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David, before they struck out again to the again, Xerxes, “a chip of the old block," right and left, burning cities, levying bond and then his descendants once more, service, and converting every body's terri Artaxerxes, first, second, and third, -all tory to their own use. Jerusalem, their - chips of the old block,”—what unscrugreat city, fell a prey at last to the same pulous ways they had of sacrificing milspirit, manifested by their Roman neigh lions upon millions of people in their little bors; yet in the heels of this overwhelming territorial disputes ? It was well, indeed, disaster, the last vaticination of the apostle that Alexander of Macedon put a stop to of Patmos, as his prophetic eyes swept down these ravages, or there is no telling to the nebulous tracks of time, was, that good what extent they might have carried Christians every where should not only their sanguinary sports, -perhaps as far be “priests and kings unto God," but as Alexander himself, who beginning with “inherit all things.”

a small strip in the south of Europe, anThe fact is, that none of those Orientals nexed patch after patch, until he became were ever over particular as to seizing the beyond all question the largest landed proterritories of a friend. If they wanted prietor in the known world. A bird flywhat he possessed, they took it, and gave ing for several days together in a straight him a drubbing besides, if he made any line, could scarcely have passed from the outcry about the process. As far back as western to the eastern boundaries of his we can penetrate in their annals, even to dominions. A splendid annexationist, those remote periods when the twilight of truly, was the great Alexander ! tradition itself merges in the primeval He was not a whit in advance, howdarkness; we find that their kings and ever, of a famous Tartar captain, who leaders were capital adepts in the annex called himself Genghis Khan, and who ing business, carrying it on on a prodigious achieved prodigies of brutality and crime. scale, and quite regardless of the huge In advance of him ? No! For the rivers of blood, which they often had to magnitude of his rapacity, for the rapidity wade through, in the accomplishment of of his slaughters, and for the exquisite their purposes,

Some of them, indeed, refinement of cruelty which attended his have left no other name behind them, for marches, he was as superior to Alexthe admiration of posterity, than that ac ander as the wild tiger is to the domestic quired in these expeditions of butchery cat. Genghis, we all remember, ruled and theft, undertaken with the laudable over the Mongols of Tartary, and signaldesign of stripping a neighbor of his pos ized his accession to power by putting sessions. We know little of Sesostris and

seventy chiefs of an opposite faction into Semiramis; but that little is enough to as many caldrons of boiling water. IIe justify Edmund Burke, in setting over next seized the vast dominions of Vangagainst the conquests of the former, about Khan, or Prester John of Austria ; after one million of lives, and against those of which he reduced the kingdoms of Ilya in the latter about three millions. All ex China, Tangan, Turkay, "Turkistan, Karapired, he exclaims, in quarrels in which zin, Bukaria, Persia, and a part of India ; the sufferers had not the least rational killing upwards of fourteen millions of concern. Old Nebuchadnezzar, too, who people in the process, and annexing eightflourished in Babylon, according to the een hundred leagues of territory cast and Bible, what a thriving fellow he was, in west, and about a thousand leagues north this line! The little state of Judea was and south; and when he had died, one of scarcely a flea-bite for him ; and though

his sons subdued India, and another, after he despoiled Egypt, and demolished Tyre, crossing the Wolga, laid waste to Russia, he was quite uncomfortable until Phoenicia, Poland, Hungary, and Bohemia, while á Palestine, Syria, Media, Persia, and the third enlarged the patrimonial possessions greater part of India, were added to his by Syria, and the maritirne provinces of already considerable" farm. But what the Turkish empire. was he, after all, to that series of magni There was one of the ancient nations, ficent Persian monarchs, who thought no more inodest than the rest, which we ought more of razing hundred-gated cities to to except from this career of conquest and the earth, and laying hold of vast empires, spoliation; for during the greater part of than Barnum's "lazy anaconda does of its existence, it was content with its own bolting a rabbit? There was Cyrus, a moderate limits, and the production of most prosperous gentleman, as the good Iliads, Prometheus Vinctuses, Parthenons, Xenophon relates, who overran pretty and Orations de Corona. We refer to much the whole of Asia, and his promising Greece, which, being more republican than son, Cambyses, who took Tyre, Cyprus, the rest of the world, ought to have been, Egypt, Macedonia, Thrace, &c., and his son according to the modern theory, more

VOL. III.-13

omnivorous than the rest. But Greece on the train of historical locomotion, to was poor-spirited in comparison. She had those extraordinary migrations of the become so enamored with her own glori German races, who seem to have had no ous skies and hills, was so delighted with other object in life, than to overrun the her own fair climate, and so besotted with territories of others, and who, in the end, a certain dreamy notion of beauty and coming on like whirling sand-storms of self-perfection, that, like a woman as she the desert, paid Rome in her own coin; was, she seldom passed beyond her own or to those exciting episodes of the Middle threshold. Not that she was afraid of Ages, when myriads of pious and bloodfighting, either, as certain places named thirsty Crusaders flung themselves upon Thermopylæ and Marathon bear witness; Asia, with an entire looseness, to recover but that she was quite destitute of that the IIoly Land; or to the impartial ferocity grandeur of soul which led Belus, Sesos of the Spanish and Portugese in their extris, and the other illustrious individuals cursions over South America ; or to the to whom we have referred, to cut their entertaining annals of treachery, freebootway to glory, by cutting the throats of ing, and assassination by which the many so many of their fellow humans.

great and royal houses of Europe built up We shall have to dismiss republican their power, -such as the house of BourGreece, then, as rather an untoward case, bon, which gradually enlarged its right to and turn to imperial Rome. Ah! how a few acres, to a right coextensive with her records blaze with examples of a France-or the house of Hapsburg, a small thorough spirit of annexation! Suckled German dukedom at the start, but now a by a wolf in the beginning, Rome never mighty empire in arhich a dozen kingdoms lost her original vulpine nature, but to the are absorbed—or to the house of Bona day of her dissolution, went prowling about parte, which began without a sous to bless the world, wherever there was a sheep its stars with, but which speedily enlarged fold to break into, or an innocent lamb to its phylactaries, and got itself warm on be eaten. Look into the index of any nearly all the thrones of the Continent; popular history of her triumphs, and mark or, in brief, to a hundred other instances how it is composed of one unbroken series of enormous adventure and gigantic brigof annexations! Thus it reads: B.C. 283, andage. But the truth is, that this kind the Gauls and Etrurians subdued ; B. C. of thing is the staple and uniform of all 278, Sicily conquered; B.C. 206, Rome annals. mistress of all Italy; B.C. 264, the First Rabelais, in his famous outline of conPunic War; B.c. 231, Sardinia and Corsica quest, which the gallant statesmen of Pichconquered ; B.C. 224, the Romans first ricole presented to that chivalric monarch, cross the Po; B.C. 223, colonies of Pla

though he has caught the spirit of this centia and Cremona established; B.c. 222, national Rob-Royism, combining its own Insularia (Milan) and Liguria (Genoa) largeness of view with the easy effrontery taken ; B.C. 283, the Second Punic War; of the swell-mob, hardly equals veritable B.C. 212, Syracuse and Sicily conquered; history. “You will divide your army," B.C. 210, Scipio takes New Carthage; B.C. said the Duke of Smalltrash, the Earl 204, Scipio carries the war into Africa; of Swashbuckler, and Captain Durtaille, B.C. 195, war made upon Spain ; B.c 188, who were Pichricole's advisers, "into two Syria reduced to a Roman province ; B.C. parts. One shall fall upon Grangouzier 168, Macedon becomes a Roman province; and his forces; and the other shall draw B.c. 149, Third Punic War, and conquest towards Onys, Xaintoigne, Angoumois, of Corinth ; B.C. 146, Greece becomes a and Gascony. Then march to Perigourt, Roman province; B. c. 135, Spain a Roman Medos, and Elanes, taking wherever you province; B.C. 133, Pergamus a Roman come, without resistance, towns, castles, province; B.C. 118, Dalmatia a Roman and forts; afterwards to Bayonne, St. province; B.C. 105, Numidia becomes a John de Luz, to Fuentarabia, where you Roman province; B.C. 99, Lusitania be shall seize upon all the ships, and, coastcomes a Roman province; B.c. 80, Julius ing along Gallicia and Portugal, shall pilCæsar's first campaign, -and after that lage all the maritime places even to the reduction of the world, from the hot Lisbon, where you shall be supplied with sands of the desert South to the fogs of all necessaries besitting a conqueror. By Britain in the North, and from the Eu Copsodie, Spain will yield, for they are phrates to the Atlantic Ocean, in the other but a race of boobies! Then are you to direction. The veni vidi vici, in short, pass by the Straits of Gibraltar, where was not an individual saying, but a uni you shall erect two pillars more stately versal Roman maxim,

than those of Hercules, to the perpetual We might refer, too, now that we are memory of your goodness, and the narrow

entrance there shall be called the Pichricolinal Sea. Having passed the Pichricolinal Sea, behold Barbarossa yields him your slave! And you shall conquer the kingdoms of Tunis, of Hippo, Argia, Bomine, Corone, yea, all Barbary. Furthermore, you shall take into your hands Majorca, Minorca, Sardinia, Corsica, with the other islands of the Ligustic and Balearian seas. Going along on the left hand, you shall rule all Gallia, Narbonensis, Provence, the Allobrogrians, Genoa, Florence, Luccia ; and then-God be wi' ye--Rome! Italy being thus taken, behold Naples, Calabria, Apulia, and_Sicily all ransacked, and Malia, too! From thence we will sail eastward, and take Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes, and the Cyclade Islands, and set upon the Morca. It is ours, by St. Irenæus! and the Lord preserve Jerusalem !” With the enumeration of Lesser Asia and the entire east of Europe, the imagination of the monarch was excited, and he shouted, “On, on, make haste my lads, and let him that loves me, follow me!”

No! the fertile fancy of Rabelais, in the widest circuit of its fun, does not equal the serious doings of some even of our modern nations. “A century ago," says the latest Blackwood, " Russia, still in the infancy of civilization, was scarcely counted in the great European family. Gigantic, indeed, have been the forward strides she has since made, in power, influence, and territory. On every side she has extended herself, Sweden, Poland, Turkey, Persia, have all in turn been despoiled or partially robbed by her. North and south she has seized upon some of the inost productive districts of Europe; the Baltic provinces on the one hand, Bessarabia and the Crimea on the other.”

Be it observed, however, in justice to critic and criticized alike, that Russia is bashful, self-denying, almost ascetic in her lust of annexation, compared with another power, which we shall not name, lest we should shock its delicate sensibilities. But we could tell, an we would,” of a certain little island of the North Atlantic, in itself scarcely bigger than a bed-spread, yet boasting of an empire on which the sun never sets. It has annexed to its slender chalk-cliffs, from year to year, one country after another, until now it exclaims in the pride and plenitude of its dominion,

"Quæ regio in terris, nostra non plena laboris ?” which, in its own vernacular, means," on what part of the earth have we not gained a foothold ?" In Europe, there are Scotland, Ireland, the. Orkneys, Gibraltar, Malta, Heligoland, and the Ionian Isles;

in America, there are Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, Newfoundland, and the Bermudas; in the West Indies, there are Jamaica, Barbadoes, St. Vincent, Tobago, Trinidad Antigua, Dominica, the Bahamas, Guiana, and a dozen more; in Africa, there are Good Ilope, Mauritius, Sierra Leone, Gambia, and St. Helena; in Australia, there are New South Wales, Western Australia, Southern Australia, and Van Dieman's Land; and in Asia, there are, most monstrous of all, Ceylon and India, with its dependencies. Enough, one would say, in all conscience for a reasonable ambition; but it is not enough for the people of that little island

—that model of all the national proprieties—which omits no opportunity now for extending its possessions, and almost with every steamer sends us word of new acquisitions in the East !

Alas! we must repeat it, annexation is not a new thing, not a peculiarity of republicans, and of late American republicans, in particular; not in any sense a novel iniquity over which we are just called to moralize! It is a practice as old as our race and as broad as our race; known to every people and every age; and as invariable, in its promptings, if not its effects, as a natural law. Wherever there have been weak nations to pillage, and strong nations to pillage thein; wherever there have been men, like those splendid robbers of antiquity, willing to offer hecatombs of lives to their in-' sane will to rule; wherever there have been chances opened to military genius, to rapacious selfishness, to the love of a row, to the hope of plunder, to the appetite for distinction and blood, to the mere vague restless feeling for movement and change, —there annexation has flourished, in one form or another, and the relations and destinies of empires have been relaxed, or enlarged, or revolutionized. But, God in heaven! what a phantasmagoria of wrong, outrage, and despotism it has been! What spoliations, ravages, wars, subjugations, and miseries have marked its course! What crimson pictures it has painted on every page of almost every history! Indeed, when we look at it, how the whole past comes rushing down upon our vision, like a vast, multitudinous, many-winged army; with savage yells, with wild piercing whoops, with ringing war-cries, with sackbuts, and cymbals, and trumpets, and gongs, and the drowning roar of cannon; naked heroes, shaggy sheep-skinned warriors, glittering troops, phalanxes and serried legions, colossal cavalries; now

sweeping like frost-winds across the viceable zeal! no poisonous monster! no plains-now hanging like tempests on the affliction of Providence, which, while it mountains —now breaking in torrents scourged us, cut off the sources of resusthrough rocky defiles—and now roaring citation! No! this damp of death is the like seas around the walls of cities, -on mere effusion of British amity. We sink ward and downward they come, irresist under the pressure of their support! We ible, stormy, overwhelming: the mighty writhe under their perfidious gripe ! host, the stupendous vanguard of never They have embraced us with their proending annexationists!

tecting arms; and lo! these are the fruits Note, also, that it is not in conquest of their alliance !" alone that this spirit of aggrandizement Now, compared with the Brobdignagian has been exhibited; for next to the his scoundrelisin of the older nations, both in tory of conquest, the most terrible book the way of conquest and colonization, that could he written, would be a narra what have we poor republican Americans tive of national colonization, or of the peace done? Why are we stigmatized, as offul attempts of nations to create auxiliaries fenders above all others, or as the special on distant shores. It would be a second representatives of that national avidus Book of Martyrs, eclipsing in atrocities alienum, which confesses neither limit the rubric of Fox. It would show us nor principle? We have, since the cominnumerable homes, in all lands, made mencement of our political existence, pervacant by forced, or, quite as dreadful, fected three things : we have entered the voluntary exiles : the pathways across lands of the Indians; we have acquired te lonely seas, lined, like the accursed Louisiana, Florida, and Texas; and we have middle passage of the slave-trade, with beaten Mexico out of California and a few the bones of victims cast down to watery other morsels of earth; to which let us deaths; the inoffensive natives of many a add, that we meditate some time or other continent and island driven mercilessly, by getting possession of Cuba, and perhaps intruders, to the jungles, or the swamps, of the Sandwich Islands. That is posior to the solitary fastnesses of the moun tively the front and substance of all our tains; weary years of struggle on the part trespasses! But in what manner have of the intruders themselves against dis they been committed ? case, against poverty, against capricious No one, we suppose, will question the and persecuting climates and intractable propriety of our mode of acquiring Florisoils, and against the cruel extortions and da and Louisiana, which were purchased oppressions of remote administrations ; honorably in the open market; therefore and, as the end of all, failure, in its worst we will begin with the poor Indians. We forms, of industrial bankruptcy and social have robbed them of their lands, it is said. ruin. Many, indeed, is the colony, to But it is not so; not a rood of their land which we might apply the heated, but have we which has not been honestly paid not overdrawn language of Sheridan, in for, and more than paid for, as land goes, describing the desolations wrought by and a thousand times paid for in superior Hastings in the province of Oude.

returns! De Tocqueville made this charge a stranger," he exclaims, “entered that in his book, and led Mr. Benton, who was land, and, observing tho wide and general then in the Senate of the United States, devastation of fields, unclothed and brown to call for a full numerical and chrono-of villages depopulated and in ruin-of logical official statement of all our dealtemples unroofed and perishing-of reser ings with the Indians, from the origin of voirs broken down and dry; had he in the federal government in 1789 to his day, quired, 'what has thus laid waste this 1840,” which he procured from the departbeautiful and opulent country ; what ment, making a full and accurate list of monstrous madness has ravaged with every acre that we had ever taken from wide-spread war; what desolating foreign any Indian tribe or individual. What is foc; what civil discords; what disputed the result? Why, it appears from the succession; what religious zeal; what document, that the United States had paid fabled monster has stalked abroad, and to the Indians eighty-five millions of dolwith malice and mortal enmity, withered lars for land purchases up to the year by the grasp of death, every growth of 1840, to which five or six millions may be nature and humanity ?'

The answer added for purchases since—say ninety would have been, not one of these causes ! millions. This is near six times as much No wars have ravaged these lands and as the United States gave Napoleon for depopulated these villages ! no desolating Louisiana, the whole of it, soil and jurisforeign foe! no domestic broils ! no dis diction, and nearly three times as much as puted succession ! no religious superser all three of the great foreign purchases

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Louisiana, Florida, and California ---cost state, or just emerging from it, were prous! and that for soil alone, and for so vided for with equal solicitude and libermuch as would only be a fragment of Lou ality, the object of the United States being isiana or California. “Impressive,” says the to train them to agriculture and pasturage distinguished statesman, to whom we are —to conduct them from the hunting, to indebted for this exposition of an Indian the pastoral and the agricultural state. policy, "as this statement is in the gross, it Not confining its care, however, to this, and beeomes more so in the detail, and when in addition to all other benefits, the United applied to the particular tribes whose im States have undertaken the support of puted sufferings have drawn so mournful schools, the encouragement of missionaa picture from Mons. de Tocqueville.” Fif ries, and a small annual contribution to ty-six millions went to the four large religious societies who take charge of their tribes, the Creeks, the Cherokees, the Choc civilization. Moreover, the government taws and the Chickasaws, leaving thirty-six kceps up a large establishment for the spemillions to go to the small tribes whose cial care of the Indians, and the managenames are unknown to history, and which ment of their affairs ; a special bureau, it is probable the writer on American de presided over by a commissioner at Washmocracy had never heard of when sketch

ington City; superintendents in different ing the picture of their fancied oppressions. districts; agents, sub-agents, and interMr. Benton adds, in respect of these small preters, resident with the tribe ;, and all remote tribes, that, besides their proportion charged with seeing to their rights and of the remaining thirty-six millions of interests-seeing that the laws are observdollars, they received a kind of compen ed towards them ; that no injuries are sation suited to their condition, and in done them by the whites; that none but tended to induct them into the comforts of licensed traders go among them; that nocivilized life. He gives one example of this thing shall be bought from them which is drawn from a treaty with the Osages in necessary for their comfort, nor any thing 1839, which was only in addition to simi sold to them which may be to their detrilar benefits to the same tribe in previous ment. Ilad the republic been actuated, treaties, and which were extended to all in its intercourse, by any of that selfish the tribes which were in the hunting state. and infernal spirit, which animates the These benefits

were,

"two blacksinith old monarchies, it would have swindled or shops, with four blacksmiths, five hundred beaten the Indians out of their possessions pounds of iron and sixty pounds of steel at once, and, in case of resistance, put the annually; a grist and a saw-mill, with whole race to the sword. millers for the same; 1,000 cows and But it will be answered, “You have calves; 2,000 breeding swine; 1.000 carried them by force, from their ancient ploughs; 1,000 sets of horse-gear; 1,000 homes, from the graves of their sires, and axes; 1,000 hoes; a house each for ten

planted them in new and distant regions !” chiefs, costing two hundred dollars a piece; We reply, that we have done so, in the with six good wagons, sixteen carts, twen case of a few tribes, or rather remnants of ty-eight yokes of oxen, with yokes and tribes, as a matter, however, of absolute log-chains for each chief; besides agreeing necessity, and not in any grasping or unto pay all claims for injuries committed kind spirit. A small, but savage and inby the tribe on the white people, or on tractable race suddenly surrounded in the other Indians, to the amount of thirty Providence of God by a powerful and civithousand dollars; to purchase their re lized people, whose laws and customs it served lands at two dollars per acre ; and cannot or will not accept, but whose vices to give them six thousand dollars inore are readily spread among them, has no for certain old annuities. In previous other destiny but to die of its corruptions, treaties had been given seed grains and to perish in arms, or to be removed by seed vegetables, with fruit seed and fruit gentle methods to some more remote and trees, domestic fowls, laborers to plough untroubled hunting grounds. It was at up their ground and to make their fences, the option of the United States to choose to raise crops and save them, and teach either of these courses, and its choice, on the Indians how to farm; with spinning, the advice of Jefferson, whose noble forweaving and sewing implements, and per tune it has been to initiate so much of our sons to show their use.” Now all this, most wise and beneficent policy, fell upon observes our authority, was in one single the most humane, peaceful, and considerate treaty, with an inconsiderable tribe, which of the three. Indeed, the language in which had been largely provided for in the same this plan was urged in the second inauguway in six different previous treaties ! But ral address of the eminent democrat we all the rude tribes—those in the hunting have just named, may be used also as the

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