Obrazy na stronie

them is, that they live beyond the mountains of the Caspian Sea, and are kept quiet by the Queen of the Amazons. At the end of the world, however, they shall break out, and destroy many lands about' (p. 121). A curious piece of information is given too about the resurrection, when the age of old and young shall be the same, i.e., thirtytwo years and three months (p. 135). The reason of this is, that Christ, when he rose from the dead,

· Was of thirty years and two,

And of three months therewith also.' The reader who is ignorant of the whereabouts of hell, can learn that it is in the middle of the earth, like the hollow in the yolk of an egg. According to Hampole, an egg 'hard boiled' exactly represents the relative positions of heaven, earth, and hell.

And as the yolk amidst the egg lies,
And the white about on the same wise,
Right so is the earth without a doubt

Amidst the heavens that go about' (p. 174). Hell, too, is an ugly hole' (p. 180), full of boiling brimstone and pitch (p. 181). "There the devils shall stuff the sinful in the fire, so that they shall glow as fire-brands' (p. 198). So Burns had pretty good authority for addressing the 'deil’ as one

Wha in yon cavern grim and sootie,


under hatches, Spairges about the brunstane clootie

To scaud poor wretches.' Our Author, in the seventh and last part of his work, treats us to an astronomical lesson, far more amusing than instructive. He tells us (p. 206) that

From the earth until the circle of the moon, es

of five hundred winters and no less.'


And from the point of the earth to Saturnus
The highest planet may be guessed thus,
The way of seven thousand years

And three hundred' (p. 207). For these, and some few other points of this sort, Hampole relies upon the authority of Rabbi Moses; he seldom advances statements of his own, and it is only in describing the city of heaven' that he ventures, as he tells his readers, to imagine in his own head' (p. 239). For other points of interest the reader must consult the volume itself.” We also subjoin two extracts from the poem itself :

“In helle salle be than fulle dolefulle dyn,

Omang the synfulle that salle dwelle thar-in,
That ever-mare salle thus


say: Allas, allas and walaway!

The Old Anglo-Scottish Dialect.


That ever we war of wemmen borne,
Ffor we er fra God for ever lorne ?'
Than salle thai grete and goule and with teth gnayste
Ffor of help ne mercy thar tham noght trayste.
The devels obout tham than in helle,
On tham salle ever-mare rare and yhelle ;
Swa hydus noyse thai salle than make,
That alle the world it moght do qwake,
And alle the men lyfand that herd it,

ga wode for ferd and tyne thair witt.
The devils ay omang on tham salle stryke,
And the synfulle thare-with ay cry and shryke,
Thare salle be than mare noyse and dyn,
Than alle the men of erth couth ymagyn;
Ffor thare salle be swilk rareyng and ruschyng
And raumpyng of devels and dyngyng and dusching
And skrykyng of synfulle, als I said are,
That the noyse salle be swa hydus thare,
Omang devels and thase that salle com thider,
Ryght als heven and erth strake togyder.
Ane hydus thing es it to telle
Of the noyse that salle than be in helle;
The devels, that ay salle be fulle of ire,
Salle stopp the synfulle ay in the fyre,
Swa that thai salle glowe ay als fyre brandes
And ay when thai may weld thair hands,
Ffor sorrow thai salle tham hard

And walaway thai salle ay syng;
In helle salle be than swa gret thrang,
That nane may remow for other ne gang.
On na syde, backward ne forward
Ffor thai salle be pressed togyder swa harde,
Als they war stopped togyder in ane oven,
Ffulle of fyre bineth and oboven ;
Bot never-the-les helle yhit es swa depe,
And swa wyde and large, that it moght kepe
Alle the creatures, les and mare,
Of alle the world if myster ware.
Ilka synfulle salle thare on other prese,
And nane of tham salle other eese,
Bot ever fyght togyder and stryfe,
Als thai war wode men of this lyfe,
And ilk ane scratte other in the face,
And thair awen flessch of-ryve and race,
Swa that ilk ane wald him self fayn sla,
If he moght, swa salle him be wa,
Bot thare to salle thai haf na myght,
Ffor the ded salle never mare on tham lyght.
Ffulle fayn thai wald than ded be,
Bot the ded salle ay fra tham fle;

After the ded thai salle yherne ilk ane,
Als in the apocalypse schewes Saint Johan :
Desiderabunt mori, et
mors fugit ab eis.
• Thai sall yherne,' he says, 'to deghe ay
And the ded salle fle fra tham oway.”

The next extract is from the description of heaven :

“ Of verray ryches, gret plenté es thare,

That er a hundreth thowsand-fald mare
Than alle the ryches of the world here,
That ever was sene, fer or Dere,
That fayles and passes oway;
Bot the rychesce of heven salle last ay,
That er alle thing, als God vouches save,
That men in heven yhernes to have.
Oboven the ceté of heven salle noght be sene,
Bot bright bemes only, als I wene,
That sal schyne fra Goddes awen face,
And sprede obout and over that place.
His bright face sal alle thas se,
That sal duelle in that blisful cité ;
And that syght es the mast ioy of heven,
Als men mught here me byfor neven.
And alle-if that cité be large and wyde,
Men salle hym se, until the ferrest syde,
And als wele thas that sal be fra hym fer,
Als thas that sal thar til hym be nerrer;
For als men of fer landes may haf sight
Of the son, that we se here schyne bright,
And als the same son that shynes byyhond the se
Shewes it here, and in ilka cuntré
Alle the day, aftir the ryght course es,
Bot when cloudes fra us hydes hir brightnes ;
Right swa the face of God alle-myghty,
Sal be shewed in heven appertely,
Tille alle the men that thider sal wende,
Thogh som suld duelle at the ferrest ende.
Bot ilk man, als he lufes God here,
Sal won thar, som fer and som nere,
For som lufes God here mar than sum,
And som lufes hym les that til heven sal com
Alle thas that God here lufes best,
When thai com thar sal be hym nerrest,
And the nerrer that thai sal hym be,
The verreylyer thai sal hym se;
And the mare verraly thai se his face,
The mare sal be thair ioy and solace.
Bot tha that here lufs hym les,
Thai sal won thar, aftir thair luf es ;

The Old Anglo-Scottish Dialect.


Bot ilk man sal se hym in his degré
In what syde of heven swa he sal be.
Here haf yhe herd of many fayre sight,
That ay

salle be sene in heven bright;
Ful glade and ioyful all thas may be
That swilk fayre sightes, ay, thar sal se
And of mykel ioy may thai ay telle
That in that cité of heven sal


Alswa ilkan sal haf in thair heryng,
Grete ioy in heven and grete lykyng,
For thai sal here thar aungel sang
And the haly men sal ay syng omang,
With delitabel voyces and clere;
And, with that, thai sal ay here
Alle other manere of melody,
Of the delytable noys of mynstralsy,
And of alkyn swet tones of musyke,
That til any man's hert mught like;
And of alkyn noyse that swete mught be,
Ilkan sal here in that cité,
With-outen instrumentes ryngand,
And with-outen movyng of mouth or hand
And with-outen any travayle,
And that sal never mar cese ne fayle.
Swilk melody, als thar sal be than,
In this werld herd never nan erthely man
For swa swete sal be that noyse and shille
And swa delitabel and swa sutille,
That all the melody of this werld here
That ever has bene here, fer and nere,
War noght bot als sorowe and care
Als to the lest poynt of melody thare.
Omang tham alswa sal be swete savour,
Swa swete com never of herbe ne flour,
When thai war in seson mast,
Or war mast of vertu for to tast;
Ne of spicery mught never spryng,
Ne yhit of nan othir thyng,
That thurgh vertu of kynde suld savour wele
Swa swete savour als thai sal fele ;
For na hert may thynk, ne tung telle,
How swete sal ilkan til other smelle;
That savour sal be ful plenteuouse,
And swa swete and swa delicious,
That alkyn spicery that men may fele,
And of alle othir thyng that here savours wele,
War noght bot als thyng that stynked sour,

Als to regarde of that delycious savour.” The Poems of Minot have been so long known in the excellent edition of Ritson, that it would be a waste of time and space to make extracts from them here. He seems to have written a few years earlier than Chaucer or Barbour, and his writings produce upon us a singular impression, arising from the almost perfect identity of his language with the Scottish idiom, and from his animosity against those very Scots with whom he thus shows himself to be so nearly allied in speech and origin. Minot has long been noted for the ease and smoothness of his rhythms.

The Romance of Iwaine and Gawaine, also edited by Ritson, and inserted in his collection of Romances, is, in our opinion, an excellent poem, as well as an admirable specimen of very pure and racy Anglo-Scottish. We do not profess to assign any precise date to its composition; but it contains many archaic fornis and phrases.

The last work we shall at present notice is the Towneley Mysteries, one of the most interesting of the publications of the Surtees Society. These compositions are somewhat multifarious in style and manner, and as we now have them, they are probably in a different and more modern garb than that which they originally wore. They seem to belong for the most part to the region near Wakefield, in Yorkshire, and to be marked with some of the peculiarities of the West Riding dialect. But in substance and in the main structure of the language, they appear to us to be decidedly Anglian, and they are, with some simple explanations, quite intelligible to those who know the ordinary Scottish idiom. Some of them, such as the • “ Mactatio Abel ” and the “ Secunda Pastorum,” descend to a very low depth of vulgar ribaldry; while in others, such as

Abraham,” we meet with a touching vein of tenderness and true feeling

We subjoin here, as a curiosity, some examples from these “Mysteries,” of the double bob-wheel, which, after it had come to be disused in England, was so happily made popular by the genius of Burns.

In the "Resurrectio Domini," the centurion says (we somewhat modernize the spelling)

“ The sun for woe it waxed all wan,

The moon and starnes of shining blan,
And earth it trembled as a man

Began to speak;
The stone that never was stirred or than

Insonder [brast &] brake.

The Saviour speaks :

“Earthly man, that I have wrought,

Wightly wake & slepe thou nought,

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