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Britannica speaks of it as published "Lond. 1681 :" Gauden, however, died Sep. 20, 1662, so that it was either a posthumous publication or a reprint of an Edition published in his life time but from the circumstance that it was dedicated to "The Lady Rich," who died Nov. 12, 1657, it may most reasonably be concluded to have been published under Gauden's own auspices. The copy from which I now quote is dated 1707, being the Tenth Edition, and bears the Imprimatur of Archbishop Sancroft, 1686; whether the Archiepiscopal sanction was then for the first time given, or was appended to the Edition of 1681 or to any earlier Edition* I have not been able to learn: nor is the point material: the sanction of Sancroft, whenever appended, is a sufficient testimony of the value of the book itself. The Title is as follows:
"The whole duty of a communicant: being rules and directions for a worthy receiving The most Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. With Meditations and Prayers for every Morning and Evening throughout the Week. Also, some Useful Directions and Considerations, in order to a Holy Life after we have received the Blessed Communion.
"By the Right Reverend Father in God,
John Gauden, late Lord
Bishop of Exeter.
The tenth Edition.
"London: Printed for N. Boddington, at the Golden-Ball in Duck Lane; and H. Hoodes, at the Star, the Corner of Bride Lane, Fleet Street. 1707."
The Frontispiece represents an Altar vested for the Holy Communion, with Linen Cloth on the top of the Table-two Flagons, two Chalices with covers-return Rails, so close to the
* I have since met with another, and perfect, copy belonging to the Rev. G. F. Lee, who has kindly allowed me the use of it: this is an earlier edition; it has the same Frontispiece, Imprimatur, and Dedication; the title page runs thus:
"The Whole Duty of a Communicant: being Rules and Directions for a Worthy Receiving the Most Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. By the Right Reverend Father in God, John Gauden, late Lord Bishop of Exeter.
"He being Dead, yet speaketh.
"The Fourth Edition with Additions, out of the Reverend Prelate's Original Copies. "London; Printed by D. M. for Langley Curtiss near Fleet-Bridge, and Hen. Rodes, next door to the Swan-Tavern, near Bride-Lane in Fleet-Street, 1688." Any different readings which occur in this Edition are thrown into Notes.
ends of the Altar that, apparently, the Celebrant could not stand at the north end. Over the Altar appears a company of Angels amid clouds and radiating light: kneeling on the lower steps of the Altar are two Angels, looking North and South :—at the bottom of the Frontispiece are the words, "The Angells admire the Divine Goodnes." It bears the
Imprimatur, Hen. Maurice, Reverendissimo in Chr. Pat. and Dom. Domino Gulielmo Archiep. Cant. e Sacris Domesticis. May the 31st, 1686."
The Dedication is "To The truly Honoured The Lady Rich," and is signed, "J. Gauden." In it he
“.., in an Argument of so mysterious a depth, good affections are rather to be raised and inflamed, than Subtilties searched and disputed. When I come short in depth of knowledge, I endeavour to supply in belief of the truth, in love to the goodness, in thanks for the benefit, in admiration of the mercy and designation; the less I reach to its height, the more I retire to my own heart, which I can sufficiently prepare by humility, for the receiving of that, whose Divine Excellency, tho' I cannot comprehend, yet the benefit and happiness by it I may obtain."
The following are all the passages touching in any way the subject of the Real Presence: the italics are in the original:
"That great Solemnity and Angelical feast."-p. 1.
"A Sacrament is a visible Sign of an invisible Grace, a holy Seal ordained of God to strengthen our Faith in His promises in Jesus Christ, for the free Remission of our Sins: Which God, therefore, annexed to His Word, to confirm us by representing the Sufferings of Christ to our sight and tasting, as the Gospel preacheth in to our ears; and it is called the Lord's Supper, because Christ ordained it as* His last Supper, Matt. xxvi. 26. Wherein to fulfil the Law He eat the Paschal Lamb, and to shew the determination and change of the Leviticul Law and Priesthood, He ordained for this New Covenant of Grace, a New Sacrament and Seal thereof, that it succeeding the Passover, might declare Him to be the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world, John i. 19, to shew and represent His Death, until His coming again; to leave His Church a Badge of distinction from Infidels, and a parting Token and Pledge of His great Love, assuring the Faithful of His continual Care of them."
* "Dignation.”—ed. 1688.
"The visible Signs are Bread and Wine, the thing signified is the participation of the Body and Blood of Christ, the benefit of whose Death and Passion being apprehended by faith accrue to us as our Mystick Union with Christ, our Incorporation into Him, our Reconciliation with God, and the nourishment of our most precious Souls to Eternal Life, John vi. 54. Whoso eateth my Flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath Eternal Life, and I will raise him up at the last day ."-p. 3.
Secondly, The Author by whom it was instituted.
"So that in this great Mystery.... Reason is quite dazled and blind, . . . . devolving all the Work of this Holy Mystery to Faith, which relies upon the Truth, Power and Love of the Institutor, Jesus Christ, who while He was yet on earth, by a corporal and natural Presence conversing with men, but chiefly with His choice and domestick Company, the Twelve Apostles, a little before His Death, instituted this Sacred Mystery, after His last Supper which He made with them."-p. 8.
'By the Evidence of this Sacrament, exhibiting himself to them, and all believing Souls, . . . as . . . after His Ascension might be a continual Memorial and Seal of the Covenant of Grace, . . . . a lively Token and Pledge of His Spiritual Presence with His Church, during His Bodily Absence, till His second coming, as also a Badge of.... that mutual Love and Charity of Believers, who are all united by Faith to one and the same Saviour, of whom they are all Partakers in this One Sacrament, as well of the Invisible Grace as the Outward and Visible Signs, the Bread and Wine.”—p. 8.
"Thirdly, The Outward Means suitable to this End.
"The Choice of which familiar Signs, made by our Saviour for the Outward Means, discovered a wonderful Wisdom, . . . . Things . . . such as for the Community may be had of all Nations, . . though where the proper species of Bread and Wine cannot be had, those means of nourishment, which are proportionable may be used, so that no Nation or Man may think himself excluded from the use, and comfort of this Sacrament of the Lord's-Supper."-p. 9.
"For their Plainness and Simplicity, it is such as may take off Christian Minds from placing Piety and the Mysteries of Grace and Religion in any External Pomp and Vanity, which doth but dazle
* "mystical."-ed. 1688.
the Eyes and amaze the Senses, and detain Vulgar and Common Minds, by the Outward Glory of the Senses Objects, from that inward retiring of the Spirit and Soul to its proper and comfortable objects, which are Spiritual, Invisible, and Intellectual, and far remote from the Senses, and abstracted from them, so that Christians cannot easily be so grossly and stupidly sensual, as to imagine any Efficacy in these small and simple Elements of themselves, no more than in Wax or Parchment, which not of their proper Virtue, but only of the Will of the Conveyer, have Power to Convey an Estate to the Receiver of them."-p. 10.
Fourthly, The Mystical Union, by which they effectually attain and convey to us that End and Benefit which is propounded.
"For the Sacramental Union of the Outward Signs, which are the proper objects of our Senses, to the Body and Blood of Christ, which are the proper Objects of our Faith, this I conceive to be not by any Physical or Natural Union as the Fruit to the Tree, . . . . nor yet by any... changing the Substance of these Elements into the substance of Christ's Body and Blood . . . ."—p. 14.
"Nor may Omnipotency be so far extended by Human Fancy and Imagination to. . . . . . tell us jointly that they are Bread and Wine, and yet his Will is at the same, and about the same Thing, that. they are not Bread and Wine, but substantially Flesh and Blood; . -p. 14.
"So that as the Bread and Wine, by their natural Qualities and Virtues, are fit to represent the spiritual Efficacy of the Body and Blood of Christ, yet by a natural Power, are no whit able to impart to a Communicant the Body and Blood of Christ, with the Benefits of them to the Soul: So that our Blessed Saviour hath made choice of them for the first, and hath given to them a Sacramental Virtue, and a Supernatural Efficacy for the Second, which they truly do as Remembrances, as Signs and Seals; really conveying to the believing and prepared Soul, by the concurrent Spirit and Power of the Institutor, Jesus Christ, that which in their Nature they do fitly represent."-p. 17.
"We deny not a true and real presence and perception of Christ's Body and Blood in the Sacrament, which in reality even they of the other gross opinion do not imagine is to Sense, but to Faith; which perceives its Objects as really, according to Faith's perception, as the Senses do theirs after their manner. I believe therefore, That in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, there are both Objects pre
sented to, and received by a worthy Receiver; First, the Bread and Wine in their own Nature and Substance distinct, do remain as well as their Accidents, which are the true Objects of our Sense, and fit Signs to represent by them the inward Grace."-p. 20.
"Also there are spiritual, invisible, and credible, yet most true and really present, Objects of Faith; the Body and Blood of Christ, that is Christ Jesus himself, whom by Faith I consider as suffering for my Sins, and cast my soul by His mercy offered me by the Merits of His Death. These two Materials of the Sacrament are so united, that it may be truly said (not in a Gross and Physical, but Divine and Sacramental Sense) the Bread and Wine are the Body and Blood of Christ, and Christ's Body and Blood are Bread and Wine: John vi. Meat indeed, and Drink indeed, not by transmutation of Nature, but by a similitude of Virtues, and proportionable Effects, by a Sacramental Union and Relation, depending upon the Truth, Authority, and Divine Power of the Institutor, Jesus Christ.”p. 20.
"Whose Appointment of these Elements to such a Use or End, and uniting them in this near Relation to His Body and Blood, by the solemn Consecration of them, make up the firm and true Being of a Sacrament, which requires a Truth and Reality, both of the Signs and Symbols, and that which is by them represented and signified ;* a Truth and Certainty of Relation and Connexion one with another: So that I receive not only Panem Domini, the Bread of the Lord; but also, Panem Dominum, my Lord Jesus Christ, the true Bread of Life eternal to my Soul and Body; this latter, as truly and really as the former, together with all the benefits which flow from Christ."-p. 21.
"On the other side, whoso unpreparedly and irreverently, and so unworthily, receives the one, contracts a Guilt of Damnation for Neglect, Indignity, and Irreverence offered to the other; that is, the Body and Blood of Christ, which Faith only discerns and receives in this great Mystery: And whoso violates and contemns the Seal and authentick Letters of the King, becomes guilty of Indignity and Offence to his Authority and Majesty, which is not only restrained to his person; but also inseparably annexed to any Sign or Token by which he is pleased to Manifest His Royal Will and Pleasure, thus rightly informed, as I hope, in the Nature of this Sacrament, what it is in itself, what it may be to me, of how Divine a Mystery and Dignity it is in itself to my Soul, either of Comfort and Salvation in a Worthy Receiving, or of Guilt and Damnation in an Unworthy Receiving of it."-p. 21.
"also a."-ed. 1688.