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of the teachers who baptized them, he told them that he and his brethren apostles, who, in respect of their inspiration, were the chief teachers in the church, were sent by Christ, not so much to baptize, as to preach the gospel, ver. 17.

The false teacher, by introducing the Grecian philosophy and rhetoric into his discourses, had endeavoured to render them acceptable to the Corinthians, and had preferred himself to Paul, who he said was unskilful in these matters. Lest therefore, the Corinthians should think meanly of his doctrine and manner of preaching, the apostle told them, that Christ had sent him to preach the gospel, not with wisdom of speech, that is, with philosophical arguments expressed in flowery harmonious language, such as the Greeks used in their schools; because in that method, the gospel becoming a subject of philosophical disputation, would have lost its efficacy as a revelation from God, ver. 17.That though the preaching of salvation through the cross, appeared mere foolishness to the destroyed among the heathen philosophers and Jewish scribes, yet to the saved from heathenism and Judaism, it was found by experience to be the powerful means of their salvation, ver. 18.-That God foretold he would remove both philosophy and Judaism on account of their inefficacy, ver. 19.—and make the Greek philosophers and Jewish scribes ashamed to shew themselves, because they had darkened and corrupted, rather than enlightened and reformed the world, ver. 20.—That having thus experimentally shewn the inefficacy of philosophy, it pleased God, by the preaching of doctrines. which to the philosophers appeared foolishness, to save them who believed, ver. 21.-And therefore, notwithstanding the Jews required the sign from heaven, in confirmaation of the doctrines proposed to them, and the Greeks expected every doctrine to be conformable to their philosophical principles, the apostle preached salvation through Christ crucified, which he knew was to the Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Greeks foolishness, ver. 22, 23.-But to them who were called, or persuaded to believe the gospel, both Jews and Greeks, that doctrine was the powerful and wise means which God made use of for their salvation, ver. 24.-Therefore, said he, it is evident that the foolish doctrines of God have more wisdom in them than the wisest doctrines of men; and the weak instruments used by God, for accomplishing his purposes, are more effectual than the greatest exertions of human genius, ver. 25.

Having thus defended both the doctrines of the gospel, and the manner in which they were preached, the apostle very pro

perly proceeded to shew the Corinthians, the folly of boasting in their teachers, on account of their learning, their eloquence, their high birth, or their power. Look, said he, at the persons who have called you to the belief of the gospel; not many philosophers, not many warriors, not many noblemen, have been employed to call you, ver. 26.—But God hath chosen for that purpose, unlearned persons, to put to shame the learned, ver. 27. -by their success in enlightening and reforming the world, ver. 28.—that no flesh might take any honour to himself, in the

OLD TRANSLATION.
CHAP. I. 1 Paul called

to be an apostle of Jesus
Christ, through the will

of God, and Sosthenes our brother,

2 Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours.

GREEK TEXT.

1 Παυλος κλητος αποςόλος Ιησου Χριςου, δια θελήματος Θεου, και Σωσθένης ὁ αδελφος,

2 Τη εκκλησία του Θεού τη ουσῃ εν Κορινθῳ, ἡγιασμένοις εν Χριςῳ Ιησου, κλητοις, ἁγιοις, συν πασι τοις επικαλουμένοις το όνομα του Κυρίου ήμων Ιησου Χριςου εν παντι τοπῳ, αυτων τε και ἡμων·

Ver. 1.—1. A called apostle. Because the faction pretended to entertain doubts of Paul's apostleship, chap. ix. 1. he began this letter with telling them, that he was not, like Matthias, an apostle made by men, neither did he assume the office by his own authority, but he was called to it by Christ himself, who for that purpose appeared to him from heaven, as he went to Damascus to persecute his disciples; and that in calling him to be an apostle, Christ acted by the appointment of God. So Ananias assured Paul, Acts xxii. 14, 15. Wherefore, in respect of the manner in which Paul was made an apostle, he was more honourable than all the other apostles. See Rom. i. 1. note 2.

2. Sosthenes. If this person was the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, mentioned as active in persecuting Paul, Acts xviii. 17. we must sup.. pose that he was afterwards converted, and became an eminent preacher of the gospel and having a considerable influence among the Corinthians, be joined in writing this letter, for the reasons mentioned, 1 Thess. Pref. sect. 2Ver. 2.-1. The church of God, &c. This is a much more august title than that mentioned, Gal. i. 2. The churches of Galatia.

2. To the sanctified. See Ess. iv. 53. and chap. vi. 11. note 2.

S. To the called into the fellowship of the saints; as the apostle himself explains it, ver. 9.

matter of converting and saving mankind, ver. 29.—the whole glory being due to God, ver. 30, 31. In this light, the mean birth and low station of the first preachers of the gospel, together with their want of literature and eloquence, instead of being objections to the gospel, are a strong proof of its divine original.

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COMMENTARY.

CHAP. I. 1 Paul, a miraculously called apostle of Jesus Christ, agreeably to the will of God, and Sosthenes my fellow labourer in the gospel,

2 To the worshippers of the true God, who are in Corinth ; to the separated from the heathens, by their being under Jesus Christ; to the called people of God; to those who merit the appellation of saints, because they have renounced idolatry, and have devoted themselves to serve the true God; with all in every place, who worship our Lord Jesus Christ, who is both their and our Lord who are Jews.

4. To the saints. See Ess. iv. 48, 1 Cor. vi. 1. where the saints are opposed to the unrighteous, that is, to idolaters.

5. All in every place. Though this epistle was written to correct the disorderly practices of the Corinthians, it contained many general instructions, which could not fail to be of use to all the brethren in the province of Achaia likewise, and even to Christians in every place: for which reason, the inscription consists of three members, and includes them all.

6. Call upon the name of our Lord Jesus. Tois twμs. This expression we have, Acts vii. 59. And they stoned Stephen, eruansμevov, calling upon Christ, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. See also Acts ix. 14. xxii. 16. Rom. x. 12, 13, 14.-Praying to Christ was so much practised by the first Christians, that Pliny mentioned it in his letter to Trajan: Carmen Christo, quasi Deo, dicere, They sing with one another, a hymn to Christ as a God.

7. Both their and our Lord. This the apostle mentioned in the beginning of his letter, to shew the Corinthians how absurd it was for the disciples of one master, to be divided into factions under particular leaders. Christ is the only Lord or master of all his disciples, whether they be Jews or Gentiles.

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3 Grace be unto you,

and peace from God our

3 Χαρις ύμιν και ειρηνη απο Θεου πατρος ήμων, και

Father, and from the Lord Κυρίου Ιησου Χριςου.

Jesus Christ.

4 I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ;

5 That in every thing ye are enriched by him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge ;

6 Even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed

in you.

7 So that ye come behind in no gift; waiting for the coming of our

Lord Jesus Christ.

8 Who shall also confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

4 Ευχαριςω τῷ Θεῷ μου παντοτε περι ύμων, επι τη χαριτι του Θεου τη δοθείση υμιν εν Χριςῳ Ιησου

5 Ότι εν παντι επλουτι σθητε εν αυτῷ, εν παντι λογω και πάση γνώσει,

6 Καθώς το μαρτύριον του Χριςου εβεβαιωθη εν ύμιν

7 Ωςε ὑμας μη υςερεισ da εν μηδενι μηδενι χαρισματι, απεκδεχομενους την αποκα λυψιν του Κυριου ημων Ιησου Χριςου.

8 Ος και βεβαιώσει ὑμας έως τελους ανεγκλητους εν τη ήμερα του Κυρίου ἡμων Ιησου Χριςου.

Ver. 4.1. On account of the grace of God; that is, on account of the spiritual gifts. For so the grace of God signifies, Rom. xii. 6. Having gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us. See also Ephes. iv. 7, 8. 1 Pet. iv. 10. That grace hath this signification here, is evident from ver. 5. Ver. 5.1. With all speech. Εν παντί λόγῳ, with all sorts of languages. From chap. xiv. we learn that many of the Gentiles at Corinth, as well as of the Jews, were endowed with the gift of tongues.

2. And all knowledge. See 1 Cor. xii. 8. note 2. What is here said concerning the enriching of the Corinthians with all knowledge, is to be understood chiefly of the spiritual men among the Jewish converts; for most of the Gentile converts at Corinth, were fleshly or weak persons, and babes in Christ, chap. iii. 1. 3.

Ver. 6. 1. When the testimony of Christ : the testimony concerning Christ. So the phrase signifies, 2 Tim. i. 8. See Ess. iv. 24.

Ver. 7.1. So that ye come behind in no gift. The apostle speaks here, not of individuals, but of the church at Corinth, as having in it spiritual men, who possessed all the different spiritual gifts which common believers

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3 May gracious dispositions be to you, with peace, temporal and eternal, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, by whom God dispenses these blessings.

4 In my prayers, I give thanks to my God always concerning you, on account of the grace of God, which was given to you through the powerful operation, and agreeably to the will of Jesus Christ:

5 I mean, that ye were enriched with every spiritual gift by Jesus Christ; and in particular, with all sorts of languages, and with a great measure of inspired knowledge,

6 When our testimony concerning Christ, as the Son of God and Saviour of the world, was confirmed among you, by the miracles which I wrought, and the spiritual gifts I conferred on you.

7 So that ye come behind other churches, in no gift; firmly expecting the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ as the Son of God, by his appearing in the glory of the Father to judge the world.

8 He (God, ver. 4.) also will confirm you, until the end, in the belief of that testimony; so as to be without just cause of accusation, in the day of the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

could enjoy. Accordingly he asked them, 2. Cor. xii. 13. What is the thing wherein ye have been inferior to other churches? See 2 Cor. xii. 12. note 3.

Ver. 8.-1. He also will confirm you. "Os, here, is not the relative, but the personal pronoun. For the following verse shews that the person spoken of, is God, mentioned ver. 4. I give thanks to my God, &c.

2. Without accusation. The apostle in this, expresses only his charitable judgment, not of individuals, but of the body of the Corinthian church. For by no stretch of charity could he hope, that every individual of a church in which there were such great disorders, would be unaccusable at the day of judgment. See 1 Thess. iii. 13. note 2.

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