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most ponderous mushroom anchor were employed, the buoy was torn from its moorings by the winter storms; and this plan completely failed.

The Commissioners, though foiled in their first project, were not to be discouraged from another and more important effort. They resolved to attempt the erection of a solid conical beacon of stone on the highest part of the Car-rock. This must prove an undertaking more difficult even than the Bell Rock light-house itself; on account chiefly of the small dimensions of the Car-rock, and its low situation in the water; as well as the circumstance that the slightest breath of wind, especially easterly, produces a swell off Fifeness, which must make the landing of workmen impracticable. But the Commissioners trusted to the merit and experience of their engineer Mr Stevenson; and he, having reported the practicability of the measure, will doubtless overcome the difficulties, and justify their resolution. Considerable advantage will also be derived from employing chiefly the workmen who have already been initiated in difficult marine building at the Bell Rock.

In neap-tides the highest point of the Car-rock is barely visible at low water; and very frequently it is not at all uncovered. At the lowest ebb of spring-tides, the uncovered portion of rock measures about seventy feet in length, but only twenty in breadth. At the flood of stream tides there are from twelve to sixteen feet of water over the highest part of the rock,

In a visit to the Car-rock, at the commencement of the spring-tides in the end of July last, we landed with some difficulty, although the sea was comparatively in a state of calm, there being constantly a degree of swell at this point. Eight or ten feet of the rock only were at this time uncovered. It consists of a mass of sandstone; and appearances indicate it to

be a continuation of a ridge, formed by a thick bed of sandstone visible ashore at Fifeness. The rock is partly covered with Fucus esculentus and digitatus (badderlocks and tangle,) and Ulva umbilicalis. We observed that a considerable part of the foundation of the projected stone beacon has already been excavated; but this levelled part of the rock was now principally under water. It is only at the lowest ebb of two or three of the greatest spring tides, and for about two hours each tide, that the workmen can proceed with the levelling of the rock. It is expected, however, that the foundation course will be laid this season, or that even two or three layers of stones may be accomplished. It seems likely that the building will be completed in another season: but the work must go on much more slowly than at the Bell Rock, where the temporary beacon, lodging-house, or smithy, erected on the rock itself, greatly forwarded the operations. A sandstone quarry has been opened in the neighbourhood of Pitmilly, about five miles distant, and excellent stones, of great size, have here been procured. An old house belonging to the Earl of Kellie has been fitted up for the workmen at Fifeness, and the successive layers of the beacon are here in course of preparation; so that this retired spot now exhibits in miniature the busy scene which was seen near Arbroath du ring the building of the Bell Rock Light-house. The stones of each course are dovetailed into each other; and the several courses are to be bound together with juggles of stone; 50 that the whole beacon will form one solid and connected mass of masonry. The base course is eighteen feet in diameter; and the cone is to taper upwards, till the breadth at top do not exceed six feet. The height of the beacon will then be forty feet. CANONMILLS, 29th Aug. 1813.

N.

Report of the National Vaccine Establishment: dated 22d April 1813.

To the Right Honourable VISCOUNT SID-
MOUTH, Principal Secretary of State,
Home-Department, &c. &c. &c.

National Vaccine Establishment,
Leicester-Square, April 22d 1813.
MY LORD,

THE Board of the National Vac

cine Establishment have the ho. nour of informing your Lordship, that during the year 1812 the Surgeons appointed by their authority to the nine Stations in London, have vaccinated 4,521 persons, and have distributed 23,219 charges of Vaccine Lymph to the Public. The number vaccinated this year exceeds that of 1811 by 1,373 and the demand for Lymph has been often so great that it could not without difficulty be supplied. The Board had last year reason to think that nearly two thirds of the children born in the Metropolis were vaccinated by charitable Institutions or private Practitioners. There is now reason to believe that threefourths of those born are submitted to that salutary operation. But though the prejudices against the Cow Pock, which have been artfully encouraged by ignorant and interested men, appear generally to decline in the Metropolis, as well as in other parts of these Dominions, yet it is with concern that the Board have noticed the increase of mortality from Small Pox in this City last year, to the number of 1,287.

in the last year we have reason to ascribe to the rash and inconsiderate manner in which great numbers are still inoculated for the Small Pox, and afterwards required to attend two or three times a week, at the place of Inoculation, in every stage of their illness. This practice of Inoculation, and of promiscuous intercourse of the Patients at the same time with Society, is the great means by which this Disease is kept in existence, and its infection propagated to persons and places where it would not otherwise be seen. This is not only the opinion of this Board, founded on ob servation, but it is a fact confirmed by communications to them from the best authorities, and by the most unprejudiced characters.

The respectable College of Sur geons of Dublin allege that the practice of Inoculation not only supplies a constant source of infection, but prevents the extinction of the disease for even a short interval.

The populous City of Norwich was never free from it till the discovery of Vaccination, but since that period it has experienced occasional remissions from its ravages. In 1807, after its disappearance for some time, the disorder was brought into that City by a Vagrant from London, who, before the Magistrates were apprized of it, or, before the salutary advice given by the Faculty to provide a place where such persons might be secluded from intercourse with the inhabitants could be adopted, communicated the contagion. Of 1,200, who took the infection, 203 died. At that period, viz. 1807, the prejudices against Vaccination had not subsided. But in 1812, when that City was threatened with a similar visitation, by the appearance of the Small Pox in the neighbourhood, the Magistrates, the Faculty, and the Clergy, concurred in recommending Vaccination. Between the 10th of August, and 22d of October following,

1316

Previous to the discovery of Vaccination the average number of deaths from Small Pox, within the Bills of Mortality, was 2,000; and though in the last ten years 135,139 persons were added to the population of this great City, yet in 1811, by the benefit of Vaccination, the mortality was reduced to 751. The increase Aug. 1813.

1316 persons were vaccinated. The result was, that though one gentleman, whose child the Faculty refused to inoculate, procured matter of Small Pox, which he applied himself, and from this source seven persons took the infection, yet by means of this seasonable Vaccination not a life was lost.

This result, so different from the events of 1807, cannot but make an impression on every mind open to conviction: when Vaccination was not performed 1,200 persons took the Sinall Pox, of which number 203 died: when speedy recourse was had to Vaccination there was not a single victim to the disease.

But it is not at home only that lessons, so much to the credit of this new art, may be learned. The Board have abundant communications from every quarter of the world equally to its advantage. To detail all the evidence which they may have received as to its efficacy, not only in preventing the Small Pox, but its power to suppress its ravages under the most unfavourable and threatening circumstances, would extend this Report to an improper and an unusual length. They will content themselves with mentioning a few particulars, which they trust will recommend it to the favour and confidence of their countrymen, and to the fostering care of Government.

On the continent of India Vaccination has been hailed as the greatest blessing, and has been practised with the greatest success, and in the most extensive manner.

In the Islands of Ceylon and Bourbon it has been received in a manner no less favourable, and been practised with an effect no less beneficial. In the Isle of Ceylon, since its first in troduction, more than 200,000 persons have been vaccinated; 30;491 in the year 1811 only, as appears by the table received from Mr Anderson, the Superintendant General, to

whom but one case of failure, in preventing the Small Pox, (and the circumstances of this case render it very doubtful) has occurred, in the great numbers which he has seen.

At the Cape of Good Hope the Small Pox is dreaded as much as the Plague, and it has proved there little less destructive to human life. Lord Caledon, the late Governor, established at Cape Town a Vaccine Institu tion, which was soon called into acti vity under his successor Sir J. Cradock. The colony consists of a population of 80 or 100,000 individuals, of which number it was supposed 15,000 were subject to take the infection of the Small Pox, which ap peared there on the 12th March 1812. Between that time and the 4th July following 233 persons caught the dis ease, of which number 100 died. The remaining part of the inhabitants liable to the disorder were preserved by an active Vaccination, in which all the Faculty in the place, as well as the regimental and garrison Surgeons, strenuously exerted themselves.

From the various details with which the Board have been favoured, we think it our duty to select one instance, as tending to show in a most pointed manner the power of the Vaccine Lymph to arrest the contagion of the Small Pox.

Four hundred Negroes from Mosambique were on the 1st of March landed at Cape Town, one of whom, a woman, was on the 5th succeeding afflicted with the confluent Small Pox in its most virulent form. This female was at that time inhabiting a large room, in common with 200 more of her companions, not separated either by day or by night. On

the report of this case the whole of these victims of " avarice and cupidity," as the surgeon terms them, were immediately subjected to Vaccination, and on the following day removed to a small island (Paarden Island) at a little distance from the Town. A few

few days after this the woman fell a sacrifice to the most aggravated character of that dreadful disease. Of the aggregate number of Negroes, 78 individuals received the Vaccine disorder, and underwent the regular course of its action. From these subjects the remaining portion were vaccinated. "They remained on the "Island 50 days, during which no "further case of Small Pox made its appearance, although they had been "exposed to the whole strength of "the contagious atmosphere, nor is "there a single instance wherein any "of this large proportion of persons "became subject to the Small Pox." It is added by the professional gentleman who writes this account, that throughout the entire course of this "arduous struggle," (the general Vaccination) not a single instance had come to his knowledge of the failure of Vaccination in protecting the individual from the Small Pox, where the former was ascertained to have taken effect.

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At the Havannah, by the account written by Dr Thomas Romey, Secretary to the Committee of Vaccination, 13,447 persons were vaccinated in 1810; 9,815 of these persons had been vaccinated in the City of Havannah alone, with so good an effect, that for two years not a single person had been interred in the public burying ground of that City who died of the Small Pox, which before was a great cause of mortality in it.

In the Caraccas, and in Spanish America, the Small Pox has been extinguished by Vaccination. For the means which were taken by the Spanish Government, and its subjects, we must refer to the subjoined papers, furnished by some Spanish gentlemen now in London.

The accounts from various parts of Europe are almost as favourable. In the report of last year it was observed, that the Small Pox was extinguished at Milan, and at Vienna, in

which latter place for many years the average mortality from it had amounted to 800.

From Malta information has been received, that not only His Majesty's Ships are supplied with Lymph to vaccinate such sailors as may not have had the Small Pox, but that the Children of the Artificers of the Dock-yard, and nearly 3,000 Maltese Children, have been vaccinated by the Institution there (gratis :) and it is added by Mr Allen, the Surgeon of the Dock-yard, that during at residence of seven years at Malta, he has never known an instance of one of them being afterwards afflicted with the Small Pox.

Russia has likewise participated in the benefit of Vaccination. It was introduced into the Russian Empire in 1804; and since that time, in its various provinces, 1,235,637 have been vaccinated; and so uniformly successful has Vaccination been, that it has been termed, in the Language of that Country, the Pock of Surety. -Dr Crighton, Physician to the Emperor of all the Russias, to whom we are indebted for the accurate table subjoined, observes, supposing (according to a well-founded rule of calculation) that before the introduction of Vaccination every seventh child died annually of the Small Pox, Vaccination has saved the lives, in the Russian Empire, of 176,519 Children, since the year 1804.

The government of France appears to have taken the greatest pains to secure to the People all the advantages which could be derived from this discovery. A Central Institution was soon established at Paris, to encourage and to promote the practice of Vaccination, and a similar plan for

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same purpose was adopted in every considetable provincial town. These Provincial Institutions were not long ago ordered to make a return to the Government, of the state of Vaccination in their several districts.

tricts. From these documents a report has been drawn up by Mr Berthollet, Percé, and Halle, Philosophers of the first reputation, and submitted to the class of Physical Sciences of the Imperial Institute; in which it is affirmed, that of 2,671,662 subjects, properly vaccinated in France, only seven cases appear of patients having afterwards taken the Small Pox; which is as 1 to 381,666. It is added, that the well-authenticated instances of persons taking the Small Pox after inoculation for that disease had perfectly succeeded, are proportionably far more numerous; and also that in Geneva, Rouen, and several other large cities, where the Jennerian System has not been circumscribed by popular prejudice, the Small Pox is no longer known; and the Registers exhibit strong evidence of consequent increasing population. The report concludes with expressing great hopes that this pestilential disorder will ultimately disappear from society.

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The National Vaccine Establish ment have recommended the imitation of such examples to the members of the profession in every part of these dominions, and they have no doubt but that the good effects of such advice will soon appear, in the dimi nished mortality and the increased population of the country.

It may be proper to add, that the Surgeons at nine stations of this Metropolis reported to us on the 14th of last January, that they had no complaint of any Person vaccinated by them having afterwards had the Small Pax.

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APPENDIX.

ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS.

WE, whose names are hereunder subscribed, deeply impressed with the many fatal instances of the Small Pox which have lately happened, and which daily occur in the Metropolis and in various towns of the Kingdom, convinced that such events are, in a great degree, consequences of the support and propagation of that dis ease by Inoculation; and fully satis fied of the safety and the security of Vaccination, from a consequent sense of duty to the community,—do hereby engage ourselves to each other, and to the public, not to inoculate the Small Pox, unless for some special reason, after Vaccination; but to pursue, and, to the utmost of our power, promote, the practice of Vaccination,

And further, we do recommend to all the Members of the College, of

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