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built upon the beautiful little islands in Hill, which looks so vast, holds but twenty the East River, whose green slopes rise millions of gallons of water; a mere punch from the rapid current, near Hell Gate. bowl, compared with the receiving reserOn Blackwell's Island, the largest of the voir lying between 79th and 86th streets, group, are the Penitentiary, the Lunatic covering an area of thirty-five acres, and Asylum and the City Alms Houses; on containing one hundred and fifty millions Ward's Island are the extensive hospitals of gallons, while this, again, is but a wine for diseased immigrants; and on Randall's cooler in comparison with the first reserIsland the nurseries for the city orphans. voir at the Croton River, forty miles dis

One of the most prominent of the struc tant, among the breezy hills of Westchestures belonging to the city is the Croton ter, which is five miles long. These imReservoir, between 40th and 42d streets, mense reservoirs are trifling when comwhich is sufficiently familiar to all the pared with the whole aqueduct, which is visitors to the Crystal Palace. This im forty miles in length, and, by the side of mense granite structure, built as solidly which all aqueducts of ancient and modern and likely to endure as long as the pyra times are dwarfed. The most impressive mids, is the beaker out of which a popula and majestic of the visible parts of this tion not much below a million drink their splendid work is the High Bridge across daily draughts; it is the great fountain the IIarlem River. This aqueduct bridge of health and comfort to the entire is the most magnificent structure which population of our mighty metropolis, New-York can boast of; it is 1450 feet whence their fountains and hydrants are in length, and 114 feet above the level of daily supplied. It seems scarcely pos- high water; through this lofty artery sible that such a reservoir, vast as it is, flows the daily life of nearly a million of should contain a sufficient quantity of inhabitants, and it is appalling to think water to feed the almost innumerable of the consequences of an accident to so drains that are constantly running from important an agent in supplying the daily it. But this Egyptian reservoir on Murray needs of so vast a population.

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THE NATIONAL INVENTORY.

A

COLUMN of figures is said to be, and Kennedy: hare been as industrious as

undoubtedly is, dry, -as dry as an they could be, under the circumstances: old logarithm—and yet, there are cir we say nothing against them; but, whatcumstances in which one may get from it ever the cause of this protracted gestaa deal of succulent nutriment. The mer tion, we complain of it, with the loudest chant, no doubt, who finds his long array emphasis. of numerals with a balance on the right The United States is the last country side of his ledger, thinks these more in in the world, where such dilatory moveteresting than the best romance of Dick ment ought to be allowed; because it is ens or a poem by Longfellow. IIe relishes precisely the country where changes and them, revels in them, rubs his hands over advances of all kinds are effected with them, reads them several times, and is a such celerity, that a census four years old happy man. A political candidate, too, the would be almost as much out of date as morning after an election peruses the end a four years old almanac. A story is told less lines of decimals, in his daily paper, with of a gentleman of Chicago, who spent two the intensest zest, forgetting the startliny years in travelling in Europe; that when news on the next page, and quite uncon he returned, he was compelled to hire a scious, shame upon him, of the fine moral porter to conduct him to the street he disquisitions of the editor in the very next lived in, and the next day he confessed that paragraph. On the sum of these figures, he knew less of his own town than any perhaps, hangs his life or death, the suc he had seen in the whole course of his cess of his long-cherished and splendid travels. Thus, our cities and their popuschemes of ambition, or the extinction of lations, and industries, grow out of his hopes for ever.

our remembrance in the course of a few Figures, therefore, are not always as circles of the sun, and unless the invenfleshless as skeletons. They have a very

tories of them are published as soon as present life in them, and may carry with they are ascertained, they lose half their them a fascination beyond figures of value, and pretty nearly all their truth. speech. It is a simple work, perhaps, the We expect, consequently, to hear the reputting them together, but once rightly presentatives of the West declaim indigarranged, they hold the most significant nantly, in Congress, during the present meanings.

session, against the injustice that has been Our census, it must be confessed, has done by the false and inadequate statebeen a long while coming. It was taken ment, put forth in regard to their districts in the year 1850, and has just, at the and the numbers of their constituents. opening of 1857, come from the printer's Let the reader, then, bear in mind, that hands. Doubtless it has been a severe in all the facts we shall present them, and laborious task to bring it into order, from the census, we refer to the year to compute and collate the separate re 1850.-a long while ago, if we reckon turns of the marshals who were deputed by the speed with which we more, and to gather the facts; but severe and labo not to the present year, when we must be rious as it must have been, we are forced considerably ahead of the conditions of to believe that there has been no adequate that remote period. occasion for the delay. We ought to We must, however, now that we have have been in possession of it, at least one vented our feelings of disappointment year ago; and we would have been, if as to the delay which has taken place in the business of the bureaus at Washing its preparation, do Mr. De Bow, or the ton were conducted with the cconomy of persons concerned with him, the justice time and the rapidity of action, which to say, that they have presented us a characterize the business of individuals. most valuable statistical work,—the best Alas! public employments are the re clearly that has yet been prepared under wards of serviceable partisans, and not the the auspices of the Government. It conduties of competent men; every kind of tains some twelve hundred crowded pages, official service is turned into a job; and every one of which has some table or calthe interest of the functionary in main culation that supplies indispensable intaining his place soon supersedes his in- formation to that part of the public who terest in public business. Mr. De Bow, the would know the real facts of our national superintendent of the department, we sup condition and prospects. The original pose, and his predecessor before him, Mr. plan, as it was sent to the marshals, em

their tributaries

braced inquiries on the following heads: in another year, and to furnish the pub1. The population in all its relations of lic with the results. He has already, in wealth, age, sex, nativity, color, and em his remarks on the various tables, and in ployments; 2. Industry, in all its rela the scveral appendices, entered upon many tions to produce, implements, machinery important and useful generalizations, and capital vested, and persons employed; 3. gathered from remote sources instructive Social statistics, embracing property, real illustrations and comparisons. Statistics, and personal, colleges and schools, libraries, though perfectly correct in themselves, newspapers, paupers, criminals, religious are often of little use for the vant of these worship; 4. Vital statistics, such as the comparisons and remarks, and Mr. De rate and number of deaths in each locality, Bow is therefore entitled to our special diseases, births, marriages, longevity, &; thanks for his laborious services in these and, 5. Miscellaneous statistics relating to respects. We should like to lay betaxes, wages, valuations of estates, &c. fore our readers copious extracts from his It will be seen, therefore, that the inquiries deductions, but as we have a thought or covered sufficient ground; but in the re two of our own to present, we must conturns made, there appear to have been tent ourselves with simply referring to the many deficiencies. Whatever relates to

seventh, which, we presume, will be within population, agricultural industry, and cer reach of our readers almost as soon as this tain social statistics, is tolerably complete; number of our Magazine. but the exhibition of our manufacturing In spite of the delay we have spoken of, industry was so imperfect, that Congress above, of one thing we may be quite cerwould not authorize it to be included in tain, viz., that the United States have the printed syllabus, while the greater not increased materially in extent, since part of the vital statistics, though pub- 1850, unless the Sandwich Islands should lished, is either so carelessly or so inade

have been annexed while this paper is quately rendered, that it is comparatively going through the press. Colonel Abert, worthless. Mr. De Bow, however, pro of the topographical engineers, has stated mises to rectify the manufacturing returns, the territorial extent, in this wise:

Square Miles. Area of the Pacific slopo of the region watered by rivers falling into the Pacific

778,206 Area of the Mississippi valloy, or of the region watered by the Mississippi, Missouri, and

1,237,811 Area of the Atlantic slope proper

637,100 Area of the Atlantic slope, including only the waters falling into the Gulf of Mexico rest of the Mississippi

183,646 Area of the Atlantic slope, including only the waters falling into the Gulf of Mexico east of the Mississippi

145,830 Total of the Atlantic slope of the regions whose waters fall into the Atlantic

967,576 Total area of the United States and their Territories in 1853

2,971,158 But an examination of the various official Now, size is not a quality of much imreports of the General Land Office, Con portance in itself, as every body knows, gress, and the State Department, shows who has read Dr. Watts verses whioh that this calculation is behind the truth, end with declaring “the mind the standand the aggregate statement of the census ard of the man,” and a fortiori of nations. is 3,220,572 square miles. The territorial The little states of Greece might have extent of the republic, then, as Mr. De Bow been rolled up in one corner of some of remarks, is nearly ten times as large as our own States, yet their immortal arts that of Great Britain and France com illuminate the entire track of the last bined; three times as large as France,

two thousand years.

Rome was not Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, bigger, in her early and more vigorous Portugal, Belgium, Holland, and Denmark days, than an average Virginia corntogether; one and a half times as large as field, — yet Rome arrested the course the Russian empire in Europe; one sixth of the world by her arms, and impressed less only than the area covered by the her laws so deeply upon human civilizafifty-nine or sixty empires, states, and tion, that at this hour, at this distance of republics of Europe; and of equal extent time, they are still operative in all the with the Roman empire, or that of Alex- leading nations. The island of Great ander, neither of which is said to have Britain may be walked over in less than exceeded 3,000,000 square miles; while it a month, but Great Britain has made all ought to gratify the propensities of the most other nations tributaries to her wealth, uprapacious filibuster, to know, that more borne by a magnificent practical energy than one million miles of this territory and adorned by a glorious literature. Size, have been acquired within the last ten then, is not an indispensable condition of years, i. e., since 1840.

greatness; on the other hand, it may be & VOL. III.-2

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source of weakness to a nation, as it un refinement, and its means of intellectual questionably was to the later Rome, or is and moral culture. It is our signal fortune now to some of the South American states. that we are permitted to see the progress

It is, doubtless, pleasant for an Ameri of human growth in its beginnings as can to feel that he has room to turn round well as in its results,—to be present at in, that he possesses space enough to ex the birth of nations, to rock the cradle of patiate over, in the indefinite future, but their infancy, and to see them well put the character of his territorial dominions forward in the career of life. Every day which ought to excite his hopes or his almost we may see some little germ of a pride, is not its extent,—not the fact that future manhood deposited in its sustaining it reaches without a barrier from the bed, where it gathers accretions of nutrinorthern snows to the tropics, and from meut from all sides, unfolds gradually the tempestuous Atlantic to the golden into an organized vitality, and finally exgates of the Pacific,—but the other fact pands into full-blown strength and bloom. that it is so peculiarly adapted by its The older nations were begun in the farphysical features, to the residence and off ages, they grew by a scarcely appregrowth of a united people. The vast ciable increase, and all their habits and chains of the IIimalayas in Asia separate life-methods having been formed for them, its inhabitants into hostile tribes, who they are now quite unconscious of change. stagnate in their isolation-unconquerable The whole number of inhabitants in the and unconquering, alike they leave no United States, on the 1st of June, 1850, history. The Alps or Pyrenees inter was 23,263,488, which may be classified posed in Europe, “ make enemies of na in this wise. Whites, 19,630,738; freetions,” or if not enemies, divided races colored, 428,661 ; slaves, 3,204,089. But without true community of life or a general of the free inhabitants, 17,737,505 are mutual intercourse. But in this new natives, and 2,210,828 were born abroad, world, the physical structure of the entire viz. : 961,719 in Ireland, 573,225 in Gercontinent is different. Vast fertile plains, many, 278,675 in England,' 147,700 in numberless navigable rivers, great chains British America, 70,550 in Scotland, of lakes extending from the ocean far into 54,069 in France, 29,868 in Wales, and the interior, afford prodigious facilities of 95,022 in all other countries. It is noticecommunication unimpeded by obstacles, able, too, in respect to the distribution of and evidently designed for the seat of a foreigners, that 1,965,518 reside in what homogeneous civilization. Add to these a are termed the free States, and only climate not rigorous, like that of the poles, 245,310 in the slaveholding States. Of where man engages in a hopeless struggle the entire population, 2,728,106 are in the against a niggardly nature; nor luxurious, New England States, which are six in like that of the tropics, where the energy number ; 8,553,713 are in the middle of the body relaxes, and the very soul States, also six in number ; 3,557,872 are festers with over-ripeness, but temperate in the six slave States on the coast; and bracing, the true golden mcan, de 5,167,276 are in the six central slave manding and admitting a healthful activity, States; and 2,734,945 are in the five inciting to constant exertion, but seldom northwestern States. to desperate battle, and encouraging free As to the ratio of increase, which is an life, but never despondency or a fatal important point between these several leisure, — add, we say, climate to the classes and localities, we deduce the folphysical arrangement, if you would ac lowing results. The greatest increase in quire a just conception of the real grounds our total population has been in the decade of our territorial eminence. Politicians since 1840, when 6,194,035 people have may rant about the dangers of disunion, been added to us, or an increase of 36:28 but we think that nature has wisely pro per cent of this gain, the whites were vided against any possible failures on that 5,434,933, showing an increase of 38.28 score.

per cent. The free-colored have increased Well, it is into this simply-organized, 42,360, or only 10-96 per cent. The slave permeable, and ocean-washed inclosuré have increased 697,733, or 28.05 per cent. that a motley mass from the Old World, In respect to foreigners, the rate of inrepresenting every variety and degree of crease is not satisfactorily made out; but civilization, has been pouring for some it appears that the proportion in which two hundred years, and one of the most the several countries contribute to the interesting studies that can be imagined, total foreign immigration is this: Ireland, relates to the laws of its increase and 43:04 per cent.;. Germany, 25.09; Enginterfusion, the methods of its industry, land, 12.06; British America, 6.68; Scotits modes of life, its systems of physical land, 3.17; France, 2:44; Wales, 1.34;

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Males.

Females.

Total.

It may be interesting now to compare of the present century, notwithstanding the with these results the similar results ob great number that have annually left the tained in Great Britain by the census of country, and settled in the United States, 1851. The number of people in Great in the colonies of North America, AustraBritain and the small adjacent islands, in lia, and South Africa. The increase in 1851, was 20,959,477; and the men in the the last fifty years has been 93·47 per army, navy, and merchant service, and cent., or at the rate of 1.329 per cent. anEast India Company's service, abroad, on nually, the increase of each sex being the passage out, or round the coasts, be

about equal. longing to Great Britain, amounted, on the The annual rate of increase has varied same day, to 162,490. The population in each decennial period ; thus, in 1841of Great Britain may, therefore, be set 51, the population has increased, but the down at twenty-one millions, one hun rate of increase has declined, chiefly from dred and twenty-one thousand, nine hun accelerated emigration. dred and sixty-seven (21,121,967.)

The emigration from the United KingThe annexed table exhibits the distri dom in the ten years 1821–31 was bution of the people:

274,317; in the ten years 1831-41 it amounted to 717.913; and in the ten years 1841–51 it had increased to

1,693,516. England,

8,281,784 | 8,640,154 16,921,888 Scotland, 1,375,479 1,513,263 2,888, 742

What a roving set we are! In the older Wales, 499,491 506,230 1,005,721

countries it is not uncommon to meet Islands in the Bri

66,854 tish Seas,

76,272 143,126 with many persons who have never been Army, Navy, and

beyond the town or commune in which merchant sea162,490

162,490

they were born ; Londoners, for instance, men, at sea or

who never saw the green fields, except of abroad,

the parks ; Parisians, who never Total, 10,386,048 10,735,919 21,121,967

Versailles; rural people every where, who

think the hill which bounds their little The population of Ireland, as enumer

village homes the ultima thule of space ; ated by another department was 6,533,357.

but of our 17,736,792 free inhabitants, The following table gives the population 4,112,433 are settled in States in which of Great Britain and the Islands of the they were not born.

About 26 per cent. British exclusive of Ireland, and in

of the whole population of Virginia has seas, cluding the army, navy, and merchant migrated ; South Carolina has sent forth Seamen, as enumerated at each census 36 per cent.; and North Carolina, 31 per from 1801:

cent.; yet the New Englanders, particularly of Vermont and Connecticut, are the most discursive. They are in fact every

where-at the south, the west, in the ter5,368,704 5,548,730 10,917,438 ritories, on the Pacific—wherever there is 6,111,261 6,312,859 12,424,120

space for a blade of grass to grow, or 7,096,053 7,306,590 14,402,643 8,183,446 8,430,692 16,564,188 a spindle to turn, or a shop to be opened, 9,232,418 9,581,368 18,813,786

or a railroad to be built-in short, where1851 10,386,048 10,785,919 21,121,967

ever an honest penny is to be picked up,

by any kind of industry or ingenuity. It will be seen by the foregoing table, There are, for instance, 18,763 Massachuthat the population of Great Britain has setts men in Ohio, 9,230 in Missouri, nearly doubled since the commencement 55,773 in New-York, 4760 in California,

saw

Years.

Males.

Females,

Total.

1801 1811 1821 1831 1841

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