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ALEXANDER.

of Philip and the dancer Philinna, and Alexander the posthumous son of Alexander and Roxana, as kings, and divided the provinces among themselves, under the name of satraples. They appointed Perdiccas, to whom Alexander, on his deathbed, had given his ring, prime minister of the two kings. The body of Alexander was interred by Ptolemy in Alexandrea, in a golden coffin, and divine honours were paid to him, not only in Egypt, but also in other countries. The sarcophagus in which the coffin was enclosed has been in the British Museum since 1802. The English nation owe the acquisition of this relic to the exertions of Dr. Clarke, the celebrated traveller, who found it in the possession of the French troops in Egypt, and was the means of its being surrendered to the English army. In 1805, the same individual published a dissertation on this sarcophagus, fully establishing its identity.—No character in i. has afforded matter for more discussion than that of Alexander ; and the exact quality of his ambition is to this day a subject of dispute. By some he is regarded as little more than a heroic madman, actuated by the mere desire of personal glory; others, give him the honour of vast and cnlightened views of policy, embracing the consolidation and establishment of an empire, in which commerce, learning, and the arts should flourish in common with energy and enterprise of every description. Each class of reasoners find facts to countenance their opinion of the mixed character and actions of Alexander. The former quote the wildness of his personal daring, the barren nature of much of his transient mastery, and his remorseless and unnecessary cruelty to the vanquished on some occasions, and capricious magnanimity and lenity on others. The latter advert to facts like the foundation of Alexandrea, and other acts indicative of large and prospective views of true policy; and regard his expeditions rather as schemes of discovery and exploration than mere enterprises for fruitless conquest. The truth appears to embrace a portion of both these opinions. Alexander was too much smitten with military glory, and the common selfengrossment of the mere conqueror, to be a great and consistent politician; while such was the strength of his intellect, and the light opened to him by success, that a glimpse of the genuine sources of lasting greatness could not but break in upon him. The fate of a not very dissimilar character in our days shows the nature of this mixture of lofty intellect and personal ambition, which has seldom effected much permanent od for mankind in any age. The fine qualities and efects of the man were, in Alexander, very similar to those of the ruler. His treatment of Parmenio and of Clitus, and various acts of capricious cruelty and ingratitude, are contrasted by many instances of extraordinary greatness of mind. He was also a lover and favourer of the arts and literature, and carried with him a train of poets, orators, and philosophers, although his choice of his attendants of this description did not always do honour to his judgment. He, however, encouraged and patronised the artists Praxiteles, Lysippus, and Apelles; and his munificent presents to Aristotle, to enable him to pursue his inquiries in natural history, were very serviceable to science. Alexander also exhibited that unequivocal test of strong intellect, a disposition to employ and reward men of talents in every department of knowledge. In person this extraordinary individual was of the middle size, with a neck somewhat awry, but possessed of a fierce and majestic countenance.—It may not be amiss, before concluding this sketch, to consider for a moment the circumstances connected with the death of this celebrated leader. His decease has usually been ascribed either to excess in drinking or to poison. Neither of these suppositions appears to be correct. The fever to which he fell a victim (for the Royal Diary whence Arrian has copied his account of the last illness of Alexander, speaks ex

ALEXANDER.

pressly of a violent fever having been the cause of his decease) was contracted very probably in his visit to the marshes of Assyria. The thirst which subsequently compelled him, on a public day, to quit his military duties, proves that this fever was raging in his veins before it absolutely overcame him. The carousals in which he afterward indulged must have seriously increased the disease. Strong men like Alexander have often warded off attacks of illness by increased excitement; but, if this fail to produce the desired effect, the reaction is terrible. It is curious to observe, in Arrian's account of Alexander's last illness, that no physician is mentioned. The king seems to have trusted to two simple remedies, abstinence and bathing. His removal to a summer-house, close to the large cold bath, shows how much he confided in the latter remedy. But the extraordinary fatigues which he had undergone, the exposure within the last three years to the rains of the Pendjab, the marshes of the Indus, the burning sands of Gedrosia, the hot vapours of Susiana, and the marsh miasma of the Babylonian Lakes, proved too much even for his iron constitution. The numerous wounds by which his body had been perforated, and especially the serious injury done to his lungs by an arrow among the Malli, must in some degree have impaired the vital functions, and enfeebled the powers of healthy reaction. (Plut., Wit. Aler.— Arrian, Erp. Aler. Quintus Curtius. Diod. Sic., 17 et 18. Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 151, seqq. Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 195—Williams's Life of Alcrander the Great, p. 346, &c., Am. ed.)—After many dissensions and bloody wars among themselves, the generals of Alexander laid the foundations of several great empires in the three quarters of the globe. Ptolemy seized Egypt, where he firmly established himself, and where his successors were called Ptolemies, in honour of the founder of their empire, which subsisted till the time of Augustus. Seleucus and his posterity reigned in Babylon and Syria. Antigonus at first established himself in Asia Minor, and Antipater in Macedonia. The descendants of Antipater were conquered by the successors of Antigonus, who reigned in Macedonia till it was reduced by the Romans in the time of King Perseus. Lysimachus made himself master of Thrace; and Leonatus, who had taken possession of Phrygia, meditated for a while to drive Antipater from Macedonia. Eumenes established himself in Cappadocia, but was soon overpowered by his rival Antigonus, and starved to death. During his lifetime, Eumenes appeared so formidable to the successors of Alexander, that none of them dared to assume the title of king. ALExANDER IV., son of Alexander the Great and Roxana. He was born aster his father's death, and was proclaimed king while yet an infant, along with Philip Aridaeus, an illegitimate brother of Alexander the Great. Soon after, however, he was put to death, together with Roxana, by Cassander, who thereupon assumed the sovereign power. (Justin, 15, 2) ALEx ANDER W., son of Cassander. He ascended the throne of Macedonia along with his brother Antipater, B.C. 298. Antipater, however, having put to death Thessalonica, their mother, Alexander, in order to avenge his parent, called in the aid of Demetrius, son of Antigonus. A reconciliation, however, having taken place between the brothers, Demetrius, who was apprehensive lest this might thwart his own views on the crown of Macedon, slew Alexander and seized upon the royal authority. (Justin, 16, 1.)

2. Kings of Epirus. Alex ANDER I., surnamed Molossus, was brother of Olympias, and successor to Arybas. He came into Italy to aid the Tarentines against the Romans, and used to say, that while his nephew, Alexander the Great, was warring against women (meaning the ef. feminate nations of the East), he was fighting against mert. (Justin, 17, 3. — Lir., 8, 17, et 27.) As regards the circumstances connected with his death, vid. Acheron II.

Alex ANDER II., son of the celebrated Pyrrhus. To avenge the death of his father, who had been slain at Argos, fighting against Antigonus, he seized upon Macedonia, of which the latter was king. He was soon, however, driven out, not only from Macedonia, but also from his own dominions, by Demetrius, son of Antigonus. Taking refuge, on this, among the Acarnanians, he succeeded, by their aid, in regaining the throne of Epirus. (Justin, 26, 3–Id., 28, 1.— Plut., Wu. Pyrr., 34.)

3. Kings of Syria.

ALExANDER I., surnamed Bala or Balas, a man of low origin, but of great talents and still greater audacity, who claimed to be the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, assumed the name of Alexander, and, being acknowledged by Ptolemy Philometor, Ariarathes, and Attalus, seized upon the throne of Syria. He was

afterward defeated and driven out by Demetrius Nica

tor, the lawful heir ; and, having taken refuge with an Arabian prince, was put to death by the latter. (Justin, 35, 1, seq.)

Alex ANDER II., surnamed Zabina the Slave, a usurper of the throne of Syria. He was the son of a petty trader in Alexandrea, but claimed, at the instigation of Ptolemy VII., to have been adopted by Antiochus VIII. Ptolemy aided him with troops, and Demetrius Nicator was defeated at Damascus, and driven out of his kingdom. A few years after, however, Alexander was himself defeated by Antiochus Grypus, aided in his turn by the same Ptolemy, and put to death. Grypus was son of Demetrius Nicator. (Justin, 39, 1, seq.)

4. Princes of Judaea.

Alex ANDER I., Jannaeus, monarch of Judaea, son of Hyrcanus, and brother of Aristobulus, to whom he succeeded, B.C. 106. He was a warlike prince, and displayed great ability in the different wars in which he was engaged during his reign. Driven from his kingdom by his subjects, who detested him, he took up arms against them, and waged a cruel warfare for the space of six years, slaying upward of 50,000 of his foes. Having at last re-entered Jerusalem, he crucified, for the amusement of his concubines, 800 of his revolted subjects, and at the same time caused their wives and children to be massacred before their eyes. Being re-established on the throne, he made various conquests in Syria, Arabia, and Idumea, and finally died of intemperance at Jerusalem, B.C. 76, after a reign of 27 years. (Josephus, Ant. Jud., 17, 22, &c.)

Alex ANDER II., son of Aristobulus II., was made prisoner, along with his father, by Pompey, but managed to escape while being conducted to Rome, raised an army, and made some conquests. Hyrcanus, son of Alexander Jannasus, being then on the throne, solicited the aid of the Romans, and Marc Antony being sent by Gabinius, defeated Alexander near Jerusalem. After standing a siege for some time in the fortress Alexandreion, he obtained terms of peace; but not long after, having taken up arms for Caesar, who had released his father, he fell into the hands of Metellus Scipio, and was beheaded at Antioch. (Josephus, Antiq. Jud., 14, 13.)

Alexander III., son of Herod the Great, put to death by his father, along with Aristobulus his brother, on false charges brought against them by Pheroras their uncle, and Salome their aunt, (Josephus, Antiq. Jud., 16, 17.)

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6. Individuals.

Alex ANDER, I. tyrant of Pherae in Thessaly, who seized upon the sovereign power, B.C. 368. He was of a warlike spirit, but, at the same time, cruel and vindictive, and his oppressed subjects were induced to supplicate the aid of the Thebans, who sent Pelopidas with an army. The tyrant was compelled to yield; but, having subsequently escaped from the power of the Theban commander, he reassembled an army, and Pelopidas having been imprudent enough to come to him without an escort, the tyrant seized and threw him into prison, whence he was only released on the appearance of Epaminondas at the head of an armed force. By dint of negotiation, he now obtained a truce, but renewed his acts of violence and cruelty as soon as the Thebans had departed. Pelopidas marched against and defeated him, but lost his own life in the action. Stripped upon this of all his conquests, and restricted to the city of Pherae, he no longer dared to carry on war by land, but turned his attention to piracy, and had even the audacity to pillage the Piraeus of main harbour of Athens. He was assassinated at last by his wife Thebe. (Val. Mar., 9, 13.—Corn. Nep, Wit. Pelop.–Pawsan, 6, 5.)—II. Lyncestes, was accused of being one of the conspirators in the plot against Philip of Macedon, which resulted in the death of that monarch. He was pardoned on account of his having been the first to salute Alexander, Philip's son, as king. Not long after, however, he was detected in a treacherous correspondence with Darius, and put to death. (Justin, 11, 2.)—III. Son of Polysperchon, at first a general on the side of Antigonus, after the death of Alexander the Great, and very active in driving out for him, from the Peloponnesus, the garrisons of Cassander. He afterward went over to Cassander, but was assassinated by some Sicyonians, after no long interval of time, at the siege of Dymae.—IV. A famous impostor of Paphlagonia, who lived in the time of Lucian, under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. By his artifices he succeeded in passing himself for a person sent by Æsculapius, and prevailed upon the Paphlagonians to erect a temple to this deity. As the priest and prophet of the god, he ran a long career of deception, a full account of which is given in the Supplement.—W. Severus, a Roman emperor. (Vid. Severus.)—WI. An Athenian painter, whose portrait appears on a marble tablet found at Resina in 1746, and stating the name and country of the artist. The age in which he lived is not known.—VII. A native of Acar. mania. (Vid. Supplement.) — VIII. ACtolus. (Wid. Supplement.)—IX. A commander of horse in the army of Antigonus Doson. (Vid. Supplement.)—X. A son of Marc Antony and Cleopatra. (Vid. Supplement.) —XI. Brother of Molo. (Wid. Supplement.)— XII. A native of Cotyaeum, in Phrygia, or, according to Suidas, of Miletus, who flourished in the second century of our era. He took the name of Cornelius Alexander, from his having been a slave of Corne. lius Lentulus, who gave him his freedom, and made him the instructer to his children. He was surnamed Polyhistor, from the variety and multiplicity of his knowledge. The ancient writers cite one of his works in forty books, each one of which appears to have contained the description of some particular country, and to have had a separate title, such as Alyvirtuaktí, Kaptakti, &c. Pliny often refers to him. It is probable that he was the author of a work entitled Gavuaasov avvayoys, “A collection of wonderful things,” of which Photius speaks as the production of an individual named Alexander, without designating him any farther. This work contained accounts of animals, plants, rivers, &c. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 276, seq.)—XIII. A native of Ægae in Achaia, the disciple of Xenocrates, and, as is thought, of Sosigenes. He was one of the instructers of the Emperor Nero. Some critics regard him as the author of the ALEXANDER.

tommentary on Aristotle, which commonly passes under the name of Alexander of Aphrodisia. (Schöll, Hist. Litt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 156.)— XIV. A native of Aphrodisia in Caria, who flourished in the beginning of the third century. He is regarded as the restorer of the true doctrine of Aristotle, and he is the principal peripatetic, after the founder of this school, who adopted the system of the latter in all its purity, without intermingling along with it, as Alexander of Agas and his disciples did, the precepts of other schools. Ho was surnamed, by way of compliment, 'Eonymric, Exegetes (“the interpreter,” or “expounder”), and became the head of a particular class of Aristotelian commentators, styled “Alexandreans.” He wrote, 1. A treatise on Destiny and Free Agency (IIept Eluapuévng Kai Toi ép' juiv), a work held in high estimaticn, and which the author addressed to the emperors Septimius Severus and Antoninus Caracalla. In it me combats the Stoic dogma, as hostile to free agency, and destructive, in consequence, of all morality. The best edition of this work is that printed at London, in 1658, 12mo. It is inserted also, with new corrections, in the 3d vol. of Grotius's Theological Works, Amst., lö79, fol. 2. A commentary on the first book of the first Analytics of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1489, and 4to, Florent., 1521. Translated into Latin by Felicianus, fol., Venet., 1542. 1546, and 1560. 3. A commentary on the eight books of the Topica, fol., Venet., 1513 and 1526. A Latim translation by Dorotheus, which appeared for the first time in 1524, fol., Venet., has been often reprinted. In 1563, a translation by Rasarius appeared, fol., Venet., which is preferable to the other. 4. Commentaries on the Elenchi sophistici of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1520, and 4to, Florent., 1552. Translated into Latin by Rasarius, Venet., 1557. 5. A commentary on the twelve books of the metaphysics of Aristotle. The Greek text has never been printed, although there are many MS. copies in the Royal Library at Paris, and other libraries. A Latin translation, however, by Sepulveda, appeared at Rome, 1527, in fol., and has been often reprinted. 6. A commentary on Aristotle's work De Sensu, &c., Gr., at the end of Simplicius's commentary on the work of Aristotle respecting the Soul, fol., Venet., 1527. 7. A commentary on the Meteorologica of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1527, and in the Latin of Alex. Picolomini, fol., 1540, 1548, 1575. 8. A treatise trept uíčewc (De Mistione), directed against the dogma of the Stoics respecting the penetrability of bodies, Gr., with the preceding. Two Latin translations have appeared, one by Caninius, Venet., 1555, fol., and the other by Schegk, Tubing., 1540, 4to. 9. A treatise on the Soul, in two books, or, more correctly speaking, two treatises on this subject, since there is little if any connexion between these books. Gr., at the end of Themistius; and in Latin by Donati, Venet., 1502, folio. 10. Physica Scholia, &c. (bvauköv oxoŽíov, dropov, kal Assaeov, But Asa 6’), Gr., fol., Venet., 1536, and in Latin by Bagolinus, Venet., 1541, 1549, 1555, 1589. 11. Problemata Medica, &c., the best Greek edition of which is in Sylburgius's works of Aristotle; this is attributed by some to Alexander Trallianus. 12. A treatise on Fevers; never published in Greek, but translated by Walla, and inserted in a collection of various works, Venetia, 1488. For medical works, rud, the Supplement. — XV. A native of Myndus, quoted by Athenaeus. (Compare Meursius, Bibl., in Thes. Gronov., vol. 10, p. 1208, seqq.) He is supposed by some to be the same with the writer mentioned by Athenaeus under the name of Alexon. (Schweigh., Index Auct. ad Athen.— Op., vol. 9, p. 24, seqq.)—XVI A native of Tralles, who lived in the sixth century, and distinguished himself as a physician. He wrote several treatises on medicine, some of which are extant, and have been published at different times; namely, a Greek edition, fol., Paris,

ALEXANDREA.

1548; a Latin edition among the “Medical artis Principes,” fol., Paris, 1567, &c. Alexander Trallianus is a most judicious, elegant, and original author No medical writer, whether of ancient or modern times, has treated of diseases more methodically than he has done; for, after all the Nosological systems which have been proposed and tried, we can name none more advantageous to the student than the method adopted by him, of treating of diseases according to the part of the body which they affect, beginning with the head and proceeding downward. The same plan is pursued in the third book of Paulus AEgineta, who has copied freely from Alexander. Of the ancient medical writers subsequent to Galen, Alexander shows the least of that blind deference to his authority for which all have been censured: nay, in many instances he ventures to differ from him; not, however, apparently from a spirit of rivalship, but from a commendable love of truth. In his eleventh book, he has given the fullest account of the causes, symptoms, and treatment of gout which is to be met with in any ancient writer; and as it contains many things not to be met with elsewhere, it deserves to be carefully studied. He judiciously suits the treatment to the circumstances of the case, but his general plan of cure appears to have consisted in the administration of purgative medicines, either cathartic salts or drastic purgatives, such as scammony, aloes, and hermodactylus. The last-mentioned medicine was most probably a species of Colchicum Autumnale, which forms the active ingredient of a French patent medicine called L'Eau Medicinale d'Hyssop, much celebrated some years ago for the cure of gout and rheumatism. Dr. Haden lately published a small pamphlet, wherein Colchicum was strongly recommended as an antiphlogistic remedy of great powers. The writers, both Greek and Arabian, subsequent to Alexander Trallianus, repeat the praises bestowed by him upon the virtues of hermodactylus. Demetrius Pepagomenos has written a prosessed treatise to recommend this medicine in gout.— The style of Alexander, although less pointed than that of Celsus, and less brilliant than that of Areta:us, is remarkable for perspicuity and elegance. It must be mentioned with regret, however, as a lamentable instance of a sound judgment being blinded by superstition, that our author had great confidence in charms and amulets. Such weakness is to be bewailed, but need not be wondered at, when we recollect that Wiseman, one of the best English authorities on surgery, had great confidence in the royal touch for the cure of Scrofula. – XVII. Isius. (Wid. Supplement.)— XVIII. Lychnus. (Vid. Supplement.)—XIX. Myndius. (Wud. Supplement.)—XX. Noumenius. (Wid. Supplement.) – XXI. A Greek rhetorician. (Wid. Supplement.) – XXII. Philalethes. (Vid. Supplement.)—XXIII. A. Roman usurper. (Vid. Supplement.)—XXIV. Tiberius. (Wid. Supplement.) ALEXANDREA (less correctly Alexandria, Burmann, ad Propert., 3, 9, 33.—Ursun., ad Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 4, 2, 10.-Fea, ad Horat., Od., 4, 14, 35), the name of eighteen cities, founded by Alexander during his conquests in Asia, among which the most deserving of mention are the following: I. The capital of Egypt, under the Ptolemies, built B.C. 332. It was situate about 12 miles to the west of the Canopic mouth of the Nile, between the Lake Mareotis and the beautiful harbour formed by the Isle of Pharos. It was the intention of its founder to make Alexandrea at once the seat of empire and the first commercial city in the world. The latter of these plans completely succeeded; and for a long period of years, from the time of the Ptolemies to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, the capital of Egypt was the link of connexion between the commerce of the east and west. The goods and other articles of traffic were brought up the Red Sea, and landed at one of three different points. Of these, the first was at the head of the western gulf of the Red Sea, where the canal of Neco conmenced, and where stood the city of Arsinoe or Cleopatris. This route, however, was not much used, on account of the dangerous navigation of the higher parts of the Red Sea. The second point was the harbour of Myos Hormus, in latitude 27°. The third was Berenice, south of Myos Hormus, in latitude 23° 30'. What the ships deposited at either of the last two places, the caravans brought to Coptos on the Nile, whence they were conveyed to Alexandrea by a canal connecting this capital with the Canopic branch. Between Coptos and Berenice a road was constructed by Ptolemy Philadelphus, 258 miles in length. Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, who received Egypt in the general division, improved what Alexander had begun. On the long, narrow island of Pharos, which is very near the coast, and formed a port with a double entrance, a magnificent tower of white marble was erected, to serve as a beacon and guide for navigators. The architect was Sostratus of Cnidus.-The first inhabitants of Alexandrea were a mixture of Egyptians and

Greeks, to whom must be added numerous colonies of Jews, transplanted thither in 336, 320, and 312 B.C.,

to increase the population of the city. It was they who made the well-known Greek translation of the Old Testament, under the name of Septuaginta or the Septuagint.—The most beautiful part of the city, near the great harbour, where stood the royal palaces, magnificently built, was called Bruchion. There was the large and splendid edifice, belonging to the acad

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ing to Rosetta, the southwestern amphitheatre, the obelisk, or needle of Cleopatra, and Pompey's pillar, 88 feet 6 inches high, which, according to an English writer (Walpole's Collection, vol. 1, p. 380), was erected by Pompeius, governor of part of Lower Egypt, in honour of the Emperor Dioclesian. The equestrian statue on the top is no longer standing. (Mannert, 10, pt. 1, p. 611, seqq.—Encyclop. Americ, vol. 1, p. 162, seqq.)—II. A city of Sogdiana, on the river Iax. artes, to the east of Cyropolis. It was founded by Alexander on the farthest limits of his Scythian expedition, and hence it was also called Alexandreschata ('Aześavépéarara, i. e., 'Aześavópewa Śaratn Alexandrea Ultima).-III. A city of Arachosia, near the confines of India; now Scanderie of Arokhage, or Waihend.—IV. A 'city of India, at the junction of the Indus and Acesines; now, according to some, Lahor, but, according to others, Veh.-W. A city in the vicinity of the range of Paropamisus, on the east side of the Coas.—VI. A city of Aria, at the mouth of the river Arius; now Corra.-VII. A city of Carmania, near Sabis—VIII. A city of Gedrosia; now Hormoz, or Houz.-There were several other cities of the same name, called after Alexander, though not founded by him. Among these may be mentioned the following—IX. Troas ('Aześāvópeta i, Tpoão), a city on the western coast of Mysia, above the promontory of Lectum. It was more commonly called Alexandrea; sometimes, however, Troas. (Act. Apost., 16, 8.-Itin. Ant., p. 334.) The place owed its origin to Antigonus, who gave it the name of Antigonia Troas. Af.

emy and Museum, where the greater portion of the ter the fall of Antigonus, the appellation was changed royal library (400,000 volumes) was placed; the rest, to Alexandrea Troas by Lysimachus, in honour of

amounting to 300,000, were in the Serapion, or temple of Jupiter Serapis. The larger portion was burned

Alexander. Antigonus had already increased its population by sending thither the inhabitants of Cebrene,

during the siege of Alexandrea by Julius Caesar, but | Neandria, and other towns; and it received a farther

was afterward in part replaced by the library of Per- increase under Lysimachus.

mus, which Antony presented to Cleopatra. The

useum, where many scholars lived and were supported, ate together, studied, and instructed others, remained unhurt till the reign of Aurelian, when it was destroyed in a period of civil commotion. The library in the Serapion was preserved to the time of Theodosius the Great. He caused all the heathen temples throughout the Roman empire to be destroyed; and even the splendid temple of Jupiter Serapis was not spared. A crowd of fanatic Christians, headed by their archbishop, Theodosius, stormed and destroyed it. At that time, the library, it is said, was partly burned, partly dispersed; and the historian Orosius, towards the close of the fourth century, saw only the empty shelves. The common account, therefore, is an erroneous one. which makes the library in question to have been destroyed by the Saracens at the command of the Calif Omar, A.D. 642, and to have furnished fuel during six months to the 4000 baths of Alexandrea. This narrative rests merely on the authority of the historian Abulpharagius, and has no other proof at all to support it. But, whatever may have been the cause of this disastrous event, the loss resulting to science was irreparable. The Alexandrean library, called by Livy “Elegantia regum curaque egregium opus,” embraced the whole Greek and Latin literature, of which we possess but simple fragments. – In the division of the Roman dominions, Alexandrea, with the rest of Egypt, was comprehended in the Eastern empire. The Arabs possessed themselves of it in 640; the Calif Motawakel, in 845, restored the library and academy; but the Turks took the city in 868, and it declined more and more, retaining, however, a flourishing commerce, until, as has already been remarked, the Portuguese, at the end of the 15th century, discovered a way to the East Indies by sea.—The modern city, called in Turkish Scanderia, does not occupy the site of the old town, of which nothing remains except a portico in the vicinity of the gate lead

Under the Romans it

acquired still greater prosperity, and became one of

the most flourishing of their Asiatic colonies. (Strab, 593–Pliny, 5, 30.) In the Acts of the Apostles i. is simply called Troas, and it was from its port that: St. Paul and St. Luke set sail for Macedonia (16, 11). We are informed by Suetonius (Wit. Caes., 79), that Julius Caesar once had it in contemplation to transfer the seat of empire to this quarter; a plan far from happy, since the port was not large, and the fertility of the surrounding country not at all such as to warrant the attempt. The same idea, however, is said to have been entertained by Augustus. (Faber, Epist., 2, 43–Compare the commentators on Horace, Od., 3, 3.) In a later age, Constantine actually commenced building a new capital here, but the superior situation of Byzantium soon induced him to abandon the undertaking. (Zosimus, 2, 30, p. 151, seqq., ed. Reitemeier. — Compare Zonaras, 13, 3.) Augustus, when he gave over the design just alluded to, still sent a Roman colony to this place, and hence the language used by Strabo (13, p. 594, ed. Casaub.), viv 68 kal 'Paoyuatov drouxtav déðextat. (Compare Plin., 5, 30.-Caius, in leg. 7, dig. de Cens.) The ruins of this city are called by the Turks Eski (Old) Stamboul. (Mannert, 6, pt. 3, p. 473, seqq.—X. Ad Issum (karū "Iagov), a city of Syria, on the coast of the Sinus Issicus, about sixteen miles from Issus in Cilicia. The founder is unknown. The Itin. Hieros. (p. 580) gives it the name of Alexandrea Scabiosa. (Compare Chron. Alexandr., p. 170, where the appellation is given as Gabiosa.) The modern Scanderoon, or Alexandretta, occupies the site of the ancient city. Alex ANDREA ultiMA. Wid. Alexandrea II. Alexandri ARAE, according to some, the limits of Alexander's victories near the Tanais. This, however, is all a mere fable of the ancients, who made Alexander to have crossed the Tanais, and approached what they considered the limits of the world in that quarter. - ALEXANDRINA '80 POLA. (Mannert, 4, p. 159 and 256.7 For the true Alexandri Arae, rid. Hyphasis. Alex ANDRI cast RA (; 'AAeëtivépov topfuð02%), a place in Marmarica, at the Oasis of Ammon, where the Macedonian forces were encamped while Alexander was consulting the oracle. (Ptol.) Alex ANDRI INsula, an island in the Sinus Persicus, on the Persian coast. (Ptol.—Plin., 6, 25.) ALEx ANDRI portus, a harbour of Gedrosia, where the fleet of Nearchus was detained four weeks by adverse winds. (Arrian, Induc., 22.) It was in the immediate vicinity of Eirus Promontorium, or Cape Monce. (Compare Vincent's Commerce of the Ancients, vol. 1, p. 197.) Alex ANDRINA. Aquae, baths in Rome, built by the Emperor Alexander Severus. Alex ANDRINA schola. When the flourishing period of Greek poetry was past, study was called in to supply what nature no longer furnished. Alexandrea in Egypt was made the seat of learning by the Ptolemies, admirers of the arts, whence this age of literature took the name of the Alexandrean. Ptolemy Philadelphus founded the famous library of Alexandrea, the largest and most valuable one of antiquity, which attracted many scholars from all countries; and also the Museum, which may justly be considered the first academy of sciences and arts. (Vid. Alexandrea.) The grammarians and poets are the most important among the scholars of Alexandrea. These grammarians were philologists and literati, who explained things as well as words, and may be considered a kind of encyclopedists. Such were Zenodotus the Ephesian, who established the first grammar-school in Alexandrea, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Aristarchus of Samothrace, Crates of Mallus, Dionysius the Thracian, Apollonius the Sophist, and Zoilus. Their merit is to have collected, examined, reviewed, and preserved the existing monuments of intellectual culture. To them we are indebted for what is called the Alexandrean Canon, a list of the authors whose works were to be regarded as models in the respective departments of Grecian literature. The names composing this Canon, with some remarks upon its claims to attention, will be given at the close of the present article.—To the poets of the Alexandrean age belong Apollonius the Rhodian, Lycohron, Aratus, Nicander, Euphorion, Callimachus, heocritus, Philetas, Phanocles, Timon the Phliasian, Scymnus, Dionysius, and seven tragic poets, who were called the Alexandrean Pleiades. The Alexandrean age of literature differed entirely, in spirit and character, from the one that preceded. Great attention was paid to the study of language; correctness, purity, and elegance were cultivated; and several writers of this period excel in these respects. But that which no study can give, the spirit which filled the earlier poetry of the Greeks, is not to be found in most of their works. Greater art in composition took its place; criticism was now to perform what genius had accomplished before. But this was impossible. Genius was the gift of only a few, and they soared far above their contemporaries. The rest did what may be done by criticism and study; but their works are tame, without soul and life, and those of their disciples, of course, still more so. Perceiving the want of originality, but appreciating its value, and striving af. ter it, they arrived the sooner at the point where poetry is lost. Their criticism degenerated into a disposition to find fault, and their art into subtilty. They seized on what was strange and new, and endeavoured to adorn it with learning. The larger part of the Alcxandreans, commonly grammarians and poets at the same time, are stiff and laborious versifiers, without genius.—Besides the Alexandrean school of poetry, one of philosophy is also spoken of, but the expression is not to be understood too strictly. Their dis

ALEXANDRINA SCHOLA.

tinguishing character arises from this circumstance, that, in Alexandrea, the eastern and western philosophy met, and an effort took place to unite the two systems; for which reason the Alexandrean philosophers have often been called Eclectics. This name, however, is not applicable to all. The new Platonists form a distinguished series of philosophers, who, renouncing the skepticism of the New Academy, endeavoured to reconcile the philosophy of Plato with that of the East. The Jew Philo, of Alexandrea, belongs to the earlier New Platonists. Plato and Aristotle were diligently interpreted and compared in the 1st and 2d centuries after Christ. Ammonius the Peripatetic belongs here, the teacher of Plutarch. But the real New Platonic school of Alexandrea was established at the close of the 2d century after Christ by Ammonius of Alexandrea (about 193 A.D.), whose disciples were Plotinus and Origen. Being for the most part Orientals, formed by the study of Greek learning, their writings are strikingly characterized, e.g., those of Ammonius Saccas, Plotinus, Iamblicus, Porphyrius, by a strange mixture of Asiatic and European elements, which had become amalgamated in Alexandrea, owing to the mingling of the eastern and western race in its population, as well as to its situation and commercial intercourse. Their philosophy had a great influence on the manner in ... Christianity was received and taught in Egypt. The principal Gnostic systems had their origin in Alexandrea. The leading teachers of the Christian catechetical schools, which had risen and flourished together with the eclectic philosophy, had imbibed the spirit of this philosophy. The most violent religious controversies disturbed the Alexandrean church, until the orthodox tenets were established in it by Athanasius in the controversy with the Arians. – Among the scholars at Alexandrea are to be found great mathematicians, as Euclid, the father of scientific geometry; Apollonius of Perga in Pamphylia, whose work on Conic Sections still exists; Nicomachus, the first scientific arithmetician; astronomers, who employed the Egyptian hieroglyphics for marking the northern hemisphere, and fixed the images and names (still in use) of the constellations; who left astronomical writings (e. g., the Phaenomena of Aratus, a didactic poem, the Sphaerica of Menelaus, the astronomical works of Eratosthenes, and especially the Magna Syntaxis of the geographer Ptolemy), and made improvements in the theory of the calendar, which were afterward adopted into the Julian calendar: natural philosophers, anatomists, as Herophilus and Erasistratus: physicians and surgeons, as Demosthenes Philalethes, who wrote the first work on diseases of the eye; Zopyrus and Cratevas, who improved the art of pharmacy and invented antidotes: instructers in the art of medicine, to whom Asclepiades, Soranus, and Galen owed their education : medical theorists and empirics, of the sect founded by Philirus. All these belonged to the numerous associations of scholars continuing under the Roman dominion, and favoured by the Roman emperors, which rendered Alexandrea one of the most renowned and influential seats of science in antiquity.—The best work on the learning of Alexandrea is the prize-essay of Jacob Matter; Essai Historique sur l’Ecole d’Alexandrie, Paris, 1819, 2 vols. (Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 164, seqq.) — We alluded, near the commencement of the presentarticle, to the literary Canon, settled by the grammarians of Alexandrea. We will now proceed to give its details, after some prefatory remarks respecting its merits. The canon of classical authors, as it has been called, was arranged by Aristophanes of Byzantium, curator of the Alexandrean library, in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes; and his celebrated disciple Aristarchus. The daily increasing multitude of books of every kind had now become so great, that there was no expression, however faulty,

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