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Mr. Wolcott suggests, that this last remark may serve to correct the general statement made in the Researches (Vol. I.
p. 394) as to the western entrances of the Haram, viz. that they all “are reached by an ascent, and some of them at least by steps.” This does not hold true of the entrance from the street passing across the mound.*
Tombs of the Judges. The account of these in the Researches (Vol. I. pp. 527, 528,) was not drawn up from any minute examination or any reasurements of our own. The description of the first and largest room is correct so far as it goes. As to the rest, Mr. Wolcott gives the following as a more exact description ; beginning immediately after the quotation from Sandys respecting the side of the room “cut full of holes in manner of a dove-house."
“The upper crypts open out into regular arches, or arched recesses, three feet deep, each including three or four. On the east and south sides of the ante-chamber, doorways lead to two other apartments, each about eight feet square ; the former of which has crypts on three of its sides like those in the ante-room, and the latter has only the lower rows with nothing but the arched recesses above. At the south-west corner of the ante-room, a few steps lead down through the floor to an irregular apartment, about twelve feet square under it, without niches. A similar passage in the northeast corner of the ante-room leads down eastward into a room
* In the Researches (I. p. 393) it is said that this mound“ is probably rubbish, the accumulation of ages; though the houses in the vicinity prevented us from ascertaining whether it extends quite across the valley.” This last remark, as it stands, may seem unintelligible; since one of the chief streets passes over the whole length of the mound into the Haram. But in passing down this street, one is not usually aware of the mound at all; and the other street which crosses it from north to south, we traversed only once, and did not then note, that the top of the ridge was occupied by a street. At that time we had no suspicion of the nature of the mound, or of its connexion with the aqueduct; all this occurred to me afterwards at Berlin ; where, of course; I had only imperfect notes of an imperfect observation. Hence the mention of the houses; which it now appears have nothing to do with the matter.-R.
five feet square ; from which there is a passage eastward into a still lower apartment ten feet square, differing from the others in having on three sides the upper tiers of crypts alone with the arched recesses."
It is suggested in the Researches, that there may perhaps be passages down from the remaining corners of the large room. Mr. Wolcott ascertained that there is none in one of these corners, and probably none in the other. His more accurate description explains the statements of Cotovicus and Doubdan, referred to on p. 528, note 1.
Tomb of Helena. This mausoleum, heretofore commonly known as the Tombs of the Kings, is fully described, and its connexion with Helena vindicated, in the Bibl. Researches, Vol. I. pp. 528–538. Our own fruitless attempt at further examination, as also that of Irby and Mangles, are there detailed. A renewed attempt is mentioned by Mr. Wolcott.
“A quotation in the Researches* from Iīby and Mangles, seemed to give encouragement that there might be another set of apartments connected with the tomb, and another entrance. Mr. Tipping accordingly hired two workmen to clear away the rubbish again from the opposite end of the portico, assisted by our man Yûsuf, who was also with the party which you employed. The work was done in a few hours. We found ihe block which the first party describe, over the supposed entrance. On reaching its upper surface, Yûsuf said that this was as low as you excavated. It is an irregular stone, three or four feet square, and seems to have been broken away from the front of the portico. We removed it, but found no opening beneath it; and laid bare the rock for several feet, without discovering any trace of a passage. None probably ever existed. This supposition is confirmed by the appearance of the rock, which on this side is less firm and compact, and less suitable for excavation, than the opposite portion; as is apparent from the face of it, both in the portico and in the court.”
At the eastern end of the broad trench on the south of the court of this tomh, forming an approach to its entrance,t a small opening is visible in the face of the rock, leading into an excavated chamber. This we entered so far
as to perceive that the room was large and empty ; but did not examine it further, and, among the multitude of similar phenomena, we made no note of it. Messrs. W. and T. explored it, and found an apartment thirty feet by twentyfive. “On the eastern and southern sides have been cut deep channels, the former seven and the latter four feet wide, separated by a small strip of the rock, in which a narrow passage
has been cut. The remainder of the apartment consists of the natural rock, cut into broad steps or offsets, leading down to the eastern channel ; a portion of the rock remaining in the middle as a support. The whole apartment was stuccoed. We were at a loss to assign its use; but concluded it to have been a bath." It is difficult, however, lo see what a bath could have to do in connexion with the Tomb of Helena; and just as difficult to give any other probable explanation of the purpose of this chamber.
Tombs of the Prophets. These tombs on the Mount of Olives were not visited by us, but are briefly described in the Researches (Vol. f. p. 539) from the accounts of Doubdan and Pococke. Mr. Wolcott furnishes the following description of them.
“The entrance to these tombs is through a hole in the rock above, into a circular aparıment, about twenty feet in diameter; a side entrance to which is blocked up. Two passages lead from it, (and a third appears to have been walled up,) extending thirty feet each, in a direct line. Between them run two galleries in concentric curves, one at their extreme end, the other in the middle. When free from rubbish, they are about ten feet high and six broad, arched and stuccoed. The outer gallery is 115 feet in length, and contains the niches, thirty-two in number, extending outwards on the level of its floor, on the further side. Two small chambers open into it, containing half a dozen niches. A narrow excavation leading from the most northern passage, terminates at the distance of more than one hundred fect, in a clayey, friable soil ; which is perhaps the reason that the galleries were not continued.
“ These could not have been the 'subterraneous chambers' mentioned by Dr. Clarke ; which, moreover, were on the very pinnacle of the mountain. The crypt which he describes at lengih, was a mere cistern. On the southern summit of the Mount of Olives, are three or four precisely like
it, about twenty feet deep, connected probably with former buildings here, of which there are traces. A few paces lower, between them and the tombs, is still another, ten feet deeper. They are similar to those which abound north of the city; and inferior to some of them. We came across a large one in that quarter, supported by arches. The attempt of Dr. Clarke, to connect a common cistern with the idolatry of Solomon and the worship of Astaroth, devoting learned notes to the discussion, and sending travellers in pursuit of Pagan remains upon Mount Olivet, is most unpardonable."-Compare the similar remarks in Bibl. Res. I. p. 539, note 3.
Former Tower in the N. W. corner of the City. The remains of this tower, or bastion, are described in the Researches, Vol. I. p. 471," as consisting of a large square area, or platform, built up solidly of rough stones, fifteen or twenty feet in height, and paved on the top.” At the S. W. corner of it, near the ground, “three courses of large bevelled stones, rough hewn, pass into the mass diagonally, in such a way as to show that ihey lay here before the tower and bastion were built." These we referred to the ancient third wall of Josephus ; the foundations of which we could trace from near this point to a considerable distance northwards, outside
of the city.
To our account of this ruin, Mr. Wolcott adds the following. “Besides the bevelled stones described in the S. W. corner, a doorway in the N. W. corner leads into a small room, in which are four similar layers; and these, like the former, do not seem to have been disturbed. Mr. T. refers them to the age of the ancient wall. The site is perhaps the highest in the city; and a strip of the Dead Sea is visible from the present summit. The native name of the ruin is Kül'at Yellad.
Mr. W. suggests, whether this point may not have been the position of the tower of Psephinos, described by Josephus ; remarking that the ancient wall appears to have here formed a right angle. But the position assigned by Josephus to that tower, was the north-west corner of the city as enclosed by Agrippa's or the third wall,-a point much'farther towards the north, as is shown by the remaining traces of that wall.--See Bibl. Res. I. pp. 458,465 sq.
Ancient Khån. During our visit to the well, connected with the fountain under the Haram, I recollect noticing toSECOND SERIES, VOL. VIII. NO. 1.
wards the south, (on the opposite side of the street, I think,) a large oblong open court, with traces of ruined buildings. I am not sure, whether this is the same described by Mr. Wolcott in the following paragraph.
“Passing north of the court just mentioned, I was struck with the appearance of its southern side ; and think it deserves a passing mention. Its foundations are the bevelled stones of Jewish architecture ; and three massive arches lead beneath a terrace supported by twenty-four columns of masonry. The plan was too extensive for a private edifice ; and I found on enquiry, that it was known as a ruined Khân, by ihe two names of Khân Emîr Hasan, and Khân Otuz Bîr. It probably belonged to the early days of the Muslim conquest; and is one of the most compact ancient substructures within the city. It is in the centre of the block, a few feet south of west from the well, and west of the Grand Mosk. It communicates at present with no street; and descending into the court, although in the heart of the city, I scemed to be in entire seclusion."
’Amwâs, Emmaus, i. e. Nicopolis. This place we saw from Tell es-Sâfieh, but not afterwards. On our map it is laid down on the south of the road from Yâfa to Jerusalem, on the authority of Prokesch and others. But the text holds of it the following language : “ It is said by some to lie about one hour from Lâtrôn towards :he south; while other information places it ten or fifteen minutes north of Lâtrôn, towards Yalo."*
Mr. Wolcott communicates the following remark, under date of Jan. llih. “I am reminded to tell you, that Mr. Tipping says you have put down Emmaus ('Amwas) on the map in the wrong position, south of the Jerusalem road, instead of north of it, where he found it last week.”
Correction in the Biblical Researches. Mr. W. 10 suspect, that the measure of 630 feet, assigned to the southern wall of the Haram, outside of the city wall, (Vol. I. p. 395,) was too great. This measurement included the dis tance, from the point where the city wall would join the south wall of the Haram, to the S. E. corner of the latter, viz. 60 feet for the exterior building in the corner, and 570 feet beyond ; as I find on recurring to my original pencil-notes.
* Bibl. Res. III. p. 30. Comp. II. p. 363.