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The following books have been print Before the close of the last year the ed in the Ojibwa language during the Indians and the mission families had fin
ished their removal, and were settled on Pages. Cepics.
the new reservation. In this respect the
facilities for giving instruction, both in Ojibwa Spelling-Book, 2d edition,
schools and in religious meetings, have Old Testament Stories and Nutural History,
been greater during the last year than Gallaudet's Picture Defining and
during the two years preceding. But Reading Book, and New Testament Stories,
even now, when the Indians have hardly Ojibwa Hymns, by Peter Jones,
put up their houses and cleared and inSix Cards-alphabet and short sylla
closed their fields, the proposal has been bles,
made to take them from their homes Making in all 2,000 copies and 164,000 again, and transport them to a country pages.
west of the Mississippi river. Their The gospel of Luke has been trans- minds are beginning to be agitated on lated into the Ojibwa language, by Mr. the subject. The perplexity and disHall, assisted by a native young man, couragement to which the missionaries and is ready for the press.
are subjected from this source are very
great; but not to be compared with the MISSION SCHOOL AT MACKINAW. disheartening and deteriorating influ
ence exerted on the Indians by being LuciuGarey, Superintendent of Secular Concransi | obliged so often to abandon the houses Mrs. Garey; W. R' Campbell, Teacher: Mrs. Camp: and fields which they were just beginbel; Eunice 0. Osmar, Hannah Goodale, and Jane Leavitt, Teachers and Assistunts.
ning to enjoy, and to endure new toils (1 station, 1 catechist, 1 teacher, and 5 females.) and exposures to prepare for themselves
other homes, of which they may be deMiss Skinner was last autumn united spoiled as soon. How manifestly imposin marriage to Rev. Mr. Denton, a mis-sible is it that a people should become sionary from the Basle Seminary in
more industrious, intelligent, or moral, or Switzerland, destined to the Indians near should acquire more of the comforts of Prairie du Chien. The health of Miss life, or rise in character, while kept in so McFarland having become much im- agitated and unsettled a state. paired, she left Mackinaw last autumn.
During the past year the Indians have No ordained missionary has been sta- been unusually engaged about their vationed on the island during the year. || rious labors; and temperance, industry, The meetings have been conducted and attention to meetings and religious principally by Mr. Schoolcraft, the Unit- instruction have been more general, both ed States agent for Indian affairs, and among old and young, than for the preMr. Garey, and have been very well at-|ceding two or three years. Some intended. The members of the church stances of hopeful conversion have ochave manifested a good degree of chris- || curred, and numbers have been seriously tian feeling, and have generally adorned concerned about their salvation. their profession. Since the removal of
Mr. Marsh has, by request, assisted in the business of the American Fur Com-organizing a presbyterian church at pany from the island, the number of Green Bay, consisting of thirteen memEnglish residents has been much dimin-bers. ished, and the number now connected
The school last fall and winter receivwith the church, including some pious |ed forty-six pupils, though the average soldiers in the garrison, does not exceed | attendance was hardly twenty. Last thirty-five or forty.
spring it was thought best to open a new The school which is under the instruc- school in the southern part of their town, tion of Mr. and Mrs. Campbell, has been which was attended by about twenty somewhat reduced in numbers during | pupils. the year; the number of boarding scholars of both sexes having been only twenty-nine, and the whole daily attendance, including the pupils from the village,
TUSCARORA.- William Williams, Missionary, and having been forty-six.
his wife; Elizabeth Stone ani Lucia G. Smith,
MISSION TO THE NEW-YORK INDIANS.
MISSION TO THE STOCKBRIDGE INDIANS.
SENECA.- Asher Wright, Missionary, and his wife; Asunath Bishop, Teacher.
Cutting Marsh, Missionary; Chauncey Hall, Teacher; Mrs. Gall.
(1 station, 1 missionary, 1 teacher, and 1 female.)
CATTARAUGUS.--Asher Bliss, Missionary, and his wife; Andelusia Lee, Teacher.
ALLEGHANY.--William Ball, Teacher and Cate. || ligion, and some others appear to have chist, and his wifo.
been converted to God. (4 stations, 3 missionaries, 1 teacher, and 8 fe When the Indian families are at home, males.)
the school is attended by fifteen or twenThe state of religious feelings on all ty; but when they are absent on their the reservations has been fluctuating; hunting excursions, only six or eight are sometimes encouraging the missionaries | present. to hope that the Spirit of God was about | Osunkherhine has recently procured a to display his converting and sanctifying i small press and a supply of types for power; and then again stupidity and printing small cards and tracts in the backsliding have but too obviously char- || language of his people. acterized the members of the several churches. Much harmony and worldly
SUMMARY. prosperity have prevailed, but few have given evidence of having turned from
During the past year the receipts of darkness to light. The number of church
the Board have amounted to $176,232 members at Tuscarora is 44, at Seneca
15, and the expenditures have been 40, at Cattarangus 56, and at Alleghany $210,407 54; besides $37,900 intrusted 56; in all 196.
to the Board and expended by its misTen schools have been taught on the sionaries for various bible and tract sofour reservations for a greater or less cieties. The number of missions now portion of the year, embracing in all under the care of the Board is thirty-one, about 250 pupils; the average daily at- including eighty-one stations; at which tendance, however, not having proba- are laboring one hundred and fifteen orbly exceeded 200. Flourishing Sabbath dained missionaries, five of whom are schools have also been maintained, and regularly educated physicians, ten other an evening school at Cattaraugus for physicians, sixteen teachers and cateyoung men and adults; besides efforts chists, eight printers and book-binders, which have been made to teach some
fourteen other lay assistant missionaries, of the Indians to read in their own lan- and one hundred and fifty-eight married
and unmarried female assistant missionguage.
A small reading book with a vocabu- aries; making in all three hundred and lary, embracing forty-two pages, has twenty missionary laborers sent from been prepared in the Sencca language this country; and, including five native by Mr. Wright, and one thousand copies preachers and seventy-two other native
teachers and assistants, three hundred
and ninety-eight persons now connected MISSION TO THE ABERNA QUIS.
with the missions of the Board and sup
ported from its funds. Of these, fifteen Peter Paul Osunkherhine, Native Preacher.
ordained missionaries, two physicians,
three other male and twenty-three mar(1 station, and 1 native preacher.)
ried and unmarrried female assistant In January last Osunkherhine . was missionaries, in all forty-three, have been licensed to preach the gospel by the sent forth during the year. Connected presbytery of Champlain; and in June he with the several missions are forty-four was ordained by the same presbytery as churches gathered by the labors of the an evangelist to his native tribe. The missionaries, embracing 2,003 members; opposition to him and his labors, which also 420 schools, embracing 17,715 puhad previously been great and unremit- || pils, besides four seminaries for training ted, was immediately embittered. He native preachers and teachers, at which went on with his labors, however, deter- | 327 pupils are receiving instruction. mined, as he says, "o depend only on There are ten printing establishments the Lord, who is stronger than them all.” | for the use of the missions, (at three of He now preaches every Sabbath, holds which are type and stereotype foundeprayer and conference meetings often ries,) at which sixteen presses are kept, during the week, visits and converses in operation. These establishments poswith the people on religious subjects, sess the means of printing in nineteen and teaches school every day. About different languages, spoken by more than twenty-five hearers attend his meetings, | 450,000,000 of people; and during the “because,” as he says, "they believe the year have printed not less than 481,665 bible religion to be better than what is copies of books, tracts, and portions of taught by the priest, though perhaps they the scriptures, embracing not less than are not all new creatures by the Spirit.” | 18,640,836 pages. The whole number of One has made a public profession of re-l pages printed for the missions of the
Board since their commencement is not ,,churches of other portions of Christenfar from 116,000,000.
dom,—since there is room enough and
more than enough for all,—the American
Board will direct its efforts to specific
In pointing out these portions as defi-
On the African continent the attention formity with which they may be enlarg. ll of the Board is directed more especially ed till the knowledge of the gospel shall || to the central regions, and at the same be disseminated, and its benign and sav
time to certain points on the western ing influence felt by all the families of and southern coasts. The stations almankind.
ready formed upon the two coasts are The following statements are made for starting points for the interior. A range the purpose, first, of showing that, in ex
of mountains extends from west to east tending the operations of the Board || through the heart of Africa. Recent among unevangelized nations, reference discoveries lead us to suppose that a spur is had to system, and to great ultimate | from this great central chain comes results; and secondly, of ascertaining | down to the neighborhood of onr mission whether the christian community will
at Cape Palmas. If so, with the blessing sustain the Board in endeavoring, with of heaven, we may soon establish ourthe divine aid, to fill up the outline here selves upon it. Taking another position presented, and to carry their plans into | at Cape Coast Castle, 450 miles eastward execution as fully and as speedily as of Cape Palmas, and advancing thence possible.
into the Ashantee country, we may soon
occupy the mountain range at a more Before presenting the outline of what advanced position eastward. As soon it may be proper for the Board to aim to
commerce succeeds in making a accomplish, two preliminary remarks are speedy, annual passage up the Niger to important.
Boosa, the Board propose to occupy 1. It is presumed that the evangeli- some upland position near that place, cal churches of Christendom have enter- || 1,200 miles in a strait line from our preed upon the work of missions to the sent station at Cape Palmas. heathen with the intention of publishing The Board propose, also, to approach the gospel to the whole unevangelized the centre of Africa from the south. For world.
this purpose they have commenced a 2. That the American Board, howev- | mission at Port Natal, 900 miles easter, as a missionary institution, does not ward of Cape Town, and another in the undertake alone to publish the gospel to interior 400 miles from Port Natal. If all these nations. Other societies in this the region from these points to the cenland, and Christians of other nations, tre of the continent be found populous, have entered upon this work, and others the Board propose, the Lord granting still will engage in it. Our English permission, to advance northward till brethren are doing more than ourselves, our line of missions from the west and will not be behind us in this race of and south shall meet, and keep a jubiusefulness. The French and German lee on the mountains of the centre. churches, too, are beginning to develope | The proposed line of operations from the spirit of missionary enterprise; but Cape Palmas to Port Natal is about for some time to come, owing to the 4,500 miles. state of their civil and religious institu In Asia, the Board have another great tions and the limited prevalence of evan- | line of inissions marked oat_for the engelical piety among them, these church- || terprise of the churches. The line bees can be expected to do little more than Igins at Constantinople, or rather in Macefurnish auxiliary forces to the granddonia; runs through the northern disspiritual armies of England and Amer- | tricts of Asia Minor, through Persia and ica. In Russia, also, there seems to be Afghanistan, down through western and the elements of religious enterprise southern India to Ceylon. On this line struggling to be freed from the chains we have a station already at Constantinoof civil and ecclesiastical despotism. ple, two in Asia Minor, one or two in
Acting on the principle of not inter- || Persia, three in western India, one in fering with other evangelical missionary | southern India, and a number in Ceylon; societies, and with the evangelicallland a missionary has been appointed to
Rajpootana, higher up the line in west- || Rocky Mountains, including about ern India.
10,000 Ojib was on the north, are estiAnother line commences in Greece, mated to embrace 122,000. Of the numpasses through the southern districts of ber of those who occupy the territory inAsia Minor, through Syria and Palestine cluding the mountains and regions beto Mesopotamia. On this line three sta- | yond to the Pacific ocean, no correct tions have been formed among the estimate can be formed. Greeks, one in Asia Minor, and two in The western Indians have been apSyria and Palestine.
proached at the southern and northern Another series of missions has been extremities of their territory. In the projected and commenced in eastern south, beginning with the emigrant Asia and the neighboring Archipelago. Cherokees, Choctaws, and Creeks, the The central point is Singapore, at which line of our missions extends to the Pawa station has been formed. It is propos- nee country, and thence, by means of ed to extend missions up the populous the exploring tour performed within the valley of Siam, towards China in that last eighteen months, and the new stadirection; to the great neighboring tion recently taken among the Flat islands of Sumatra, Java, and Borneo; Head and Nez Perces tribes, to the Oreand to the coasts of China and Japan, gon river. as soon as Divine Providence allows On the north, our line begins with missions to occupy them. Already we Mackinaw and the Stockbridge Indians, have a station in Siam, another at Can- and proceeds on from the southwestern ton, and one or two in the islands. shores of lake Superior, through the
How soon it will be practicable to ex- Ojibwa country, to the head waters of tend our missions westward from the the Mississippi, and thence into the Sandwich Islands among other islands country of the Sioux, whose bands exof the North Pacific, it is not now possi- tend westerly to the head waters of the ble to determine.
Missouri. Here we meet with numerous Such is a concise geographical view extensive tribes, through which the line of the plans of the Committee, as far i should be extended till it intersect the as they have been formed, for the mis- i first mentioned line beyond the Rocky sions of the Board, in benighted coun- Mountains. tries beyond the limits of our own territory.
The facilities of access to these porThe Indian tribes of North Americations of the world are rapidly multiplymay be arranged geographically in two ing. No science has made more rapid classes; those within the limits of the progress during the last twenty-five States and territories of the Union, and years, than that of geography; no art has those beyond the western frontiers. The improved more than the art of travelling; former, to which a few years since mis- no enterprize has exerted itself with such sions were principally confined, are now amazing power and effect as that of comremoving from their present location; | merce. Steamboats have made rivers as and, considering their prospects, may in navigable as the ocean; and have exthe formation of future plans, be left tended the facilities of rapid water comout of the account. Their number at munication into the centres of vast conthe present time may be estimated attinents. Already are they on the Niger, 75,000.
ascending to the heart of Africa; and The tribes beyond the limits of our on the Ganges, the Indus, and the Eustates and territories may also be divided phrates, ascending to the heart of Asia. into two classes; the one embracing the They ply between Calcutta and Bombay tribes which have emigrated from the and the Red Sea; are found in all parts east, and the other those wito now oc of the Mediterranean, and in the Black cupy their original country. The for- | Sea; and have actually made their apmer are generally agriculturists and set
pearance among the islands of the tled in their mode of living, and most of Indian Archipelago. In all this we nothem are partially civilized; while the tice the wonder-working of the provilatter obtain subsistence mainly by bunt-dence of God, preparing the way for ing, are migratory in their habits, and his churches to publish the gospel every savage in their character. The emigrant where. tribes, when they shall be joined by their brethren now east of the Mississippi The parts of the earth where it is river, will probably embrace about proposed to establish missions, with a 108,000 souls, while the native tribes view to occupying, in connection with between our western frontiers and the those already commenced, that portion
of the unevangelized world which may ,,pect to furnish any foreign nation with properly be allotted to the American preachers for many continuous generachurches which sustain the Board, hav- tions. Heathen nations must be rendering been noticed, the AGENCY TO BE ed independent of Christendom for their USED will now be briefly described. religious teachers as soon as possible.
Human nature is found to be the same In no other way can this be done, than in every climate and nation. The causes by endeavoring to raise up men in every which can degrade inan in one land be place, men born and educated in the low his natural level, will exert the same several countries, who may be ordained depressing influence in every land where as pastors of the churches. The plans they are allowed to operate uncontrolled. l of the Board are formed with a view to On the other hand, the causes which, this result. Institutions, combining in through the blessing of God, elevate him their nature both the college and the to a holy and happy life in one land, will theological seminary, enter into the plans have equal efficacy and are equally of all our missions beyond sea. We necessary in every other. Man can no have them now at the Sandwich Islands, more be enlightened without education, in Ceylon, and at Constantinople. We or holy without the gospel, in Africa or have them resolved upon and projected Asia, than in America. He must rise in the Grecian Archipelago, in Syria, there and every where else by the same among the Nestorians of Persia, anong means by which we are raised and by the Mahrattas of India, and at Singawhich we are sustained on the scale of pore. They will be needed in Asia social life. Hence the true and simple Minor, Mesopotamia, Rajpootana, Siam, theory of missions. They are an en-1 China, and the islands of the Indian deavor to extend to heathen nations the Archipelago. means of improvement, and especially of Around these seminaries, to a greater moral improvement, which we enjoy. or less extent, are schools of different They are built upon unquestioned prin- orders for the elementary christian educiples of our nature, and upon our every cation of youth-partly to furnish proday experience of cause and effect, as mising youths for the seminaries, and well as upon the plainest commands of partly to furnish model schools, to raise the word of God. The institutions and up native teachers for schools, and to influences which we observe to be so cultivate a habit of reading and a taste effectual, under God, at home, and in for education among the people. To which we are taught to repose so much superintend this department, it will probconfidence, we endeavor to send abroad ably be important to send a small numby means of foreign missions, and to ber of well qualified lay-teachers to each make them the common property of of the missions. In process of time namankind; not doubting at all their trans- tive teachers will be qualified to take forming influence, as instruments in His the whole charge of elementary schools, hands by wliose command act. and even to take the professorships in the These are the PREACHING OF THE GOS seminaries. PEL, EDUCATION, and THE PRESS.
The creative power in education has The preaching of the gospel is of course been the press. This is the modern gift the leading instrumentality in missions. of tongues; and in many respects it is This was almost the only means which better than that which the apostles bad. the apostles could command, for in their It is proposed to make great use of the day there was no press, and neither press. Printing establishments have albooks nor education for the multitude. ready been formed at the Sandwich The preaching of the gospel is still, and Islands, in China, Siam, at Singapore, in ever will be, the grand means for the Ceylon, western India, Syria, and Asia conversion of men. The leading object Minor. They are about to be sent to of the Board, therefore, is to supply the western Africa, south Africa, and the millions embraced within the contem- | Nestorians of Persia. Ere long it is plated range of their operations with the hoped that this stupendous engine will preached gospel. Excepting the Sand- | be planted in several other favorable powich Islands, however,-- where the pecu- sitions. However, it will probably be liar providence of God has made it ne- expedient to employ presses owned by cessary for us to occupy the whole the Board only so far and so long as they ground at once, and such other tribes as shall be indispensable to the printing may become similarly situated,--the which must be done. Natives are trained Committee are not expecting adequately, to the art of printing wherever we have to supply the people with stated preach- || presses. Gradually, too, our schooling from our own land. Nor do they ex-ll books, versions of the scriptures, and