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The deputies from the principal sea committee of the House of Commons a ports and manufacturing districts of great number of respectable witnesses, Great Britain and Ireland, assembled chiefly taken from the various departin London, to oppose the renewal of ments of their service, most of them the East India Company's commercial men bound by gratitude to the commonopoly, think that they are requir- pany, of whom it may, therefore, be ed, at this the close of their public supposed, without any uncandid imcuties, to submit some account of the putation, either upon the individuals progress and ultimate result of their themselves or upon those who brought endeavours, in the service of their them forward, that they were selected constituents.

from a knowledge that their opinions * When the deputation was last year were peculiarly favourable to the cause appointed, to convey to government which their testimony was produced those general sentiments which the to support. The evidence of these commercial interests of the country gentlemen was given with great abihave throughout this discussion ex- lity; but many of the facts, to which pressed, with equal moderation and it was directed, were irrelevant to the perseverance, they found it was pro- points at issue-others were strongly posed to confine the trade from India in support of the arguments for a free to the port of London, and to the trade; and the predictions of danger warehouses of the East India Com were founded upon the supposition of pany. They urged the injustice and an unrestricted intercourse, which was impolicy of such an arrangement, and never contended for on behalf of the they had the satisfaction to convince petitioners. Indeed the whole evithe comprehensive and candid mind dence appeared to the deputation comof the right honourable Spencer Per- pletely to fail in making out a case of ceval, and the members of that admin- necessity strong enough to justify the istration with whom he acted, of the renewal of so oppressive a monopoly. truth and soundness of their argu • The deputation have, in the course ments; but the further discussion of of the last and of the present year, the India question was deferred, and been long and diligently employed in the melancholy catastrophe which collecting facts, and arranging evisoon after took place, deprived the dence in support of the rights of the country of that able minister, and the country.

Of the effect which this advocates for a free trade of a

power was calculated to produce, it would

not now become them to speak Early in the present year, in com- they felt it to be a sacrifice to withpliance with the wishes of their con hold what had been so laboriously stituents, the deputation again assem- collected; but when they considered bled, and proceeded to renew their the slight impression which appeared application, on the part of the coun to have been made on the legislature, try, to government and to the legisla- and on the public, by the opposite ture. It would be unnecessary here evidence-the risk of protracting the to repeat the different steps which question beyond the present session of they have since found it adviseable to parliament and the evil that would take, and which have been regularly be occasioned to all the great interests communicated to the different towns, concerned, if they were left another cities, and districts, represented in the year in suspence and uncertainty, deputation.

they were convinced that they should * The East India Company and the best discharge their duty by declining learned counsel by whom they were to call any evidence, and by resting assisted, brought before the select the claims of the public on the gene

ral

fal supporter.

ral principles on which the petitions powers of Europe, by which the Oto were founded. This resolution was uni toman government is compelled to animously adopted, after mature con adhere to the letter of her ancient sideration, and it was confirmed by concessions, far from generous, it inthe high parliamentary authorities, deed perfectly just. With regard to whom the deputation had time and another complaint of the merchants, opportunity to consult.

viz. the inequality of the duties im• The pretensions of the country, posed by the French and English both in justice and policy, to partici- tariffs, he mentions the disposition of pate in the tea trade, and intercourse the Turkish ininistry to remedy that with China, have been urged in eve- grievance, and as a proof, states that ry practicable way-by remonstrance the difference continued to be placed to government; by representations to to the debit of the French merchants the different members ; by the elo-' in the custom-house books; a circumquence and argument of their friends stance so disagreeable to several of in parliament; and by two divisions the latter, that they prefer paying the of the House of Comnions. These same duties as the English. attempts have, however, bcen unsuc A Glasgow paper says, that accessful, and the deputation can only cording to the present prices, includregret that the legislature have other. ing the duties to government, the folwise decided.'

lowing is the value of the colonial By the last accounts from Con. produce imported into the Clyde, by stantinople, it appears that the Tur- the late flecis, viz. sugar £.1,119,223; kish government have imposed an ad- rum, £.553,394; cotton, £.170,174; ditional duty on the importation of coffee, £.152,600.-- Allother produce, cotton twist. The merchants had £.207,015.- Total £.2,202,411. memorialised the British minister, Mr Liston, upon the subject, and he accordingly remonstrated in their behalf, but the answer of the Turkish Memoirs of the Progress of Manufarministry was, that if the British tures, Chemistry, Science, and the merchants insisted on the strict letter Fine Arts, of the tariff of 1805, according to which imports and exports on their THAT ingenious mechanic Mr T. account are subject to a rate of only Sheldrake, has been long engaged three per cent, the officers of the cus on the means of impelling vessels on tonis should be directed to levy the the water by machinery, to be set in duty in kind, which alternative is sti- motion by the human arm, or by the pulated by the existing treaties. Mr powers of steam, as occasion may reListon, in a letter to Mr Morier, the quire. His design is to produce covconsul, communicating the above ered boats which will carry answer, intimated an earnest wish passengers, and be impelled by two or that the merchants would comply three men with such velncity as will with the demand of the Turkish go- enable them to make an average pasvernment, as otherwise it might pre- sage from Richmond to London in as cipitate a change of its commercial sys- little time as the stages go in, if not tem with us, as well as all the Euro- less. This will accommodate the -pean powers--a measure which he says public with a more comfortable conhas been for some time silently medi- veyance than a stage coach, and at tating, and which he considers to be two-thirds of the expense. These not unreasonable, deeming the tacit boats being established, larger ones combination among the principal may be made to be driven by steam,

to any extent that may be required. while, at the same time, the flame is so There is a peculiarity in this inven- completely isolated from the atmos. tion that will be of advantage in every phere, that no more air can explode at department of inland navigation, even a time than the lamp contains; and the supposing the steam system should direct communication with the surnot be adopted, by which it is expec- rounding atmosphere being thus cut ted that one half the labour that is off, all chance of such accidents is now expended in every department prevented. of inland navigation may be saved, by adding this improvement to the vessels that are at present employ. Monthly Memoranda in Natural Hised.

, boats are already in use on the river

tory. Aire.

CAR-Rock. This very dangerous rock A curious stoney concretion, ob lies in the sea, about a mile and tained from an elm tree in Hyde a half eastward from Fifeness, or the Park, has lately been analyzed by most easterly point of Fifeshire. It Dr Thomson, and found to consist of is thus directly in the track of vessels the carbonates of potash and of lime, entering or leaving the Frith of Forth, with a small

quantity of carbonate of in coming from or going to the north magnesia. This morbid matter is, no of Scotland. It is a remarkable fact, doubt, the same as that usually de. that on this fatal rock no fewer than posited upon the edges of the ulcers four vessels were either stranded. or of old trees, and which was subjected totally lost between November and to the examination of M. Vauquelin February last. The Bell Rock was some years ago, whose report as to formerly the dread of the mariner, and its composition agrees with that we to avoid it, he kept a good offing ; have just given.

but from the erection of the admiraThe same able British chemist has ble light-house on that rock, it has likewise discovered a new vegetable now become his most certain guide, principle exuding from the trunk of (the coal light on the May island still the oak, the most characteristic pro- remaining unimproved.) It is possiperty of which is that of precipitating ble that the confidence thus inspired zinc from its solutions of a black by the Bell Rock light-house, may colour, whereas the precipitate of the have led some vessels incautiously to same metal, when thrown down by approach Fifeness, till they were other substances, is white. In most unexpectedly ruined on the Car. other respects this new substance very However this may be, the Car-rock much resembles the peculiar exudation now remains the only considerable from the elm, to which the name of obstruction to the navigation of our nimin has been given, and it has there. Frith. fore been denominated ulmin of the The frequent occurrence of accioak; although we think the term dents at this point, did not fail to atquercin might, with greater propriety, tract the attention of the Commissioners have been employed.

for Northern lights, (who deserve Dr Reid Clanny, of Sunderland, the highest praise for the unremitting has invented a lamp for the effectual diligence with which they discharge prevention of those shocking accidents the duties of their gratuitous offices,) which are still so frequent in coal several years ago ; and induced thein mines, notwithstanding the advantages to cause a very large buoy to be of ventilation. The lamp is very sim- moored near to it: but not withstandple in its construction, and very strong, ing that a very strong iron chain and a

most

most ponderous mushroom anchor be a continuation of a ridge, formed were employed, the buoy was torn by a thick bed of sandstone visible from its moorings by the winter ashore at Fifeness. The rock is partstorms; and this plan completely ly covered with Fucus esculentus and failed.

digitatus (badderlocks and tangle, The Commissioners, though foiled and Ulva umbilicalis. We observed. in their first project, were not to be dis that a considerable part of the founcouraged from another and more im- dation of the projected stone beacon portant effort. They resolved to at- has already been excavated; but this tempt the erection of a solid conical levelled part of the rock was now beacon of stone on the highest part principally under water.

It is only of the Car-rock. This must prove at the lowest ebb of two or three an undertaking more difficult even of the greatest spring tides, and for than the Bell Rock light-house it- about two hours each tide, that the self; on account chiefly of the small workmen can proceed with the ledimensions of the Car-rock, and its velling of the rock. It is expected, low situation in the water; as well however, that the foundation course as the circumstance that the slightest will be laid this season, or that even breath of wind, especially easterly, two or three layers of stones may be produces a swell off" Fifeness, which accomplished. It seems likely that must make the landing of workmen the building will be completed in impracticable. But the Commission- another season : but the work must go ers trusted to the merit and experi- on much more slowly than at the Bell ence of their engineer Mr Stevenson ; Rock, where the temporary beacora, and he, having reported the practica- lodging-house, or smithy, erected on bility of the measure, will doubtless the rock itself, greatly forwarded the overcome the difficulties, and justify operations. A sandstone quarry has their resolution. Considerable ad- been opened in the neighbourhood of vantage will also be derived from Pitmilly, about five miles distant, and employing chiefly the workmen who excellent stones, of great size, hard have already been initiated in diffi- here been procured. An old house cult marine building at the Bell Rock. belonging to the Earl of Kellie bas

In neap-tides the highest point of been fitted up for the workmen at the Car-rock is barely visible at low Fifeness, and the successive layers of water ; and very frequently it is not the beacon are here in course of preat all uncovered. At the lowest ebbparation ; so that this retired spot ROW of spring-tides, the uncovered portion exhibits in miniature the busy scene of rock measures about seventy feet which was seen near Arbroath dein length, but only twenty in breadth. ring the building of the Bell Rock At the flood of stream tides there are Light-house. The stones of each from twelve to sixteen feet of water course are dovetailed into each other; over the highest part of the rock, and the several courses are to be bound

In a visit to the Car-rock, at the together with juggles of stone ; 59 commencement of the spring-tides in that the whole beacon will form enc the end of July last, we landed with solid and connected mass of masonry some difficulty, although the sea was The base course is eighteen feet in comparatively in a state of calm, there diameter; and the cone is to taper being constantly a degree of swell at upwards, till the breadth at top do this point. Eight or ten feet of the not exceed six feet. The height of rock only were at this time uncover the beacon will then be forty feet. ded. It consists of a mass of sand

CANONMILLS, stone ; and appearances indicate it to 291h Aug. 1813.

N.

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Report of the National Vaccine Estab- in the last year we have reason to lishment : dated 22d April 1813. ascribe to the rash and inconsiderate

manner in which great numbers are To the Right Honourable Viscount Sid. still inoculated for the Small Pox,

MOUTH, Principal Secretary of State, and afterwards required to attend
Home-Department, &c. &c. &c.

two or three times a week, at the
place of Inoculation, in every stage of

their illness. This practice of InocuNational Vaccine Establishment, lation, and of promiscuous intercourse Leicester-Square, April 22d 1813. of the Patients at the same time with MY LORD,

Society, is the great means by which

this Disease is kept in existence, and THE Board of the National Vac- its infection propagated to persons

cine Establishment have the ho. and places where it would not othernour of informing your Lordship, wise be seen. This is not only the that during the year 1812 the Sur- opinion of this Board, founded on obgeons appointed by their authority to servation, but it is a fact confirmed by the nine Stations in London, have communications to them from the vaccinated 4,521 persons, and have best authorities, and by the most undistributed 23,219 charges of Vaccine prejudiced characters. Lymph to the Public. The number The respectable College of Survaccinated this year exceeds that of geons of Dublin allege that the prac1811 by 1,373 and the demand for tice of Inoculation not only supplies Lymph has been often so great that a constant source of infection, but it could not without difficulty be sup- prevents the extinction of the disease plied. The Board had last year rea for even a short interval. son to think that nearly two-thirds of The populous City of Norwich was the children born in the Metropolis never free from it till the discovery of were vaccinated by charitable Insti- Vaccination, but since that period it tutions or private Practitioners. There has experienced occasional remissions is now reason to believe that three. from its ravages. In 1807, after its fourths of those born are submitted to disappearance for some time, the disthat salutary operation. But though order was brought into that City by the prejudices against the Cow Pock, a Vagrant from London, who, before which have been artfully encouraged the Magistrates were apprized of it, by ignorant and interested men, ap- or, before the salutary advice given pear generally to decline in the Me- by the Faculty to provide a place tropolis, as well as in other parts of where such persons might be secludthese Dominions, yet it is with con ed from intercourse with the inhabicern that the Board have noticed the tants could be adopted, communicatincrease of mortality from Small Pox ed the contagion. Of 1,200, who in this City last year, to the number took the infection, 203 died. At of 1,287.

that period, viz. 1807, the prejudices Previous to the discovery of Vac- against Vaccination had not subsid. cination the average number of deaths ed. But in 1812, when that City from Small Pox, within the Bills of was threatened with a similar visitaMortality, was 2,000; and though in tion, by the appearance of the Small the last ten years 135,139 persons Pox in the neighbourhood, the Mawere added to the population of this gistrates, the Faculty, and the Clergreat City, yet in 1811, by the be- gy, concurred in recommending Vacnefit of Vaccination, the inortality cination. Between the 10th of Auwas reduced to 751. The increase gust, and 22d of October following; Aug. 1813.

1916

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