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dawn when it smiles over the mountains Wall of China, whose name be praised, of Bif-Tek, which guard Yan-Ky. All and whose top be covered with broken the poets sang her praises. It was said, bottles for ever, to keep out the YanO Tay-Kin, that the sound of those praises Kyse. had even been heard in the streets of Pe Whang continued: kin, and that aged mandarins had sighed " Zay-ni soon resolved what his revenge as they listened, remembering the days should be. He was young, handsome, when they were poets, and sang of beau gracesul. Was he not the Soul of Honor ? ty. She had the auburn hair which the Therefore, upon all occasions, whether in sun smiles upon, and makes golden. She public or in private, he sought to win the had the eyes, soft. humid, lustrous, which favor of Fior. He smiled upon Klumski, the Hindu poets call lotus eyes. The tint as upon a man whom he had forgiven. of her cheeks was the soft creamy hue of But Klumski never asked him to return sea-shells. Like a sapling upon the moun with him to his mutton; nor, in the affectain, her figure was lithe, and round, and tionate tutoying phrase of Yan-Ky, to alluring. It was a flowery face, a flowery take pot-luck with him. Klumski treatform, a forery grace, and there was no ed Zay-ni as men treat small dogs. one who did not love her, and agree that One day, Fior was surprised by a visit Fior was the flower of Yan-Ky.”

from the aunt of the Soul of lionor. А Whang's voice sank into silence, and we man, says Confucius, is not responsible for both sat for some time, silently smoking. his aunts. They are pre-existent facts,

“Confucius says," he resumed at length, quite beyond his discretion. But if he bé that the Eternal Order of Things suffers ingenious, he can make them serviceable strange events to occur. But he adds, to his purposes. Under the shadow of an that the Order of Things will certainly aunt's propriety, says the same authority, justify itself; if not here, then elsewhere. how are not the sweet improprieties of Yet what an Order of Things does not affection indulged, even as in my youth that seem to be, which planted the pure I kissed the daughter of the mandarin Fior among the people who hold the nose Dul-dul, in the shade of the great temple in a morbid sanctity! Which of our of Pekin. The aunt came to bid Fior to poets is it, О Tay-Kin, who says, that the tea. A few friends, after the manner of Genius of Evil is surest to discover and Yan-Ky, were to come the next evening harı whatever falls into his path out of to drink her tea, instead of staying at the Kingdom of Light. Others pass by home, and drinking their own :-tea, and not knowing it, but the instinct of repul a few gentlemen in the evening. sion reveals it to him."

"From extreme youth, Fior had been disWhang smoked placidly, and I aban ciplined to these social sacrifices. Aunts, doned myself to the consideration of the like Zay-ni's, are distributed in this world strange chances of travel. Ilow little had to make a few gentlemen in the evening I dreamed, O male readers with long recognize, by contrast, the loveliness of cues! and O female readers with small youth and the eternal youth of amiabilfeet! that my utmost wanderings would ity. When Fior arrived, the aunt comever have brought me into a country of menced by stabbing all her friends with habits so inexplicable as these. To climb sharp little innuendoes. Facts, of which to the top of the Great Wall, is a stretch no one should have betrayed the knowof travel forbidden to all but the happy ledge, she detailed with care. The small few. The philosopher and mandarin Tom gossip of malicious observation and critimo, sits there at case, and surveys the cism,—the meanness of aspersion,—the world, seeing things clearly in the rare wily whisper,—the loud abuse,—they air of that height. But to descend upon were all deployed by the aunt. It was the outer side, and wander beyond its to the gentle Fior as if she were steeped shadow-that is a temerity hardly to be in the sumes of a hot kitchen. The air justified in sane men, except, like my un was gross with gossip. The aunt treated worthy self, Tay-Kin, they are mere phi men and women as if they had been bats losophers, bent upon doing good, and and lizards ; and her feline eyes glittered travel to accumulate warnings, and relate close to the delicate Fior, who shrank and wonders. It is no story of gnomes that shuddered.” I am telling, but of lands, whose people “ Are there such lands--such people ?complacently suppose themselves to be I asked of Whang, with a sad sinking of the head of civilization, because they eat the heart. meat for dinner every day! Read and “You are in and among them,” he rereflect ! and thank the Eternal Order of plied sententiously, whiffing volumes of Things, that placed you behind the Great smoke.

heart;

men!

“May the Eternal Order of Things get and when she went away again, me safely back again over the Great Chi the music of the other voice was sweeter nese Wall,” I mentally ejaculated, while, for the contrast, like the bells of the towWhang resumed:

er of Pekin in the pauses of the roaring ". Zay-ni knew his aunt, and he knew Alonsoon. Fior, Therefore, when he entered the Ah! Tay-Kin, my illustrious philosobower, he saw in a moment the state of pher and master, even in Yan-Ky, women things. He knew that Fior was shocked are women,-and, sadder truth, men are and sad. Her mind was full of hateful

The heart of Fior clung to the images, and unwelcome fancies, conjured Soul of Honor. In vain the thoughtful by his aunt. She was like a flower choked Klumski grew grave and sorrowful, and in fetid air, and longing for the sunlight. warned his gentle sister. She wept at his He was young, and handsome, and grace words, and threw her arms around his ful. Was he not the Soul of Honor? So neck, but only to whisper in his ear that he sat by her side, and he looked so gal she loved Zay-ni. Then there was a look lant, and fresh, and fair, that his mere as sadder than sorrow in his eyes, and he pect was a consolation to the gentle girl. told her how much more she was to be When he began to speak, his voice was so pitied than blamed ; and described to her, low and sweet, that the sharp tones of in terrible detail

, the character and life of the shrill aunt were lost like noise in the Soul of IIonor. She listened with the music. What could such a voice whisper fond incredulity of love. IIer passion was that would not seem noble to a mind so like the south wind, melting every thing prepared ? And when a shrewd sense, upon which it blew. Ah! Tay-Kin, my called, in Yan-Ky, knowledge of men and master, in Yan-Ky, as in China, love is women, directed the whisperings of that the eternal tyrant, who knows no reason voice, could not the blindest hawker of and no law. rat's tails and bird's nests, perceive that Zay-ni pursued the preparation of his half the fight was won ? The aunt had sweet revenge. The snake had charmed poisoned every character of which she the dove, which fluttered-and flutteredspoke ; but Zay-ni praised so cunningly, and fell ! that he seemed not only the handsomest, “ The Soul of IIonor was perfect in the most musical-voiced, and must winning, but duello. Ile could use the pistol or the the most generous of men. He spoke so ten sword* with equal case and certainty. derly of Klumski, himself,—not too broad Wo to him upon whom fell the wrath of ly flattering, for Zay-ni understood that Zay-ni! His nose reigned unquestioned Fior might have noticed that her brother and serene in admiring Yan-Ky. was not lavish of commendation nor of at “But the dove fluttered—and fluttention to the Soul of Honor. Zay-ni was tered—and fell! a wise man, even as snakes are wise. The “ That fall broke the heart of Klumski. boys and girls read of the serpent charm A sternness, such as had never been seen ing the bird, and look under the bushes in his eyes, now took the place of the sadand upon the boughs of trees to find ness which had recently filled them. All them. But the serpents and birds are Yan-Ky foresaw that some terrible event not out of doors. Confucius says, that in

It was so cruel an outrage ! their youth they sit in parlors, and talk they said : and since the laws of Yan-Ky sentiment.

cannot touch the case" They sat together, talking, all the “ How?" cried I. “Am I in a land pleasant evening Zay-ni spoke gently where the law does not touch a case so of good things, and warmly of righteous fearful ? Will the law protect a man's ones, and professed principles of which purse, and not his honor? Oh, that I the Eternal Order of Things might have might once more behold the Great Wall been proud. Fior listened, and wondered of China !” she had never so much liked the fascinat Whang little heeded my interruption. ing Soul of Honor.

Nobler thoughts, " How can law protect honor ?" said more generous judgments, she had not he, as contemptuously as comported with heard from Klumski himself. What a propriety. “Honor is the nose. It is pity that he was so prejudiced against the private privilege of every man to keep this gallant youth! At intervals, Zay-ni it unpulled. The law cannot touch it. beckoned to his aunt to come over and How can the law tell whether the bird help him. She came, and her voice pierced fell willingly, or was nefariously enFior's ear, and her venom stung Fior's trapped? But all Yan-Ky felt that a

was ncar.

* Names of the weapons of the duello.

tragedy impended. Klumski did not weep ry, and are very much opposed to the over his sister's fall ; but Zay-ni smiled practice; but really, in this case, you canto think that, by dealing the deadliest o not avoid the duello.'

And' Yan-Ky blow, he had forced his foe to propose the looked heroic and wise, and jingled its duello. "The law gives him no aid,' said keys in its breeches*-pocket. he; and if he does nothing, he will be *But observe a moment,' said Klumaccounted a coward.""

ski; “Zay-ni has mortally injured me. “But, Whang," I asked, “what says Now, according to Confucius, I ought to Confucius about doing good to those who forgive him. Just in the degree of the despitefully use you, and about forgiving greatness of the offence, is the virtue of your enemies?"

forgiveness, says Confucius.' “O Tay-Kin!” cried Whang, with un Yan-Ky took snuff, shrugged its disguised want of respect; “have you yet shoulders, and spoke of white feathers, to learn, that the doctrines of Confucius contemptuously. are for the priests to expound upon the “Confucius is right,' resumed Klumski;' holy days, in the holy places, and are not 'but nevertheless, I do not forgive Zay-ni, to be mingled with life, except so far as and I shall not play that I do. He has they are pleasant? They belong to the mortally injured me, and I must have satabstract: the concrete is quite another isfaction.' thing. When Confucius says, Let the “All Yan-Ky patted its nose with pride servant obey the brother of the sun and and pleasure. moon, who is set over him, all Yan-Ky “ If you please.' he continued, 'there cries decorously, imen, and quotes Con is no question of honor here. The fact fucius against the disorganizers. But when cries aloud, that Zay-ni is innocent of the he says, IIappy is he who tells the truth lowest idea of honor. IIe is meaner than in business, and he who believes that hon a thief, --worse than a murderer. If esty is better than policy, all Yan-Ky Grabski, the house-breaker, had broken smiles, and disbelieves, and declares that into your house, and stolen your watch, Confucius was a wag, and an unpractical would you have felt obliged to resort to and impracticable person. Yan-Ky says, the duello ?' that men must be taken as they are. But “No,' cried Yan-Ky, “because the law if you ask, Did not the Eternal Order of protects us.' Things take men as they are, when it sent 6. When, then, Zay-ni does worse than Confucius to preach to them ? Yan-Ky; a burglar, and the law does not protect if it is in the temple, says, 'Ah, yes ! cer me, shall I allow him the opportunity of tainly,' and chastises its children for tell adding to his crime, and crowning the ing lies. But if you ask the question of ruin of my sisier with the broken heart Yan-Ky in the mart, it smiles patronizing of my wife, and the destitution of my ly, winking its left eye, and says, ' Good children? If the burglar ought to be desir, you must take facts. You don't quite stroyed, without the chance of choking understand the world. There is a public the man who executes the will of Yanopinion, which a man cannot withstand. Ky, ought not a greater than the burglar On the whole, do you not see our whole share the same ignominious fate?' life proclaiming this doctrine, against that “ Perhaps. But that would be murof the Eternal Order of Things-happy der,' pleaded Yan-Ky. is he who lies without exposure, for he

"It would be no more murder when shall accumulate stock, and live in fine it proceeded from the hand of one man, houses, and have the front seat in the whom he had mortally injured, than when temple of Consucius, and be esteemed of it comes from the hand of a mortally inthe less successful, and elected director in jured society. Besides, if you permit the society for sending missionaries to dis this, do you not see that the abandoned seminate the opposition doctrine of the Zay-nis, surnamed the Souls of Honor, Order of Things, in swamps beyond geo will perfect themselves in the use of the graphy. Every day and every hour, all duello-weapons, and so enjoy an immuniYan-Ky repeats and practices this gospel. ty of social crime—crime beyond the law ?

“Klumski's friends came to him, and It is not the want of religion, nor of deasked him what he intended to do.

cency, in your rule, that I complain of; 6: What do you advise?' asked he. it is its want of common sense. It is the 666 There is but one course,' said they. frightful abuse of this thing that you call «Indeed!' said he.

honor in Yan-Ky, which appals me. Yan"Yes,' said they. We are very sor Ky says, that a man will think twice be

The nether integuments of Yan-Ky.

liar;

For,

Do you

fore he insults his fellow, if he knows that he is to answer for it at the mouth of the pistol. Exactly ; but the builyknows the influence of that fear quite as well as any bodly, and therefore inakes sure of his skillul use of the weapons, before he does the deed, and then laughs at your outraged nose, as his well-practised pistol seuds death into your bosom. Yan-Ky has a bully's and a coward's theory of this matter!' cried Klumski, with energy

66. But what are we to do when our wives and daughters are insulted ?' demanded Yan-Ky, in a panic.

“I am going to show you what to do,' responded Klumski, so gravely, that YanKy shuddered. 'A man who does what Zay-ni has done, is a wild beast in society. Do you hold his nose sacred ? Do you call him, in the old vernacular, a gentleтап ? He has proved that he is a villain, and by the instinctive moral law he is a criminal. But for such oftenders you provide no punishment. Therefore, I have provided it. Don't talk to me of honor,” he continued, furiously. "Whoever will suffer such an oflender to have the chance of killing him has not the faintest conception of the dear and sacred word.' "All Yan-Ky listened in amazement.

For what is the significance of the duello ? It is the leaving the decision of the right to chance. It never was any thing more. It originated with our remotest ancestors, in what they called the Tournament. It is the ancient doctrine of might making right.

6. Excuse us," said Yan-Ky; 'it is the giving an equal chance to both. It cqualizes might, for the weak man stands fairly with the strong.'

“But, in the name of Confucius, why should both have an equal chance ?' cried Klumski. "To give both an equal chance, is to imply that there is an equality of guilt or responsibility. Is that so in this case? But if it be the decision of chance, then the verdict of chance must be considered final. If any one of you

declare that I am not a Yan-Kian, but a liar, and I call him to the duello, what do I incan to do? I mean to summon the duello to decide whether I am a liar. pistol chances only to flash, and you hit me, it follows inevitably that I am a liar.

“Not at all,” said Yan-Ky; the fact of your going out to stand before a pistol, shows that you have the heroism which makes it impossible that you should be a

and that fact is demonstrated, whether you are hit or not.”

S.Not at all.” returned Klumski; 'it merely proves that I have the hardihood to stand before a pistol; and history shows that a coward will do that as well as a hero. Besides, if a Yan-Kian gives me the lie, and we go out to fight, what is the logic of the thing? It is this : I go to defend my honor, assaulted by his remark, and he goes to sustain his honor involved in the same remark. I expose my like to show that I am not a liar; he exposes his, to show that he means what he says.

There can be no result. whatever the issue, each has equally shown, by the same display of courage, that he is right.

6 6 But let us understand you,' said the people of Yan-Ky solemnly. mean that if your nose were pulled (a thrill of horror shuddered along the veins of the valiant people of Yan Ky), you would not resort to the duello ?ui

***Yemen of Yan-Ky,'thundered Klumski, listen to my words. If a man insults my sacred member by pulling* it, he means to express that I am a conteruptible man and a coward. What is the obvious and natural way of showing him and all the world that he is mistaken? What is the honorable, manly, and instinctive way? It is to take him then and there, while the hot blood is roused, and when, speaking after the manner of

men, and not of Confucius, that hot blood justifies the act; and by severe personal chastisement, disproving his words and exposing him before the world as one in whom there is no truth.'

".. Yes, but if he be stronger and chastise you?'

«? Well then, clearly,' replied Klumski, 'if I am a weaker man, and valiantly attack hiin, the whole world will hold me justified. For you will remember that even your Code of Honor does not require that the offended person shall always be successful. If I fall dead before the fire of my adversary who has insulted me. I am yet held to be a man of honor; and equally so, if I am overthrown by the man whom I personally attack.

6. My dear Klumski, now said the most respectable of the Yan-Kians, ‘you wander from the point. This matter of honor is not to be reduced to strict verbal discussion. It is an affair of instinct and feeling. We do not say that it is essentially right, nor just, and certainly we allow that it is against the law of Confuci

But if my

• In the vernucular Yan-Ky, tweaking.

666

666

us, but the whole thing is here : Society requires that no man shall submit to an imputation upon his veracity, and has decreed by immemorial custom that he shall wipe off the aspersion by the duello. If he fails to do so, the man enjoys no social consideration afterwards. We all regret it, we are all very much opposed to shedding blood, and we take care in our laws to denounce and punish the custom which we all cherish with the utmost force of our private opinion and conduct. I repeat that it is not a matter to be deliberately reasoned about. It must be felt, and, Klumski, you must obey or suffer. It is, perhaps, a cruel necessity, but it is no harder upon you than upon the rest of us.' Klumski laughel gently and said:

"You allow that the custom is unrcasonable, beyond logic or argument, and against the law of Confucius, the order of. nature, and the well-being of society. You grant that its whole force lies in the consent of society, and yet it is you, respectable Yan-Kians, whose sympathy imparts that force to it, and if you simply said, it shall not be so any longer, it would immediately cease to be. You, and you alone, are responsible for all the woe it occasions; for it is your opinion which makes the opinion of that society, of which you so vaguely speak. The custom does not exist by the support of blacklegs and bullies, but by your sympathy. You assume a state of things, and by that assumption creating it, proceed to argue from it.'

"Stop!' said the most respectable of the Yan-Kyse. "Ten years ago the chief city of Yan-Ky sent Bullski to the great Pow-wow of the land. He was a man of assured character, of the clearest integrity, worthy, generous, good; the whole city knew Bullski and honored him. Now to the same Pow-wow came Bearski from the other great city of Yan-Ky, a man equally loved and honored by the Bearskians, his friends. The old grudge between the cities was never more venomously asserted than at that time.

There were high debates, hot words, choking rage and wrath, all watched by the Bullskians at home with cager interest. Those Bearskians are always pulling our noses, said the Bullskians, and we are always tamely submitting and emboldening them.' "Those Bullskians are dough,' said the Bearskians contemptuously. Suddenly Bearski insulted Bullski-in open Powwow insulted him, saying that Bullski was not a veracious person.

It was a premeditated insult.* But Bullski, who

knew that Bearski would easily destroy him in the duello, and who, because he was a man of long settled integrity, detested the duello, returned to his native city without fighting.'

'Well?' said Klumski. "Well,' said the most respectable YanKian, 'he was instantly dropped, lost all influence, all social respect, and was never heard of more.'

6. Then the wrathful word of an enemy questioning his veracity availed more with the friends of Bullski than the long-proved character of years. It is a pleasant premium you place upon that character to which you exhort all your young men to attain, when a single word, uttered angrily or maliciously, is sufficient to destroy it? replied Klumski contemptuously.

“I don't know about that,' returned the spokesman of Yan-Ky, ' but such is the fact, and no man can resist this demand.'

566 As for that,' returned Klumski,' I am astonished that Bullski's instinctive rage did not drive him upon Bearski to punish his insult personally and directly. For myself, whatever I had done, if I found that my character availed nothing with my friends, and was not powerful enough to crush such an imputation utterly, I certainly should not have valued their opinion enough to purchase it by a craven compliance with a foolish custom. For clearly, the good opinion of those who will not esteem a man of long-tried probity if he refuse to expose himself to be shot by any man who questions it, when they confess that their requirement is senseless and not founded in religion, decency, or law, -such a good opinion is not so valuable as the approval of Confucius and a man's esteem for himself.'

Yan-Ky smiled. "Your words are brave,' said the respectable Yan-Kyse, but you would find it unpleasant to be shunned and dropped from intercourse.'

"Undoubtedly it would be far from pleasant,' returned Klumski, 'yet I know that the noble and thoughtful every where would be on my side. Those whose opinion is truly commendation would not desert me. Of course I should value yours less, because I should know all the time that it was mere obedience to a dull superstition of which you were afraid, and which you do not dare to investigate. But you know, just as well as I, that the deep sense of right would be with me.'

“What!' cried Yan-Ky, 'if you took no notice of an insult?'

* Strict Yan-Ky idiom.

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