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selves from all connection with the whites, the Haitians renounced their allegiance to the Pope, and therefore the Emperor is the spiritual as well as temporal head of the nation. The Pope having no power or voice in the management of affairs among them, priests of the most desperate and disreputable character have swarmed to the island, who instead of laboring to reform and improve the morals of the people are largely responsible for the prevailing corruption. The government has to keep a sharp and constant look-out for them, and pass laws to keep them from the most scandalous outrages upon morality. The following document, issued by one of Soulouque's ministers, a zealous Catholic, the judicial officer highest in authority upon the island, I translate from “ Le Moniteur Haitian,” the government paper which circulates throughout the island.
citizens, is inconsistent with a society properly constituted. That it may continue no longer, I charge you to hare an eye continually upon the curules of your respective parishes, and to report (dénoncer) to me every violation of this statute which they may commit, that it may not be unpunished.
• They are forbidden hereafter to engage in commercial affairs of any kind, and to retain at the parsonages or in their dwellings, in any capacity whatever, young females, unless they are of an age not to be suspected.
“You will give earnest attention to these instructions and acquaint me of their reception. “I salute you with consideration.
“ J. B. FRANCISQUE.” With such priests to mould the morals of the people, it is easy to judge what those morals must be!
The island of Hayti is occupied by two distinct people, descendants of the old Spanish and French colonies. Its population is estimated at about 600,000 or 700,000. The Haitians, with about two thirds of the population, possess only about one third of the territory. Its greatest length from east to west is about 400 miles. Its breadth varies from 40 miles near its eastern extremity to about 150 near its centre, and it embraces, according to Mr. Lindenau, an area of nearly 29,500 square miles. Columbus called the island IIispaniola, and it has also been called St. Domingo from the city of that
on its southeastern coast; but Ilayti or Haiti (the mountainous country) was its original Carrib name. The French bestowed upon it the deserved name of la Reine des Antilles. All descriptions of its magnificence and beauty, even those of Washington Irving in his history of Columbus, fall for short of the reality. It seems beyond the power of language to exaggerate its beauties, its productiveness, the loveliness of its climate, and its desirableness as an abode for man. Columbus labored hard to prove to Isabella that he had found here the original garden of Eden; and any one who has wandered over these mountains and plains, breathed this delicious air, and feasted his soul and his eyes upon the scenes every where spread out before him, is quito ready to excuse the apparent extravagance of the great discoverer. To a large extent the resources of this island are at present undeveloped, and it presents a wide contrast to its former wealth and productiveness. In 1789, it contained a population of
“ The Grand Judge, to the Níembers of the Councils of Notables, in the Communes of the Republic: NOTABLE Citizens,
Certain grave abuses, introduced into the country by the clergy, have awakened my attention, and for the interest of religion it was necessary that I should adopt some measures to bring them to an end.
You know that religion is an object most venerable in the eyes of the people, and that it exerts a salutary influence upon men and upon societies, by lending its support to the laws. Every stigma which is brought upon it is dangerous, and the more so when it is brought upon it by its ministers.
“Many, regardless of the character with which they are clothed, of their proper dignity, and even of common propriety, openly give themselves to acts of trade, to commercial operations, which often engage them in litigation, so that they frequently appear before the bar of the courts contending with their opponents.
“And as if this spectaclo, which strikes religion at the heart, were not sufficiently afflicting, many of them keep at the parsonages in their dwellings, in the derisory capacity of housekeepers (sous la qualification dérisoire de gouvernantes), young females, and by a course of conduct opposed to good morals, of which they ought to be the living examples, give occasion for public scandals which tend to their disgrace in the eyes of their flocks, and destroys the sublime moral of the gospel which they are charged to preach in all its authority.
“This state of things, gentlemen and
40,000 whites, 500,000 slaves, and 24,000 Bountiful as are the provisions for supfree colored. Not only its rich plains, but plying the wants of man here, there is, inin many parts its mountains were culti credible as it may seem, a vast deal of vated to their summits. The cultivated suffering for want of the very necessaries lands amounted to 2,289,480 acres; which of life. The government being in reality were divided into 793 plantations of sugar, an irresponsible despotism, every male 3117 plantations of coffee, 3160 of indigo, citizen is liable to be seized at any mo57 of chocolate, and 623 smaller ones for ment and forced into the army; so that raising grain, yams, and other vegetable if he raises a crop there is no certainty food. Its exports, as stated by the intend but that in the very act of securing it, he ant of the colony, were £4,765,229 ster may be torn away from his family, and ling. An active commerce united it with the fruits of his labor be left to perish Europe, and twenty ports of trade were while he is marched away to the frontier, filled with 1500 vessels, waiting to freight to return he knows not when. In addihome its rich productions. In riding over tion to this, multitudes are so thriftless the island the mementos of this prosperity and improvident that they will not make are every where to be seen. Large broken any provision for the future—they will kettles, the remains of immense sugar not even gather those productions that are houses, are scattered along the roads and every where so bountifully spread around over the fields. The remains of massive them. I have rode through wild uncultiand magnificent gateways, and the ruins vated woods, and seen on every hand of princely dwellings, scattered over the groves of orange trees groaning under island are evidences of the highest state their delicious golden loads, as I have of wealth and luxury. But these rich seen the orchards of western New-York plains and mountains, are now almost an weighed down with their heavy burdens. uncultivated waste. A few coffee planta A little farther on, I have come upon tions are to be found, which are kept up
thickets of coffee bushes matted over with with the greatest difficulty on account of their rich purple berries. Besides these, the impossibility of securing among the tobacco, ginger, and other valuable pronatives the necessary laborers. The most ducts grow wild in the sarne profusion of the people out of the towns live in over these mountains, and after year rudely constructed houses, unfurnished there wasto away and perish like the with the usual comforts of life, and but a rank grass of our own prairies. I have few degrees above the huts upon the wandered over the rich rice and cotton shores of their native Africa. The soil is fields of the South, and the prairie and so exceedingly productive, and there is so bottom lands of the West, but their bounmuch that grows spontaneously, that very tiful products are meagre compared with little labor indeed is necessary to secure
those to be seen here. the food necessary to sustain life; and But bountiful and Eden-like as is this the climate is such that, if so disposed, island, the contemplation both of its past they need spend very little for clothing. history and present state excites only the Being thus under no compulsory necessity saddest emotions. The history of Hayti to labor, industry is the exception, indo from its discovery to the present day is a lence and idleness the rule.
most melancholy history. When disThey generally inclose around or near covered by Columbus it is supposed to their dwellings a small patch of ground, have contained more than 1,000,000 of the which is cultivated mostly by the females, Carrib tribe of Indians, but, incredible as and where, with very little labor, they raise it may appear, in consequence of their coffee, bananas, corn, and other vegetables wholesale butchery by the Spaniards, and for their own consumption, and a small the severe drudgery they were compelled surplus for sale, from the proceeds of to undergo in the mines, in the short space which they procure their clothing and of sixteen years they were reduced to such other articles of convenience as they 60,000. These outrages upon humanity, are able or disposed to purchase. I should entailing such a lasting stigma upon the judge that far the largest part of all the Spanish name, were followed by the wellcoffee that is exported from the island is known introduction of slavery into the raised in these small quantities, and island, with all its indescribable crueltics brought to market in small lots upon the and horrors, and its subsequent fearful backs of mules. The logwood, mahogany, end. But the gloomy chapter of its woes and other exports are mostly procured in does not terminate with the tragic, wellsmall quantities in much the same way, known “horrors of St. Domingo." From the men of course doing most of this heavy that day to the present it has been an labor.
almost uninterrupted scene of contlict and
bloodshed. Internal dissensions and desolating civil wars have continued to mark its history; and recently three great and powerful nations have intervened in vain to secure for this ill-starred island the blessings of peace. No soil has so long and so constantly been ensanguined with human blood. Blood marks every page of her history, from the time her beautiful shores first greeted the delighted vision of Columbus until the present day ;-the blood of the peaceful inoffensive Carribs, the blood of the wronged and outraged
children of Africa,—the blood of their butchered masters,—the blood of Le Clerc and his noble, but ill-fated army,—the blood of Dessalines, Christophe, and of thousands more who have perished in the insurrections and revolutions that have desolated this fair island. Sad, sad indeed has been the fate of the Queen of the Antilles." I leave it to others to deduce the lessons that her history suggests, and will not attempt to penetrate the dark vail that hides her future.
TIREE DAYS IN ARGOLIS.
These massive walls,
evening of the first of April. before I for three fourths of the distance runs in a could make the necessary arrangements perfectly straight line across the meadows. for a tour with a party who intended The northern of the great walls of Themissetting out on the morrow from Athens tocles occupied exactly the same ground; for Nauplia. Mr. N-, late an anti or rather I should say that the German quarian attached to the British Museum, surveyors employed its ruins for the suband now appointed Vice Consul for the struction of the road, and every violent Island of Mitylene, and C- , son of a rain uncovers for a time the upper course London publisher, were to be my com of stones. Our driver did himself credit, panions; and we had engaged Demetrius, and we reached the harbor in three quaror Demetri, for our guide. By the time ters of an hour, and in plenty of time for we had fully made up our minds to leave, the little Austrian steamer, Archiduca it was well nigh dark, and yet neither Ludovico, in which we took passage for Demetri nor I had procured our passes, Nauplia. The weather was cloudy and without which we were liable at any time dull when we started, but as we advanced, to be stopped on our way, and might be the atmosphere became clearer, and we subjected to considerable trouble in clear saw with great distinctness the shores of ing ourselves from the suspicion of being the Saronic Gulf, upon which we entered. either robbers or vagrants. The passport We were soon out of the small harbor office was closed, but the timely expendi of Piraeus, passing through its narrow ture of two or three drachms readily mouth, which is still further contracted opened it for us. A new difficulty pre by the remains of the old walls. They sented itself; for not a blank pass was to abutted in two piers, about two hundred be found high or low. The ingenuity of feet apart. When a heavy chain was the clerk casily surmounted this obstacle. drawn across this narrow opening, as was An old pass which had seen service was done by the old Athenians, the harbor discovered; the name was transmuted to was considered well protected. Just bewhat might reasonably be supposed to yond them, our attention was called to bear a slight resemblance to mine; and the simple monument of Miaulis, and only the words “with his man, Demetrius” a few feet further were the ruined fragwere added. So we were permitted to ments of what has been by popular tradivisit Argolis.
tion dignified with the name of ThemisWe rose early the next morning; and by tocles tomb. Whether it be his sepulfive o'clock were in a carriage, and on our chre or not, the bones of the great general way to Piraeus, about five miles east from of ancient times, and the most famous
admiral of modern Greece, lie mouldering communicative. He informed me that an on the shores of the Ægean, within a few election was to take place at Argos, the yards of each other. Themistocles, it is next day or the day after, and that he well known, was buried by the sea side, was going there to see about it. Being a in full view of the Straits of Salamis, the partisan of the king, he was commissioned scene of his most splendid victory over to procure as favorable a result for the the Persian fleet.
ministry as he could. The officer to be We varied our course as soon as we chosen on the occasion was the demarch, had cleared the promontory of Munychia, or mayor of the town, the most important and leaving on our right the island of municipal authority. The mode of elecSalamis, took a southerly direction to tion is certainly a most curious one. The wards the eastern headland of Argolis. people choose twelve men as electors, with This brought us within a very short dis twelve more for substitutes. These twelve tance of the temple of Ægina, dedicated choose from their own number four men, of old to Jupiter Panhellenius. Through with their substitutes; and finally these the Captain's glass we could distinguish four select three candidates for the office the different columns without difficulty in of mayor. Their names are presented to · this clear atmosphere. It is one of the the king or ministry, and they designate most perfect ruins out of Athens itself; the one who shall be mayor. Out of the but we saw it to little advantage, and I three candidates, I presume, the monarch reserved a visit for a future occasion. may safely depend on one who will advoThere are quite a number of passengers
cate the ministerial measures for the puron board our little steamer, and as the pose of gaining office. Of course in so day was fair and mild, every body congre complicated a procedure the government gated on deck. Indeed, most of them will find plenty of opportunity for wieldwere deck passengers, the trip being a ing an influence over the election. My short one.
The Greeks are talkative and friend A had undoubtedly some part casy of access, so that it is not at all diffi to take in the election of a mayor in the cult to form a number of acquaintances in important town of Argos, as he was a short time. Our company was a lively furnished by the ministry with an order one, too; and, as they had nothing else to for an escort of soldiers through the dando, most of them amused themselves with
gerous passes from Argos to Corinth, of cards. One party of eight or ten were which he invited me to avail myself in seated in Turkish fashion on the deck near returning to Athens. the helm, forming a circle around a cloth, By eleven o'clock we had crossed the on which figured a large piece of cold Saronic Gulf, passing close to the island mutton and several bottles of wine. The of Poros, remarkable of late years for the men helped themselves plentifully, and burning of the Greek fleet in its little disdaining forks, made use of their jack harbor; but much more famous under knives to cut the meat, or else tore it in the name of Calauria, as the scene of the pieces with their fingers. These evidently death of Demosthenes. It is a bleak, were all from the same neighborhood, and barren rock, without the sign of a habitamembers of the same clan. Some of them tion on this side. We kept on close to the had that free and easy look, mingled with mainland, and inside of the island of a considerable share of fierceness, which Hydra, which rises high and rocky from distinguish the old Klefts; others who
The town of Hydra itself is were younger, evidently belonged to the picturesquely situated on the side of the no less energetic but more tractable class, hill
, rising in the shape of a theatre. A which is now springing up to take the ridge, however, divides it into two parts, place of the others. I fell into conversa which running out into the water, forms tion with some students of the University, two harbors, the smaller of which, as who were returning from Athens to spend usual, serves for quarantine. The house of the Easter week vacation at home. Like Conduriotti
, the fan us Hydriote, stands all the rest of Greek students they were on the narrow tongue of land between the poor, and evidently were self-made men. two harbors, and was pointed out to me. Another set were gathered around a musi Hydra, I am told, has declined very much cian, who diverted them by playing on an of late years. Its losses were immense instrument much resembling the banjo, during the revolutionary war. All its and singing their country songs.
commerce was, of course, ruined, and as, toThere were but two cabin passengers gether with Spezzia, it sustained the whole besides ourselves; and they were members burden of the war' by sea, the prizes obof the house of representatives. One of tained never compensated for the expendithem, M. A., I found disposed to be very tures it incurred. Since the revolution
Spezzia has regained some of its former by the fort of Itch-kali. But these fortiimportance, but the fleet of Hydra on the fications are slight compared with the Black Sea has diminished exceedingly. Palamede, a hill 7-10 feet in height, which The privileges which IIydra used to enjoy commands the town to the southeast, and under the Turks were such, that the in renders Nauplia one of the three strongest habitants had little reason to complain of places in the Morea,—the Acrocorinthus tyranny. The island was almost free and Monembasia being the others. It is from the government of the Porte, govern singular that so remarkable a situation as ing itself, allowing no Turk to set foot on this should not have been occupied in the land, and paying only a small annual times of the ancient Greeks by a populous tribute. Commerce has usually the effect town. But Nauplia is scarcely mentioned of diminishing national prejudices, and by historians or geographers. Towards making men more tolerant of each others' the bay the town is protected by a high customs; but at IIydra it seems to have wall, which rises directly from the water's had a directly opposite effet. A Smyr edge, and allows people to land in a single niote lindy at Athens told me that her place. It is said, too, that a double chain father once entered IIydra in Frank dress, used to be stretched from the little fort and came very near losing his life by of Bou to the mainland. It i no won-, doing so. So inveterate was the dislike der that the Turks were foiled in the of the inhabitants for the foreign costume, attempt to take this place by storm from that the gentleman was pursue and hoot the hands of the Greeks. ed at in the streets, and compelled to take When we arrived off Nauplia, though refuge in a house. It was a characteristic it was not late in the afternoon, we found feeling of patriotism, that led their admi it raining violently, and therefore deterral Tombazi to reply to one who exclaimei, mined to remain on our steamboat for the 6. What a spot you have chosen for your night, and have the next morning for an country ; " " It was liberty that chose the excursion. The sun rose the next mornspot, not we.” But along with this noble ing in a clear sky. revealing to us all the sentiment, and with others distinguishing features of the surrounding landscape, them above even the rest of their country To the northward we saw the low and men, the Hydriotes possess a good deal of level plain of Argos, with the mountains sordid love of gain. It is said that there beyond, and on the east, before the high actually existed in the city at the time of hills that ran southward as far as the the revolution three mints for the manu eye could distinguish them, was the low, facture of counterfeit Turkish coin, which marshy ground, where now stand the few was taken into Turkey and there put into houses of Myli. That was the ancient circulation.*
Lerne, the haunt of the famous Lernian Our steamboat stopped but a few mo IIydra, whose slaughter was one of the ments off līydra, to land some passengers, great achievements of Hercules. If the and then continued its course until com lIydra, as German critics pretend, was ing between Spezzia and the mainland, we only symbolical of the pestilential vapors entered the Gulf of Argos. The town of from the marsh, which IIercules remedied Spezzia is less picturesquely situated on a by cffcctually draining it, the monster is less rocky island ; and has a long and nar as active as erer; for the neighborhood row harbor similar to that of IIydra. The of Lerne, like all other low and boggy remainder of the afternoon was spent in grounds in this warm country, is infested steaming up the bay, with the bare rocks with fever and ague during nearly two of Argolis on the right and the equally thirds of the year. precipitous hills of Laconia on the other After waiting a long time impatiently side, coming down to the very margin of for our guide, who had gone off to the the water. We approached Nauplia, and shore, Demetri at last appeared, and we after turning a promontory, our steamer repaired in a boat to the small landing anchored directly between the town and place, where we found the horses which had the small fort of St. Nicolas or Bourtzi. been procured for us. We set off at once,
Nauplia is finely situated, and appears without stopping to look about Nauplia, to great advantage from the water. The for the eurious old ruined cities of Mycenæ, houses are usually built of white lime Tiryns, and Argos. We rode through a stone, and have for the most part, roofs not number of narrow streets, brushing past very much inclined. They rise one above the little open shops, and now and then another on the side of a hill, forming the drawing our beasts near to the walls, end of the promontory, which is crowned in order to avoid a train of mules laden
* Howe's Greek Revolution p. 155, Noto in fine.