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839. Richerand, Nouveaux Elémens de Physiologie, 8vo, 2 vols., Paris, 1825 (9th edition). Rio, L'Histoire de l'Esprit Humain dans l’Antiquité, 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1829. Ritter, C., Die Erdkunde, &c., 2 vols. 8vo, Berlin, 1817. —, -— —, -, vol. 1, Berlin, 1822 (2d edition). —, Die Stupa's (Topes) und die Colosse von Bamiyan, 12mo, Berlin, 1838. , Die Vorhalle Europaischer Volkergeschichten, &c., 8vo, Berlin, 1820. , H., Geschichte der Philosophie, 8vo, 4 vols., Hamburg, 1836–39, 2d edit. —, Geschichte der Pythagorischen Philosophie, 8vo, Hamburg, 1826. , History of Ancient Philosophy, translated by Morrison, 3 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1838–9. Rolle, Recherches sur le Culte de Bacchus, 8vo, 3 vols., Paris, 1824. , Religions de la Grèce, 8vo, vol. 1, Chatillon-surSeine, 1828. Rollin, Histoire Romaine, 3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1838. , Ancient History, 8vo, New York, 1839. Romanelli, Viaggio a Fo &c., 12mo, 2 vols., Napoli, 1817. Rome in the Nineteenth Century, 12mo, 2 vols., NewYork, 1827. Rosenkranz, Handbuch einer Geschichte der Poesie, 2 vols. 8vo, Halle, 1832. Rosenmuller, Biblical Geography of Central Asia, translated by N. Morren, 2 vols. 12mo, Edinburgh, 1836. ——, Scholia in Vetus Testamentum, 18 vols. 8vo, Lipsiae, 1822. —, Scholia in Novum Testamentum, 8vo, 5 vols., Norimbergae, 1808. Rosini, Antiquitates Romanae cura Dempster, 4to, Amstel, 1685. Rotteck, Allgemeine Geschichte, 9 vols. 8vo, Freyburg, 1832–4.

LIST OF WORKS, ETC.

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, Introduction to the Dialogues of Plato, translated by Dobson, 8vo, London, 1836. Schlichthorst, Geographia Africa. Herodoteae, 12mo, Gottingae, 1788. Schmieder, Lehrbuch der alten Erdbeschreibung, 12mo, Berlin, 1802. Scholl, Histoire de la Littérature Grecque, 8vo, 8 vols., Paris, 1823–25. , Histoire abrégée de la Littérature Romaine, 8vo, 4 vols., Paris, 1815. , Histoire abrégée de la Littérature Grecque sacrée, 8vo, Paris, 1832. , Geschichte der Griechischen Litteratur, aus dem Franzosischen ubersetzt von Schwarze und Pinder, 3 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1828–30. Schwenck, Etymologisch-Mythologische Andeutungen, &c., 8vo, Elberfeld, 1823. Selden, De anno civili veterum Judaeorum, 12mo, Lugd. Bat., 1683. Seyfarth, Rudimenta Hieroglyphices, 4to, Lipsiae, 1826. ——, Brevis defensio, § Lipsiae, 1827. , Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Litteratur, &c., des alten Ægypten, 4to, heft. 1, Leipzig, 1826. Sharp, Early History of Egypt, 4to, London, 1836. , History of the Ptolemies, 4to, London, 1838. Sidharubam, seu Grammatica Samscrqamica, cui accedit Dissertatio Historico-Critica in Linguam Samscrdamicam, 4to, Romae, Congr. de Prop. Fid., 1790. Sigonius, Fasti Consulares, 12mo, Oxonii, 1801. Sillig, Dictionary of the Artists of Antiquity, translated by Williams, 8vo, London, 1837. Simon, Die Bewohner des linken Rheinusers, Koln, 8vo, 1833. Sismondi, Fall of the Roman Empire, 8vo, Philad., 1835. Spangenberg, de veteris Latii religionibus domesticis, 4to, Gotting., 1806. Spanheim, Introductio ad Geographiam Sacram, 12mo, Ultrajecti, 1696. —, Orbis Romanus, 8vo, London, 1703. Spence, Origin of the Laws and Institutions of Modern Europe, 8vo, London, 1826. Spohn, Commentatio de extrema Odyssea parte, 8vo, Lips., 1816. Sprengel, Histoire de la Médecine, 8vo, 9 vols., Paris, 1815.

Stahr, Aristotelia, 2 vols. 8vo, Halle, 1833. Stieglitz, Archaeologische Unterhaltungen, 8vo, Leipzig. 1820.

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Walery, Voyage Historique et Litteraire en Italie, 8vo, Brux., 1835. Wan Heusde, Initia philosophiae Platonicae, 5 parts 8vo, Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1827–36. , Characterismi principum philosophorum veterum, Socratis, Platonis, Aristotelis, 8vo, Amsterdam, 1839. Viaggi di Petrarca, in Francia, in Germania, ed in Italia, 8vo, 5 vols., Milano, 1820. Vico, Principes de la philosophie de l’Histoire, 2 vols. 12mo, Brux., 1835. Vincent, Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients, &c., 4to, 2 vols., London, 1807. o Vol. 1, Voyage of Nearchus. Vol. 2, Periplus. Wirey, Histoire Naturelle du Genre Humain, 12mo, 3 vols., Bruxelles, 1827. Wisconti, E. Q., Iconografia Greca, 8vo, 7 vols., Milano, 1823.

, Iconografia Romana, 3 vols. 8vo, Milano,

1818. --, Museo Pio-Clementino, 8vo, 3 vols., Milano, 1818. —, Opere Warie, 3 vols. 8vo, Milano, 1817. , F. A., Museo Charamonti, 8vo, Milano, 1820.

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Wachler, Handbuch der Geschichte der Litteratur, 8vo, 4 vols., Frankfurt, 1822. Wachsmuth, Hellenische Alterthumskunde, 4 vols. 8vo, Halle, 1826–30. —, Historical Antiquities of the Greeks, translated by Woolrich, 2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1837. Wagner, Die Tempel und Pyramiden der Urbewohner, auf dem rechten Elbufer, 8vo, Leipzig, 1828. Wahl, Vorder und Mittel Asien, 8vo, Leipzig, 1795. Walch, Historia Critica Linguae Latinae, 12mo, Lips., 1716. Walker, Analysis of Female Beauty, London, 1836, 8vo. Walpole, Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey, &c., 4to, 2 vols., London, 1818. Walsh, Essay on Ancient Coins, &c., 12mo, Lond., 1828. , Narrative of a Journey from Constantinople to England, 12mo, London, 1831 (4th edition). Weber, Illustrations of Northern Antiquities, 4to, Edinburgh, 1814. Weisse, Darstellung der Griechischen Mythologie, 8vo, vol. 1, Leipzig, 1828. Welcker, Der Epische —, AEschylische —, Nachtrag zu der Schrist uber die AEschylische Trilogie, 8vo, Frankfort, 1826. —, Die Griechischen Tragodien, 2 vols. 8vo, Bonn, 1839. ——, Ueber eine Kretische Kolonie in Theben, 8vo, Bonn, 1824. Wells, Sacred Geography, 4to, Charlestown, 1817. Westminster Review, 17 vols. 8vo, Westminst., 1824–33. Wharton, Works of Virgil, 4 vols. 8vo, London, 1753. Whiter, Etymological Dictionary, 4to, 3 vols., Camb., 1822.

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Wilkinson, Topography of Thebes, 8vo, London, 1835. —, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1837. Williams, Life of Alexander the Great, 12mo, NewYork, 1837. —, Essays on the Geography of Ancient Asia, 8vo, London, 1829. Winckelmann, Werke, 8vo, 9 vols., Dresden, 1808. —, Monumenti Antichi inediti, fol., 3 vols., Roma, 1821. Wiseman, Lectures on Science and Revealed Religion, 8vo, Andover, 1837. Witsius, AEgyptiaca, 4to, Bas., 1739. Wolf, Analecta, 8vo, 2 vols., Berlin, 1820. Wordsworth, Pictorial History of Greece, 8vo, London, 1839. Wurm, De Ponderum, &c., rationibus apud Romanos et Graecos, 8vo, Stuttgard, 1821. Wyttenbach, Opuscula, 2 vols. 8vo, Lugd. Bat., 1821. —, Epistolae Selectae, 8vo, Gandavi, 1830. , Lectiones Quinque, 8vo, Gandavi, 1824.

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ABAE, a city of Phocis, near and to the right of Elatea, towards Opus. The inhabitants had a tradition that they were of Argive descent, and that their city was founded by Abas, son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, grandson of Danaus (Paus. 10, 35). It was most probably of Thracian, or, in other words, Pelasgic origin. Abae was early celebrated for its oracle of Apollo, of greater antiquity than that at Delphi (Steph. B.). In later days, the Romans also testified respect for the character of the place, by conceding important privileges to the Abaeans, and allowing them to live under their own laws (Paus. l.c.). During the Persian invasion, the army of Xerxes set fire to the temple, and nearly destroyed it; soon after it again gave oracles, though in this dilapidated state, and was consulted for that purpose by an agent of Mardonius (Herod. 8, 134). In the Sacred war, a body of Phocians having fled to it for refuge, the Thebans burned what remained of the temple, o at the same time, the suppliants (Diod. S. 16,58). Hadrian caused another temple to be built, but much inferior in size. The city possessed also a forum and a theatre. Ruins are pointed out by Sir W. Gell (Itin. 266) near the modern village of Exarcho. ABAEus, a surname of Apollo, derived from the town of Aba in Phocis, where the god had a rich temple. (Hesych, s. v. 'Abat.—Herod. 8, 33.) AbacAENUM, a city of the Siculi, in Sicily, situated on a steep hill southwest of Messana. Its ruins are supposed to be in the vicinity of Tripi. Being an ally of Carthage, Dionysius of Syracuse wrested from it art of the adjacent territory, and founded in its vicinity the colony of Tyndaris (Diod. S. 14, 78, 90). Ptolemy calls this city 'Abūkauva, all other writers 'Abakaivov. According to Bochart, the Punic appelation was Abacin, from Abac, “extollare,” in reference to its lofty situation. (Cluver. Sic. Ant. 2,386.) ABKlus. Vid. Basilia. ABANTEs, an ancient people of Greece, whose origin is not ascertained; probably they came from Thrace, and having settled in Phocis, built the city Abao. From this quarter a part of them seem to have removed to Euboea, and hence its name Abantias, or Abantis (Strabo, 444). Others of them left Euboea, and settled for a time in Chios (Paus. 7, 4); a third band, returning with some of the Locri from the Trojan war, were driven to the coast of Epirus, settled in part of Thesprotia, inhabited the city Thronium, and gave the name Abantus to the adjacent territory (Paus. 5, 22). The Thracian origin of the Abantes is contested by Mannert (8,246), though supported, in some degree, by Aristotle, as cited by Strabo. They had a custom of cutting off the hair of the head before, and suffering it to grow.long behind (Il. 2, 542). Plutarch (Wit. Thes. 5) states, that they did this to prevent the enemy, whom they always boldly fronted, from seizing

A BA

them by the fore part of their heads. The truth is, they wore their hair long behind as a badge of valour, and so the scholiast on Homer means by dwópeiac 2.4pty. The custom of wearing long hair characterized many, if not all of the warlike nations of antiquity; it prevailed among the Scythians, who were wont also to cut off the hair of their captives as indicative of slavery (Hesych. —Bayeri Mem. Scyth. in comment. Acad. Petr. 1732, p. 388); and also among the Thracians, Spartans, Gauls (Galli comati), and the early Romans (intonsi Romani). As to the origin of this custom among the Spartans, Herodotus (1,82) seems to be in error, in dating it from the battle of Thyrea, since Xenophon (Lac. Pol. 11, 3) expressly refers it to the time of Lycur. gus (Plut. Wit. Lys: 1). The practice of scalping, which, according to Herodotus (4, 64), existed amon the ancient Scythians (Casaub, ad Athen. 524), an is still used by the North American Indians, appears to owe its origin to this peculiar regard for the hair of the head. The greatest trophy for the victor to gain, or the vanquished to lose, would be a portion of what each had regarded as the truest badge of valour, and the skin of the head would be taken with it to keep the hair together. On the other hand, shaving the head was a peaceful and religious custom, directly opposed to that just mentioned. It was an indispensable rite among the priests of Egypt (Herod. 2, 36); and even the deities in the hieroglyphics have their heads without hair. Hence, too, may be explained what is said of the Argippaei, or Bald-headed Scythians (Herod. 4, 23). No one offered violence to them ; they were accounted sacred, and had no warlike weapons. Were they not one of those sacerdotal colonies which, migrating at a remote period from India, spread themselves over Scythia, and a large portion of the farther regions of the West? AbANti KDEs, a masculine patronymic given to the descendants of Abas, king of Argos, such as Acrisius, Perseus, &c. (Ovud, Met. 4, 673.) AbANTIAs, I. one of the ancient names of Euboea. (Vid. Abantes.) Strabo (444) calls it Abantis.-II. A female patronymic from Abas, as Danaë, Atalanta, &c. ABANTipas, a tyrant of Sicyon, in the third century B.C. He seized upon the sovereign power, after having slain Clinias, who was then in charge of the administration. Clinias was the father of the celebrated Aratus, and the latter, at this time only seven years of age, narrowly escaped sharing the fate of his parent. (Plut. Wit. Arat. 2.) AbANtis. Wid. Abantias II. ABXRIs, I. a Scythian, or Hyperborean, mentioned by several ancient writers. Iamblichus states that Abaris was a disciple of Pythagoras, and performed many wonders with an arrow received from #: (Wit. Pythag., p. 28, ed. Kuster.) Herodotus informs us (4, 36) that he was carried on this arrow over the

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whole earth without tasting food. But there are strong doubts as to the accuracy of the text given by Wesseling and Valckenaer. The old editions read & Tov Čiarov repuéope očov atteóuevoc, which agrees with the account given in the Fragment of Lycurgus cited by Eudocia (Willois. Anced. 1, 20), where he is said to have traversed all Greece, holding an arrow as the symbol of Apollo. The time of his arrival in Greece is variously given (Bentl. Phal. 95). Some fix it in the 3d Olympiad (Harpocr—Sutd.), others in the 21st, others much lower. One authority is weighty ; Pindar, as cited by Harpocration, states that Abaris came to Greece while Croesus was king of Lydia. An extraordinary occasion caused his visit. The whole earth was ravaged by a pestilence ; the oracle of Apollo, being consulted, gave answer that the scourge would only cease when the Athenians should offer up vows for all nations. Another account makes him to have left his native country during a famine (Willois. Anced. l. c.). He made himself known throughout Greece as a performer of wonders; delivered oracular responses (Clem. Aler. Str. 399); healed maladies by charms or exorcisms (Plato, Charm. 1, 312, Bekk.); drove away storms, pestilence, and evils. His oracles are said to have been left in writing (Apollon. Hist. Comment, c. 4. Compare Schol. Aristophan. p. 331, as emended by Scaliger). The money obtained for these various services, Abaris is said to have consecrated, on

his return, to Apollo (Iambl. V. P. 19), whence Bayle

concludes, that the collecting of a pious contribution formed the motive of his journey to Greece (Dict, Hist. et Crit. 1, 4). He formed also a Palladium out of the bones of Pelops, and sold it to the Trojans (Jul. Firmicus, 16). Modern opinions vary: Brucker (Hist. Phil. 1, 355–Enfield, 1,115) regards him as one who, like Empedocles, Epimenides, Pythagoras, and others, went about imposing on the vulgar by false pretensions to supernatural powers; and Lobeck (Aglaoph. vol. i., p. 313, scq.) is of the same opinion. Creuzer (Symb. 2, 1,267) considers Abaris as belonging to the curious chain of connexion between the religions of the North, and those of Southern Europe, so distinctly indicated by the o offerings sent to Delos from the country of the Hyperboreans. The same writer then cites a remarkable passage from the Hualmarsaga : “From Greece came Abor and Samolis, with many excellent men; they met with a very cordial reception; their servant and successor was Herse of Glisisvalr.” The allusion here is evidently to Abaris and Zamolxis; and if this passage be authentic, Abaris would have been a Druid of the North, and the country of the Hyperboreans the Hebrides. The doctrines of the Druids, as well as those of Zamolxis, resemble the tenets of the Pythagorean school, and in this way we may explain that part of the story of Abaris which connects him with Pythagoras (Origen. Philos. 882, 906, ca. de la Ruc.—Chardon de la Rochette, Melang. de Crit. vol. i., p. 58.) Unfortunately, the Saga of Hialmar is by the ablest critics of the North considered a forgery (Müller's Sagabibl. 2,663). Still, other grounds have been assumed for making Abaris a Druidical priest; and the opinion is maintained by several writers (Toland's Misc. Works, 1, 181— Higgins' Celtic Druids, 123–Southern Rer. 7, 21). One argument is derived from Himerius (Phot. Bill. vol. ii., p. 374, ed. Bekker), that he travelled in Celtic costume; in a plaid and pantaloons. Creuzer, after some remarks on this history, indulges in an ingenious speculation, by which Abaris becomes a personification of writing, and the doctrines communicated by it, as well as the advantages resulting from these doctrines, and from science or wisdom in general. As the Runic characters of the North are here referred to, a part of his argument rests on the etymology of “Rui nic,” rinnen, runen, “to run,” “to move rapidly along.” This, together with the arrow-like form of most of

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them, will make Abaris, travelling on his arrow, to be him that moves rapidly along, Runa, the scribe, prophet, deliverer; and, at the same time, the personification of writing, as the source of all knowledge, and of safety to man. Thus the legend of Abaris may mark the propagation of writing from the summits of Caucasus, for spreading civilization as well to the Greeks, as the nations of the North. For other speculations, compare Muller (Dorter, 1,364) and Schwenk (Etymol-Myth. Andeut. 358), who see in Abaris the god himself, Apollo'Agapeto or 'Agaioc, “luminous,” under the Macedonian form 'Asapic, become his own priest (Creuzer, 2, i. 269).-II. A city of Egypt, called also Araris ('Atapu, or Atapuc). Manetho places it to the east of the Bubastic mouth of the Nile, in the Saltic Nome (Joseph. c. Ap. 1, 14). Mannert identifies it with what was afterward called Pelusium ; for the name Abaris disappeared, when the shepherd-race retired from Egypt, and the situation of Pelusium coincides sufficiently with the site of Abaris, as far as authorities have roched us. Manetho, as cited by Josephus, says, that Salatis, the first shepherd-king, finding the position of Abaris well adapted to his purpose, rebuilt the city, and strongly fortified it with walls, garrisoning it with a force of 240,000 men. To this city Salatis repaired in summer time, in order to collect his tribute, and to pay his troops, and to exercise his soldiers with the view of striking terror into foreign states. Manetho also informs us, that the name of the city had an ancient theological reference (kazov.uévov 6' diró rivoc dpraiac Geozoyiac Atapu). Other writers make the term Abaris denote “a pass,” or “crossing over,” a name well adapted to a stronghold on the borders. Compare the Sanscrit upari (over, above), the Gothic ufar, the Old High German ubar, the Persian eber, the Latin super, the Greek iTép, &c. ABARNIs, or -us, I. a name given to that part of Mysia in which Lampsacus was situate. Venus, according to the fable, here disowned (ormovicaro) her offspring Priapus, whom she had just brought forth, being shocked at his deformity. Hence the appellation. The first form Aparnis, was subsequently altered to Abarnis (Steph. B.)—II. A city in the above-mentioned district, lying south of Lampsacus (Steph. B.). ABAs, I. or Abus, a mountain of Armenia Major; according to D'Anville, the modern Abi-dag, according to Mannert (5, 196), Ararat; giving rise to the southern branch of the Euphrates. (Wid. Arsanias.)—II. A river of Albania, rising in the chain of Caucasus, and falling into the Caspian Sea. Ptolemy calls it Albanus. On its banks Pompey defeated the rebellious Albanians (Plut. Wit. Pomp. 35)—III. The 12th king of Argos. (Wid. Supplement.)—IV. A son of Metaneira, changed by Ceres into a lizard for having mocked the goddess in her distress. Others refer this to Ascalaphus.-W. A. Latin chief who assisted AEneas against Turnus, and was killed by Lausus. (AEn. 10, 170, &c.) —VI. A soothsayer, to whom the Spartans erected a statue for his services to Lysander, before the battle

of AEgospotamos. He is called by some writers Hagias ("Aytaç). An AscANtus. Vid. Supplement.

AbAsītis, a district of Phrygia Epictetus, in the vicinity of Mysia; in it was the city oAncyra, and here, according to Strabo (576), the Macestus or Megistus arose.

ABXTos. Vid. Philae.

Abd aloniMus, one of the descendants of the kings of Sidon, so poor that, to maintain himself, he worked in a garden. When Alexander took Sidon, he made him king, and enlarged his possessions for his disinterestedness. (Justin, 11, 10–Curt. 4, 1.) Diodorus Siculus (17,46) calls him Ballonymus, a corruption of the true name as given by Curtius and Justin. Wesseling (ad. Diod. S. l.c.) considers the word equivalent, in the Phoenician tongue, to Abd-al-anim, “Ser

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