian, however, speaks of a harbour of the insane Daphne near this, which no doubt has given rise to the mistake. (Arrian, Peripl. Euz., p. 25.-Plin., 5, 43.) AMycLAE, I. a city of Italy, in Latium, in the vicinity of Fundi and the Caecubus Ager. It was said to have been of Greek origin, being colonized from the town of Amycla in Laconia. Concerning the destruction of Amyclao, in Italy, strange tales were related. According to some accounts, it was infested and finally rendered desolate by serpents. (Plin., 3, 5, who also quotes Varro to the same effect—Isigon, ap. Sot, de Mir. Font., &c.). Another tradition represented the fall of Amycla as having been the result of the silence enjoined by law on its inhabitants. in order to put a stop to the false rumours of hostile attacks which had been so frequently circulated. The enemy at last, however, really appeared; and, finding the town in a defenceless state, it was destroyed This account is in general acceptation with the poets. (Virg., AEn., 10, 563.—Sil. Ital, 8, 528.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 123.)—II. One of the most ancient cities of Laconia, a short distance to the southwest of Sparta. It was founded long before the ar. rival of the Dorians and Heraclidae, who conquered and reduced it to the condition of a small town. It was, however, conspicuous, even in Pausanias's time, for the number of its temples and other edifices, many of which were richly adorned with sculptures and other works of art. Its most celebrated structure was the temple of the Amyclean Apollo. (Polyb., 4, 9, 3.) Amycla is mentioned by Homer (Il., 2, 584) and Pindar (Pyth., 1, 122. Isthm., 7, 18). Polybius states that Amycla was only twenty stadia from Sparta (Polyb., 5, 18); but Dodwell observes, that SclavoChorio, which occupies its ancient site, is nearly double that distance. (Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 413. – Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 3, p. 213.) Polybius describes the country around Amycla as most bezafifully wooded and of great fertility; which account is corroborated by Dodwell, who says, “it luxuriates in fertility, and abounds in mulberries, olives, and all the fruit-trees which grow in Greece.” AMYcLAs, I. son of Lacedæmon and Sparta, built the city of Amyclas. (Pausan., 3, 1.)—II. The name which Lucan gives to the master of the small twelveoared vessel in which Caesar had embarked in disguise, for the purpose of sailing to Brundisium, and bringing from that place over into Greece the remainder of his forces. A violent wind producing a rough sea, the pilot despaired of making good his passage, and ordered the mariners to turn pack. Caesar, perceiving this, rose up, and showing himself to the pilot according to Plutarch, but, according to Lucan, to Amyclas the master of the vessel, exclaimed, “Go forward, my friend, and fear nothing; thou carriest Caesar and Caesar's fortunes in thy vessel.” The effect of this speech was instantaneous; the mariners forgot the storm and made new efforts; but they were at length permitted to turn about by Caesar himself. (Plut., Wit. Caes.) The noble simplicity of Caesar's reply, as given above by Plutarch, has been amplified by Lucan into tumid declamation. (Pharsal., 5,578, seqq.) AMYcus, son of Neptune by Melia, was king of the Bebryces. He was famous for his skill in boxing with the cestus or gauntlets, and challenged all strangers to a trial of strength. After destroying many persons in this way, he was himself slain in a contest with Poliux, whom he had defied to the combat, when the Argonauts, in their expedition, had stopped for a season on his coasts. (Apoll. Rhod., 2, 1, seqq.—Virg., AEn., 5, 373.) AMyMöNE, I. one of the Danaides, and mother of Nauplius by Neptune. The god produced a fountain, by striking the ground with his trident, on the spot where he had first seen her. Vid. Amymone II. (Propert., 2, 26, 46.-Hygin, Fab., 169.)—II. A fountain of Argolis, called after Amymone the daughter of Danaus. It was the most famous among the streams which contributed to form the Lernean Lake. (Eurip., Phaen., 195.-Pausan., 2, 37.) AMyNTAs, I. was king of Macedonia, and succeeded his father Alcetas, B.C. 547. His son Alexander murdered the ambassadors of Megabyzus for their improper behaviour to the ladies of his father's court. Bubares, a Persian general, was sent with an army to revenge the death of the ambassadors; but he was gained over by rich presents, and by receiving in marriage the hand of a daughter of Amyntas, to whom he had been previously attached. (Herod., 5, 19. — Justin, 7, 3.)—II. Successor to Archelaus, B.C. 399. He reigned only one year, and performed nothing remarkable.—III. The third of the name, ascended the throne of Macedonia B.C. 397, after having dispossessed Pausanias of the regal dignity. He was expelled by the Illyrians, but restored by the Thessalians and Spartans. He made war against the Illyrians and Olynthians, with the assistance of the Lacedæmonians, and lived to a great age. His wife Eurydice conspired against his life; but her snares were seasonably discovered by one of his daughters by a former wife.

Alexander the Great) by his first wife; and by the other he had Archelaus, Aridaeus, and Menelaus. He reigned 24 years. (Justin, 7, 4 et 9.)—IV. Grandson of Amyntas III. He was yet an infant, when Perdiccas his father and his uncle Alexander were slain by the orders of Eurydice their mother. He was, of course, the lawful heir to the crown; but Philip, having in his favour the wishes of the nation, ascended the throne in preference to him. He afterward served in the armies of both Philip and Alexander. Having conspired against the latter, he was put to death. (Justin, 7, 4, seqq.—Id., 12, 7.)—V. One of the de uties sent by Philip of Macedon to the Thebans, B.C. 339, to induce them to remain faithful to his interests. —VI. A general of Alexander's, B.C. 331, sent back to Macedonia to make new levies. (Quint. Curt., 4, 6.—Id., 5, 1.)—VII. Another officer of Alexander's, who went over to Darius, and was slain in attempting to seize upon Egypt. (Quint. Curt., 3, of Son of Arrhabeus, commanded a squadron of cavalry in Alexander's army. He was implicated in the conspiracy of Philotas, but acquitted. (Quint. Curt., 4, 15, &c.)—IX. A king of Galatia, who succeeded Deiotarus. He was the last ruler of this country, which was added to the Roman empire, aster his death, by Augustus.-X. A geographical writer, author of a work entitled X ratuoi, or the Encampments of Alexander in his conquest of Asia. (Athen., 10, 422, b., &c.) It has not come down to us. AMyNtor, king of Ormenium, a city of the Dolo. pians. He put out the eyes of his son Phoenix on a false charge of having corrupted one of the royal concubines. He was slain by Hercules on attempting to oppose the passage of that hero through his territories. (Apollod., 2, 7. —Id., 3, 13. – Compare Homer, Il., 9, 448.) AMy Ricus CAMpus, a plain of Thessaly, in the district of Magnesia, near the town and river of Amyrus. It was famed for its wines. (Polyb., 5, 99.) AMYRT.Eus, an Egyptian leader during the revolution under Inarus. e succeeded the latter. (Herod., 2, 140, and 3, 15.—Thucyd., 1, 110–Diod. Soc., 11, 74.) Ctesias, however, makes him to have been a king of Egypt in the time of Cambyses, whereas the other account places him in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus. As regards this discrepance, consult Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 121. AMYRus, I, a river of Thessaly, in the upper part of the district of Magnesia, and near the town of Meliboea. (Apoll. Rhod., 1, 595.)—II. A city of Thessaly, near the river of the same name. (Schol. in Apoll. Rhod., l.c.) AMystis, a river of India falling into the Ganges. Mannert makes it to be the same with the Patterea, near the modern city of Hurdwar. (Geogr., vol. 5, p. 93.) AMyth RoN, a son of Cretheus, king of Iolcos, by Tyro. He married Idomene, by whom he had Biae and Melampus. After his father's death, he established himself in Messenia. He is said to have given a more regular form to the Olympic games. (Apollod., 1, 9–Heyne, ad loc.)—Melampus is called Amythaamius, from his father Amythaon. (Virg., G., 3, 550.) AMytis, I. a daughter of Astyages, whom Cyrus married. (Ctesias, p. 91.—Consult Bahr, ad loc.)— II. A daughter of Xerxes, who married Megabyzus. and disgraced herself by her licentious conduct. ANKces or ANActes, a name given to Castor ano. Pollux. Their festivals were called Anaceia ('AvaKeia). The Athenians applied the term Anaces ('Avakec) in a general sense to all those deities who were believed to watch over the interests, as well public as private, of the city of Athens: in a special sense, however, the appellation was given to the Dioscuri, on of Attica had derived from them. (Compare Tzetz., ad Il., p. 69.) Spanheim (ad Callim., Hymn, in Jov., 79) and Schelling (Samothr. Gottheit., p. 95) derive the form "Avukes from the Hebrew Enakim. (Deuteron., 1, 28.) The Greek grammarians, on the other hand, have sought for an etymology in their own language, and make the term in question come from dwo, "above,” as expressive of the idea of superiority and dominion. They attach to this name the triple sense of Jeoc, Baau2 etc, and otročeatrótmo. Hence also the adverb divakóc (Herodot., 1, 24. Thucyd., 8, 102), which the scholiasts explain by Tpovom Tukóc Rai ovŽaktukùc. (Compare Eustath., ad Od., 1, 397. — Creuzer's Symbolik, par Gungniaut, vol. 2, p. 305, in notis.) ANAchArsis, a Scythian philosopher, who flourished nearly six centuries before the Christian era. He was the son of a Scythian prince, who had married a native of Greece. #. instructed by his mother in the Greek language, he became desirous of acquiring a portion of §. wisdom, and obtained from the king of Scythia an embassy to Athens, where he arrived in the year 592 B.C., and was introduced to Solon by his countryman Toxaris. On sending in word that a Scythian was at the door, and requested his friendship, Solon replied that friends were best made at home. “Then let Solon, who is at home, make me his friend,” was the smart retort of Anacharsis; and, struck by its readiness, Solon not only admitted him, but, finding him worthy of his confidence, favoured him with his advice and friendship. He accordingly resided some years at Athens, and was the first stranger whom the Athenians admitted to the honours of citizenship. He then travelled into other countries, and finally returned to Scythia, with a view to communicate to his countrymen the information he had received, and to introduce among them the laws and religion of Greece. The attempt was, however, unsuccessful; for the Scythians were not only indisposed to receive them, but it is said that Anacharsis was killed by an arrow, from the king, his brother's, own hand, who detected him performing certain rites in a wood, before an image of Cybele. Great respect, however, was paid to him after death, which is not unusual. Anacharsis was famous for a manly and nervous kind of language, which was called, from his country, Scythian eloquence. The apophthegms attributed to him are shrewd, and better worth quoting than many of the ancient saws, which are often indebted for their celebrity much more to their antiquity than to their wisdom. His repartee to an Athenian, who reproached him with the barbarism of his country, is well known : “My country is a disgrace to me, but you are a disgrace to your country.”. Strabo tells us, from an old historian, that Anacharsis invented the bellows, the anchor, and “he potter's wheel: but this account is very doubtful, as Pliny, Seneca (Epist., 90), Diogenes Laertius, and Suidas, who likewise speak of the inventions ascribed to that philosopher, mention only the last two : while Strabo, moreover, remarks that the potter's wheel is noticed in Homer. (Beckman's History of Inventions, vol. 1, p. 104 — Compare Ritter's Vorhalle, p. 237 and 262.) The epistles which bear the name of Anacharsis, and which were published in Greek and Latin, at Paris, 1552, are unequivocally spurious. They are supposed to have been produced at a later period, in

mitted that he was born at Teos, a city of Ionia, in the early part of the sixth century before the Christian era, and that he flourished in the sixtieth Olympiad From Abdera, to which city his parents had fled from the dominion of Craesus, the young Anacreon betook himself to the court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. Here he was received with great distinction, but subsequently retired to Athens, where he remained in great favour with Hipparchus, who then possessed the power which Pisistratus had usurped. The death of his patron caused him to return to his native city, whence he retired to Abdera on the breaking out of the disturbances under Histiasus. He attained the age of eighty-five years. The time and manner of his death are uncertain, and variously reported: the most popular opinion is, that he died from suffocation, in consequence of swallowing a grape-stone while in the act of drinking. The bacchanalian turn of his poetry is, however, and not without some appearance of reason, supposed by many to be the sole foundation for this tradition. In the poetry generally attributed to him, a great difference, as to quality, is easily discernible, a circumstance which has contributed not a little to strengthen the supposition that the whole is not genuine. Indeed, some critics have not hesitated to affirm, that very few of the compositions which go under his name are to be ascribed to Anacreon. The fragments collected by Ursinus, with a sew others, seem, according to them, to be his most genuine productions. To decide from the internal evidence contained in his writings, as well as from the general tenour of the meager accounts handed down to us, he was himself an amusing voluptuary and an elegant profligate. Few Grecian poets have obtained greater popularity in modern times, for which in England he is indebted to some excellent translations, in part by Cowley, and altogether by Fawkes, not to mention the point and elegance of the more paraphrastic version of Moore.—Of the editions in the original Greek, the most celebrated is the quarto, printed at Rome in 1781, by Spaletti: the most learned and useful is that of Fischer, Lips., 1754 (reprinted in 1776 and 1793 with additions), in 8vo. Other editions worthy of notice are, that of Brunck, Argent., 1778, 16mo (reprinted in 1786, in 32mo and 16mo); that of Gail, Paris, 1799, 4to, with a French version, dissertations, music, &c.; that of Moebius, Halle, 1810, 8vo, and that of Mehlhorn, Glogar., 1825, 8vo. ANActorium, the first town on the northern coast of Acarnania, situate on a low neck of land opposite Nicopolis, of which it was the emporium. (Strabo, 450.) The site is now called Punta, which many antiquaries, however, have identified with Actium : but this is evidently an error. Thucydides reports (1, 55), that Anactorium had been colonized jointly by the Corcyreans and Corinthians. These were subsequently ejected by the Acarnanians, who occupied the place in conjunction with the Athenians. (Thucyd., 4, 49, and 7, 31.—Compare Scymnus, Ch., v. 459.) Anactorium ceased to exist as a town when Augustus transferred its inhabitants to Nicopolis. (Pausan., 7, 23.) ANADyoMīNE ('Avačvouévy, scil. 'Asopoćirm), a celebrated picture of Venus, painted by Apelles, which originally adorned the temple of Æsculapius at Cos. It represented the goddess rising out of the sea (dva

the school of the sophists. (Gorton's Biogr. Dict, évouëvm) and wringing her hair. Augustus transfervol. 1, p. 72.-Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. red it to the temple of Julius Caesar, and remitted to

1, p. 116, seqq.) ANAcium ('Avakeion), a temple at Athens, sacred to Castor and Pollux, and standing at the foot of the Acropolis. It was a building of great antiquity, and contained paintings of Polygnotus and Micon. (Paucan., 1, 18.—Harpocr., s. v. 'Avakeiov.) ANACREoN, a celebrated Greek poet, of whose life little is actually known. It is, however, generally ad

the inhabitants of Cos a tribute of one hundred talents

in return. The lower part of the figure having been injured, no Roman painter could be found to supply it. (Plin., 35, 10.) ANAGNIA, the principal town of the Hernici, situate about thirty-six miles to the east of Rome. It is now Anagni. The fertility of the surrounding country is much commended by Silius Italicus (8, 392). ANAItis, a goddess of Armenia, who appears to be

Anagnia was colonized by Drusus. (Front., de Col.) of Sicily, near Syracuse, now Alfeo. It was a small From Tacitus (Hist., 3,62) we learn, that it was the stream, but is frequently mentioned by the poets. birthplace of Valens, a general of Vitellius, and the They fabled that the deity of the stream fell in love chief supporter of his party. The Latin way was with the nymph Cyane, who was changed into a fount. joined near this city by the Via Praenestina, which ain. (Ovid, Pont., 2, 10, 26.-Met., 5, Fab., 5, &c.) from that circumstance was called Compitum Anag- ANAs, a river of Spain, now the Guadiana. The ninum. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 79, seqq.). modern name is a corruption from the Arabic, Wadi. Ana, i. e., the river Ana. (Plin., 3, 1.)

the same with the Venus of the western nations. She is identical also with the goddess of Nature, worshipped among the Persians. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 27.) The temple of Anaitis, in Armenia, stood in the district of Acilisene, in the angle between the northern and southern branches of the Euphrates. She was worshipped also in Zela, a city of Pontus, and in Comana. (Creuzer, l. c.) As regards the origin of the name itself, much difference of opinion exists. Von Hammer (Fundgr. des Or., vol. 3, p. 275) derives it from the Persian Anahid, the name of the morning star, and of the female genius that directs with her lyre the harmony of the spheres. Ackerblad, on the other hand (Lettre au Cheval. Italinski, &c., Rom., 1817), referring to Clemens Alexandrinus, (Protreptr., 5, p. 57) and Eustathius (ad Dionys. Perieg., v. 845), where mention is made of an 'Aopodirn Tavaic, and a Tavatric, and also to the Phoenician Tavár, asserts, that the true name of the goddess in question was Tavaitic (corrupted in most passages of the ancient writers into 'Avalruc), and that the roet is Tanat, the appellation of an Asiatic goddess, who is at one time confounded with Diana, and at another with Minerva. (Compare also the Egyptian Neith with the article prefixed, A-meith, and 'Aveirug, another form of the name Anaitis, as appearing in Plutarch, Wit. Artarerz., c. 27.) Silvestre de Sacy, however

(Journal. d. Sav. Juullet, 1817, p. 439), in opposition,

to Ackerblad, remarks, that the Persians, most indubitably, call the planet Venus Anahid or Nahid, and that the name Anaitis is evidently derived from this source: he observes, moreover, that Tavaitic is itself a false reading.—The temple of the goddess Analtis had a large tract of land set apart for its use, and a great number of male and female slaves to cultivate it (tepáčovāot). It was famed for its riches, and it was from this sacred edifice that Antony, in his Parthian expedition, carried off a statue of the goddess of solid gold. (Plin., 33, 4.) The commercial relations which subsisted between the Armenians and other countries, caused the worship of Anaitis to be

spread over other lands, and hence we read of its hav-,

ing been introduced into Persia, Media, Bactria, &c. (Compare Strabo, 535, and Heyne, de Sacerdotio Comanensi, in Nov. Comment. Soc. Scient. Gotting., 16, p. 117, seqq.) Artaxerxes Mnemon is said to have been the first that introduced the worship of Anaitis into Susa, Babylon, and Ecbatana. (Clemens Alerandr., Protreptr., p. 57, ed. Potter. Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 26, seqq.) ANAMMREs, a Gallic tribe, in Gallia Cispadana, to

ANAURus, a small river of Thessaly, near the foot of Pelion, and running into the Onchestus. In this stream Jason, according to the poets, lost his sandal. (Apollon. Rhod., 1, 48.) ANAxAgöRAs, I. a monarch of Argos, son of Argeius, and grandson of Megapenthes. He shared the sovereign power with Bias and Melampus, who had cured the women of Argos of madness. (Pausan., 2, 18.)—II. A Grecian philosopher, born at Clazom. ena, Olymp. 70, according to Apollodorus (Diog Laert., 2, 7), a date, however, that is inconsister. with his reputed friendship with Pericles. The state ment commonly received makes him a scholar o Anaximenes, which the widely fluctuating date as signed to the latter renders impossible to refute on chronological grounds: however, the philosophical directions they respectively followed were so opposite, that they cannot consistently be referred to the same school. From Clazomenae he removed to Athens. and here we find him living in the strictest intimacy with Pericles, to the formation of whose eloquence his precepts are said to have greatly contributed. As scholars of Anaxagoras, several highly distinguished individuals have been mentioned, most of them on the sole authority of a very dubious tradition; and only of Euripides the tragedian, and Archelaus the natura:ist, is it certain that they stood with him in the closest relation of intimacy. His connexion with the most powerful Athenians, however, profited him but little: for not only does he seem to have passed his old age in poverty, but he was not even safe from the persecu. tion which assailed the friends of Pericles on the decline of his ascendency. He was accused of impiety towards the gods, thrown into prison, and eventually forced to fly to Lampsacus. Some foundation for the charge of impiety was probably found in his general views, which undoubtedly were far from according with the popular notions of religion, since he regarded the sun and moon as consisting of earth and stone, and miraculous indications at sacrifices as ordinary appearances of nature. He also gave a moral exposition of the myths of Homer, and an allegorical explanation of the names of the gods. Anaxagoras was an old man when he arrived at Lampsacus, and died there soon after his arrival, in the eighty-eighth Olympiad, or thereabout. His memory was honoured by the people of Lampsacus with a yearly festival. In addition to his philosophical labours, Anaxagoras is said to have been well acquainted with several other branches of knowledge. He occupied himself much with mathematics and the kindred sciences, especially

the south of the Po, and at the foot of the Apennines. astronomy, as the character of the discoveries attribu: They occupied what is now a part of the modern Duchy ted to him sufficiently shows. He is represented as of Parma. (Polyb., 2, 32.) having conjectured the right explanation of the moon's ANKPHE, one of the Sporades, northeast of Thera. light, and of the solar and lunar eclipses. His work It was said to have been made to rise by thunder from on nature, of which several fragments have been prethe bottom of the sea, in order to receive the Argo- served, especially by Simplicius, was much known and nauts during a storm, on their return from Colchis. celebrated in ancient times. A full analysis of his The meaning of the fable evidently is, that the island doctrines, as far as they have reached us, is given by was of volcanic origin. Apollonius Rhodius, however Ritter, in his History of Ancient Philosophy, vol. 1, p. (4, 1717), gives a different account, according to which 281, seqq., Orford transl.

the island received its name from Apollo's having appeared there to the Argonauts in a storm. A temple was in consequence erected to him, under the name of AEgletes (Alyāńrec), in the island. (Strabo, 484.) The modern name of the island is Amphio. ANRPus, I. a river of Epirus, near the town of Stratos, mentioned by Thucydides (2,82). — II. A river

ANAxANDER, son of Eurycrates, and king of Sparta. He was of the family of the Agidae. The second Mes, senian war began in his reign. (Herodot., 7, 204. — Pausan., 3, 3.) ANAxANDRIDEs, I, son of Leon, was king of Sparta. Being directed by the Ephori to put away his wife on account of her barrenness, he only so far obeyed as to take a second wife, retaining also the first By his second spouse he became the father of Cleomenes, while the first one, hitherto steril, bore to him, after this, Dorieus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus. (Pausan., 3, 3.)—II. A comic writer, born at Camirus in Rhodes. He was the author of sixty-five comedies. Endowed by nature with a handsome person and fine talents, Anaxandrides, though studiously elegant and effeminate in dress and manner, was yet the slave of passion. It is said (Athenaeus, 9, 16) that he used to tear his unsuccessful dramas into pieces, or send them as waste paper to the perfumers' shops. He introduced upon the stage scenes of gross intrigue and debauchery; and not only ridiculed Plato and the Academy, but proceeded to lampoon the magistracy of Athens. For this attack he is reported by some to have been tried and condemned to die by starvation. (Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 183.) ANAxArchus, a philosopher of Abdera, from the school of Democritus, who flourished about the 110th Olympiad. He is chiefly celebrated for having lived with Alexander and enjoyed his confidence. (AElian, War. Hist., 9,3–Arrian, Erp. Aler., 4, p. 84.—Plut., ad Princ. indoct.) It reflects no credit, however, upon his philosophy, that, when the mind of the monarch was torn with regret for having killed his faithful Clitus, he administered the balm of flattery, saying, “that kings, like the gods, could do no wrong.” This philosopher addicted himself to pleasure; and it was on this account, and not, as some supposed, on account of the apathy and tranquillity of his life, that he obtained the surname of Eiðauovukác, “the Fortunate.” A marvellous story is related of his having been pounded in an iron mortar by Nicocreon, kin of Cyprus, in revenge for the advice which he j given to Alexander, to serve up the head of that prince at an entertainment; and of his enduring the torture with invincible hardness. But the tale, for which there is no authority prior to the time of Cicero, is wholly inconsistent with the character of a man who had through his life been softened by effeminate po The same story is also related of Zeno the leatic. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 435.) ANAxARETE, a young female of Salamis, beloved by Iphis, a youth of humble birth. She slighted his addresses, and he hung himself in despair. Gazing on the funeral procession as it passed near her dwelling, and evincing little emotion at the sight, she was changed into a stone. (Orid, Met., 14, 698, seqq.) ANAxibia, a daughter of Bias, brother to the physician Melampus. She married Pelias, king of Iolcos, by whom she had Acastus, and four daughters, Pisidice, Pelopea, Hippothoe, and Alcestis. (Apollod, 1, 9.) ANAxidAMUs, succeeded his father Zeuxidamus on the throne of Sparta. (Pausan., 3, 7.) ANAxilaus, a Messenian, tyrant of Rhegium. He

was so mild and popular during his reign, that when he died, 476 B.C., he left his infant sons to the care of one of his slaves, named Micythus, of tried integrity, and the citizens chose rather to obey a slave than revolt from their benevolent sovereign's children. Micythus, after completing his guardianship, retired to Tegea in Arcadia, loaded with presents and encomiums from the inhabitants of Rhegium. (Justin, 4, 2. — Diod. Sic., 11, 66–Herod., 7, 170-Justin, 3, 2. Pausan., 4, 23–Thucyd., 6, 5–Herod., 6, 23.) ANAxim ANDER, a native of Miletus, who first taught philosophy in a public school, and is therefore often tpoken of as the founder of the Ionian sect. He was born in the third year of the 42d Olympiad (B.C. 610), and was the first who laid aside the defective method of oral tradition, and committed the principles of natural science to writing. It is related of him that he predicted an * : but that he should have been able, in

the infancy of knowledge, to do what is at this day beyond the reach of philosophy, is incredible. He lived 64 years. (Diog. Laert., 2, 1. — Cic., Acad. Quast., 4, 37.) The general doctrine of Anaximander concerning nature and the origin of things, was, that infinity, rô sirepov, is the first principle in all things; that the universe, though variable in its parts, as one whole is immutable; and that all things are produced from infinity and terminate in it. What this philosopher meant by “infinity” has been a subject of much controversy. If we follow the testimony of Aristotle and Theophrastus, it will appear that he understood by the term in question a mixture of multifarious elementary parts, out of which individual things issued by separation. Mathematics and astronomy were greatly indebted to him. He framed connected series of geometrical truths, and wrote a summary of his doctrine. He was the first who undertook to delineate the surface of the earth, and mark the divisions of land and water upon an artificial globe. The invention of the sundial is also ascribed to him. This, however, has been controverted ; but even if the invention has been wrongfully ascribed to him, he nevertheless seems to have been the first among the Greeks who pointed out the use of the dial. He is said also to have been the first that made calculations upon the size and distance of the heavenly bodies. He believed that the stars are globular collections of air and fire, borne about in their respective spheres, and animated by portions of the divinity; that the earth is a globe in the midst of the universe, and stationary, and that the sun is 28 times larger than the earth. (Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 154, seqq. Ratter, Hist. Anc. Phil., vol. 1, 265, seqq., Oxford trans.) ANAxiMENEs, I. a native of Miletus, born about the 56th Olympiad (B.C. 556). He is usually regarded as the pupil of Anaximander, but this is controverted by Ritter, who sees a striking resemblance between his doctrines and those of Thales. This same writer rejects the birth-date commonly assigned to Anaximenes, and receives that given by Apollodorus, namely, Olymp. 63. Anaximenes taught that the first principle of all things is air, which he held to be infinite or immense. “Anaximenes,” says Simplicius (ad Physic., 1, 2), “taught the unity and immensity of matter, but under a more definite term than Anaximander, callin it air. He held air to be God, because it is diffuse

through all nature, and is perpetually active.” The air

of Anaximenes is, then, a subtile ether, animated with a divine principle, whence it becomes the origin of all beings. In this sense Lactantius (1, 5) understood his doctrine; for, speaking of Cleanthes as adopting the doctrine of Anaximenes, he adds, “the poet assents to it when he sings, "Tum pater omnipotens forcundis imbribus ather,’” &c. (Virg., Georg., 2,325.) Anaximenes is said to have taught, that all minds are air; that fire, water, and earth proceed from it, by rarefaction or condensation ; that the sun and moon are fiery bodies, whose form is that of a circular plate; that the stars, which also are fiery substances, are fixed in the heavens, as nails in a crystalline plane; and that the earth is a plane tablet resting upon the air. . (Plut., Plac. Phil., 1, 17, ; on. o *ść. "o. Enfield's Hist of Philos , vol. 1, p. ... - it it #. "..."; o 203, seqq., Oxford trans.)—II. A native of Lampsacus, and son of Aristocles. He was celebrated for his skill in rhetoric, and was the disciple both of Zoilus, notorious for his hypercriticisms on Homer, and of Diogenes the Cynic. Anaximenes was one of the preceptors of Alexander the Great. He accompanied his illustrious pupil through most of his campaigns, and afterward wrote the history of his reign and that of his father Philip. It is recorded that, during the Persian war, his native city having espoused the cause of Darius, Alexander expressed his determination of punishing the inhabitants

« PoprzedniaDalej »