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On m'a envoyé un Chevalier Déon, gravé en Minerve,
that “the centre only of the present structure is an- demoiselle d'Eon, communiqué par elle à ce seul cient. The east front exhibits an oblong square tower artiste,” &c. rising above a portico of modern Gothic work. The It is probably this portrait, "en grand," of west front has in the centre the great entrance, or gate- which Voltaire speaks in a letter to his friend house, perhaps nearly in the state in which it was D'Argental, March 7, 1777: reared in the reign of Richard II. A.D. 1377-1399." It was the residence of the ancient family of Hylton from accompagné d'un pretendu brevet du roi, qui donne douze the time of King Athelstan (A.D. 925–940) to the year
mille livres de pension à cette Amazone, et qui lui or
donne le silence respectueux, comme on l'ordonnait au1746; the building has the arms of the Hyltons and their
trefois aux jansenistes. Cela fera un beau problème dans alliances engraren on it in numerous places. ]
l'histoire. Quelque académie des inscriptions prouvera
que c'est un des monuments les plus authentiques. Déon HISTORY OF FAIRS. — Observing in “N. & Q.”
sera une pucelle d'Orléans qui n'aura pas été brûlée. On 3rd S. iv. 477, Dec. 12, 1863, that a correspondent, verra combien nos meurs se sont adoucies." J. H., asks where he can inspect the best collec
In the European Magazine for March, 1791, will tions for a history of fairs, and that you state that be found a portrait of "La Chevalière d'Eon" in he should endeavour to obtain permission to in- hermaphroditic attire, “Née à Tonnerre le 5. gbre spect the curious collections of the late Mr. Fil- 1728, J. Condé Delin' et Sculpe.” línham, sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson, Aug.
Another portrait in oval, the face averted in 7, 1862
lots 352 and 353, Bartholomew Fair ; profile, in masculine attire, and adorned with the lot 395, Miscellaneous Collections for the History cross of St. Louis, engraved by Mackenzie, will be of May, Bow, Horn, Fairlop, Greenwich, and found in Eccentric Biography, or Memoirs of ReCamberwell Fairs ; lot 396, Notices of Hyde Park | markable Female Characters, &c., 12mo, London, Fair in 1838; and lot 408, Frost Fairs — I should 1803. feel greatly obliged if you can inform me where
There is also his portrait as " Mademoiselle De I can inspect the above lots, more particularly Beaumont”; a caricature of him-or her—and lots 352 and 353, Bartholomew Fair; and lot 395, Dr. Musgrave, the Plymouth physician; a view the Miscellaneous Collections: the latter lot I of the Chevalier's birthplace in Burgundy; and a should be glad to know if for sale. J. R. D. Brixton Hill, Surrey.
print representing the Chevalier before a jury of [Lots 352, 353, were purchased by Mr. Henry Fawcett his sex.
matrons assembled to determine the question of of 14, King Street, Convent Garden ; 395, 396, by Mr.
A second edition of the Life by De la Fortelle Boone, for the British Museum ; 408, by Appleton of
was published in 1779, preceded by an Epitre New York.]
from M. Dorat to the Chevalier, and followed by PENDRAGON CASTLE.—There is an engraving of documents relative to his quarrel with BeauPendragon Castle, Westmoreland, in Buck's Anti- marchais, which are further detailed in the Vie quities, taken early in the last century. While Privée, Politique et Littéraire de Beaumarchais, I was recently in that part of the kingdom I could (12mo, Paris, 1802, pp. 72-82) where the poet, find no present account of it in the guide-books, who had been charged with the mediation bethough it was one of the Clifford castles, repaired tween the king and his epicene agent, seems by the celebrated countess, together with Appleby, charged with having perverted a sum of 256,763 Brough, Skipton, &c. Does any part of it yet livres, which the latter asserts that he ought to remain ? THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.
have received. [Pendragon Castle was dismantled by Thomas Earl of
There is also'a pamphlet entitled Thanet in 1685. One of the flanking towers is still toler
“ Epistle from the Chevalier D'Eon to the Right Hon.
L-d Mansfield on the regard to her Sex.” Portrait, ably perfect. The situation is fine, on a mound above the 4to, 1778. Eden, which flows under the walls ; on the other side it
Lord Mansfield was the judge before whom was protected by a deep moat.- Vide Murray's Handbook and a special jury had been tried at Guildhall, for Westmoreland, 1866, p. 116.]
July 1, 1777, the extraordinary cause wherein
Jaques, a broker, the sum of seven hundred
guineas, for which the latter, in consideration of BIOGRAPHY OF THE CHEVALIER D'EON,
the payment of one hundred guineas, being fifteen (4th S. ii. 131, 215, 236.)
per cent., had signed a policy of insurance to pay
the plaintiff the said sum whenever he could In noticing the Vie Militaire, &c. of this noto- prove that the Chevalier d'Eon was a female. rious man-woman, by De la Fortelle, P. A. L. In the course of the trial it turned out that the does not mention the portrait prefixed, with its plaintiff had sold, on the same terms, to " Baron emblematic accessories Composé par J. B. Nolleken" (the sculptor?) a moiety of his chance. Bradel, qui a gravé en grand le portrait de Ma- Two French gentlemen were called to prove, from their own certain knowledge and observa- tinued to wear till his death, appears to have been tion, that the subject of the examination was a forced upon him by his royal master Louis XV., female, and one of them “gave positive proofs of and only submitted to with great reluctance, the same, by relating particulars too indelicate for finally overcome by an imprisonment of some us to mention."
weeks in the castle of Dijon. The mystery atLord Mansfield commented on the indecency of tendant upon this extraordinary circumstance in the proceeding, which, he remarked, arose more his life, will probably never now receive a satisfrom the unnecessary questions asked than from factory explanation. the case itself; that the witnesses had declared The Chevalier was skilful at fence; his prothat they knew that the Chevalier was a woman, found knowledge of the theory of the art enabled and that if she was not so, they were perjured; him to render important aid to the elder Angelo and that therefore there was no need of enquiring in his well-known treatise; he was the constant how and by what method they knew it. He guest and bosom friend of the latter; and it was thought, therefore, that the jury must find a ver- with him that Angelo junior_first tried his dict for the plaintiff,—which, without going out ’prentice hand with the foil. Besides his disof court, and after a consultation of two minutes, play with Mons. de St. Georges, as mentioned they did, for seven hundred pounds and forty by P. A. L., he was also accustomed to exhibit in shillings.
several provincial towns his knowledge of carte Besides the sum thus given by the verdict to and tierce with Mrs. Batiman, an actress. John Mr. Hayes, it is said that he recovered three | Taylor, who was accustomed to meet the Chethousand pounds on other policies. Other very valier in advanced life at Mr. Angelo's, says that large sums were dependent on the same suit. though dressed as a woman, “ he spoke and acted
If the reader wishes to see a fuller account of with all the roughness of a veteran soldier,” and this curious matter, he may refer to a notable expressed regret that one “who had made so conpiece of compilatory quackery, entitled : - spicuous a figure should ever have been reduced
“Fifty Years' Recollections of an Old Bookseller, con- to derive a precarious support from a public exsisting of Anecdotes, Characteristic Sketches, and Original hibition of his talents in fencing with a woman. Traits and Eccentricities of Authors, Artists, Actors, (Records of My Life, 2 vols. 8vo, 1832, vol. i. Books, Booksellers, and of the Periodical Press for the
p. 336.) last half Century, &c., 8vo. Cork, 1835.”.
Such, indeed, was the case. The unfortunate The author of this precious farrago was William Chevalier, who had returned to England; was West, to whom we are also indebted for a History deprived of his pension at the time of the French and Topography of Warwickshire, 8vo, Birming- Revolution ; and in Sept. 1795 an advertisement ham, 1830; and a little volume entitled Tavern appeared, in which he stated "that at the age of Anecdotes and Reminiscences, 8c. By one of the sixty-eight she embraces the resources of her skill Old School, 12mo, 1825.
and long experience in the science of arms, to cut Cautioning the reader as to the possible inac- her bread with her sword ; and instead of idly curacies of the blundering writer from whom I looking up for support from those who in her proshave taken the foregcing statement, I may add perity were her professed good friends, she relies wbat he omits, that in spite of the verdict, the on the liberality of Britons at large to protect an plaintiff in this scandalous cause failed to obtain unfortunate woman of quality from the stings and his expected gain. The matter was again brought arrows of outrageous fortune, in a foreign land before Lord Mansfield, in the Court of King's and in the vale of years.” At the house and table Bench, when, the defendant pleading a previous of the elder Angelo, the Chevalier was, as I have Act of Parliament for non-payment, this was de- mentioned above, á frequent visitor. Here the .cided to be binding, and the verdict' was reversed. pleasantly garrulous son relates — The affair had, however,
“On my entrance, to my surprise, I beheld a lusty ing the Chevalier to be regarded as a woman, and dame dressed in black silk, the head-dress a rosed toupet laid him open to the accusation of being a party and laced cap. He had not the least beard, a diamond to the transactions, and an intending sharer of the My father leading me to the assumed lady, I received, à la plunder. This caused his departure from Eng- Française
, a kiss on each cheek. Ever afterwards when land in Aug. 1777, after asserting in the public he dined at our house, though dressed as a woman, when papers his innocence of complicity, and referring the ladies retired, he remained to enjoy the glass and to a former notice in the papers of 1775, in which
conversation. When I last saw him, he then lived a few he cautioned all persons concerned not to pay any black silk, and looked like a woman worn out with age
doors beyond Astley's Theatre. He always dressed in sums due on policies effected with reference to and care."— Reminiscences of Henry Angelo, 1830, vol. ii. his sex, and declaring his willingness to controvert p. 59. the evidence adduced on the trial, if he could The reminiscent further adds :obtain permission to return to England.
“ At this period there was much talk about D'Eon's His assumption of female attire, which he con- sex, and one day, when he dined at our house, Treves, the Jew (who was afterwards one of the chosen guests at
THE LATIN LANGUAGE. Carlton House), contrived a plan with a view to elicit something connected with the mystery. My father in
(4th S. i. 535, 589.) formed D'Eon that there was a person in the next room who would, on condition that he discovered his sex, on Although I have already shown (1st S. ix. 536-38) the instant pay him a thousand pounds, when he directly from the Classical Museum, &c., a remarkable flew into a violent passion, and it was with much diffi- similarity between the Celtic languages and Latin, culty that my father could restrain his rage against the I hope to be allowed to make some remarks on Jew.”—Ib. p. 58.
the correspondence of a later date, which origiAngelo speaks of memoirs of the Chevalier by nated in the query: Boswell. This I have not seen. Is it the work
“ Where can you find a good account of that element referred to by MR. Lysons ?
in Latin which is not related to Greek-the barbarous The Chevalier was fond of literature, and had element, as it is called ? ” cultivated it with success : an enumeration of his
MR. Buckton in his reply mentions, amongst various works, as comprised in his Loisirs, 13 vols. 8vo, Londres, 1775, will be found in the Biog. who were of Thracian origin. But the Thracian
its elements, first, the language of the Illyrians, Univer., xiii. 185. In Sept., 1763, he was sent to
or Scythian has been considered the parent of London as Secretary of Embassy to the Duc de Nivernois, Ambassador from France to that court. Greek, see Jamieson’s Hermes Scythicus. Second, This nobleman was succeeded by M. de Guerchy, maintained the Celtic origin, or affinity of the
of the Iberians. Several modern writers have and the Chevalier was appointed minister plenipo- Iberians or Ligurians. Third, of the Celts or tentiary. His disputes with this latter, which led to Gauls who originally inhabited the north of Italy; many of his subsequent misfortunes, are detailed in his Lettres, Mémoires, et Négociations particu
these were designated by the Romans Umbri :lières, 4to, 1763; which was succeeded by an
“ From these authorities (Herodotus, lib. iv. c. 49; Examen des Lettres, 8c., 4to. Notwithstanding Dionysius of Halicarnassus, lib. i.; Pliny, lib. iii. c. 14);
it is evident that the Umbri at a remote period occupied this unfortunate affair, the Chevalier enjoyed the the greatest portion of North Italy. The Ligurians, a confidence of his royal master Louis XV., and nation confessedly Celtic, seem to have shared the country remained in correspondence with him till the
with them.”_ Williams “On one Source of the Nondeath of that monarch.
Hellenic Portion of the Latin Larguage” (Trans. of the A good account of the Chevalier, with a por
Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, vol. xiii. p. 499). trait by E. Cooper (a copy of that in the European Zenodotus of Troezene, a writer quoted by Magazine) will be found in Wonderful Characters Dionysius of Halicarnassus (lib. ii. p. 49), as the by Henry Wilson, 3 vols. 8vo, 1821.
author of a History of the Umbri, and who must The fencing exhibition of the Chevalier did not be supposed to have examined into the subject, prove a source of much profit, and he became expressly asserts that the Sabini were originally forced to dispose of his valuable library of books. Umbrians. These are his words: These were sold by Christie in Pall Mall in 1791,
“ The Sabines, who are indigenous, inhabited first the the MSS. and political tracts realising enormous Reatine district; but being driven thence by the Pelasgi, prices. The Catalogue, which is preceded by an entered that country, which they still inbabit, and having exposé in French and English, giving curious de- changed their name together with their situation, were tails of the private life of the Chevalier, is now
called Sabini instead of Umbri. To connect the Sabini
with the original population of Rome is an easy task," very scarce, and fetches a high price in France.
&c.-P. 503. He also published at the same time : “ An Account of the Facts, Motives, and Reasons, for
Thus, there is but one barbarous element of the Public Sale of Property to satisfy Creditors before Latin, viz. the Celtic : departing for Paris.” 8vo. 1791.
Considering the Umbri as confessedly the most an
cient people of Italy, I think we may safely ascribe to In this curious pamphlet it is represented that them the primitive form of its language, until Earl Ferrers received a sum of 50001. on account the several communities of the Etruscans, Sabines, and of Malle. D'Eon, and applied 30001. of it in re
Latins successively detached themselves from the parent pairing his mansion of Stanton Harold, neglecting adopted also different modifications of the same primeval
nation, and from a combination of different elements, the rightful claims of the lady.
tongue.”—Williams, p. 513. The Chevalier died May 21, 1810, and was buried at St. Pancras. An autopsy was made by
But the language of the Etruscans was a corMr. Copeland, surgeon, of Golden Square, when ruption of Greek: the body was discovered and certified, to be that “ In iis Italiæ antiquæ linguis (Etruscorum vel Oscoof a perfect male.
WILLIAM BATES. rum) principia ac primordia vetustissimæ linguæ Græcæ,
inquinata scilicet ac corrupta latuisse nemo, qui acuBirmingham.
tissimi Lanzii de hac re doctissimum opus inspexerit, dubitare potest.”—R. Payne Knight, Proleg. ad Homerum.
LACEMAKERS' SONGS: “ LONG LANKIN." • How can I come down, it's so late in the night, (4th S. ii. 178.)
And there's no fire burning, nor lamp to give light ?'
You have three silver mantles as bright as the sun; Forty years ago, when in Northamptonshire, I Come down, my fair lady, all by the light of one.' used to hear the lacemakers sing the now wellknown ballad of “Hugh of Lincoln ” (“It rains,
"Oni spare me, Long Lankin, spare me till twelve
o'clock! it rains," &c.) Another, which I have never seen
You shall have as much money as you can carry on in print, but which I happen to have in MS., is "Long Lankin," of which I send a copy. Like Oh! spare me, Long Lankin, oh! spare me one hour! the damsels whom Shakspeare represents as
You shall have my daughter Nancy, she is a sweet
flower.' "chanting” the song which the Clown proceeds
• Where to sing (in Twelfth Night, Act II. Sc. 4), the
your daughter Nancy ? she may do some
good ; equally
, " free maids” of my childhood's days She can hold the golden basin to catch your heart's often chanted, rather than sung, as they sat in blood.' rows in the sun or in the lace-school,” an
Lady Nancy was sitting in her window so high, institution which is perhaps effete. But Shak
And she saw her father as he was riding by :
O father ! O father! don't lay the blame on me; speare's lacemakers made bone lace,” and not
It was the false nurse and Lankin who killed your o bobbin lace," with which only I am acquainted. lady.' I could perhaps remember some few other ditties Then Länkin was hung on a gallows so high, which the lacemakers used to sing, though my
And the false nurse was burnt in a fire close by." impression is that they were often mere childish To the best of my recollection this copy is not nursery rhymes like “Sing a song of sixpence.” quite complete, and it was sung with occasional Such probably was one which began in this ad libitum variations, as “ Sally" or Betsy” way:
Nancy. It is probable that inquiry in the lace“I had a little nutting-tree,
making districts would produce copies of other old And nothing would it bear
ballads. But little silver nutmegs
B. H. COWPER. For Galligolden fair" of which I recollect no more, but that, as a little
If MR. EDWARD PEACOCK will refer to a note boy, I used to tell them to say “nutmeg-tree,” | (3rd S. ix.30) he will discover that“Mirry-land” is which they obstinately refused to do. By-the- no terra incognita. Bishop Percy's nonsense about way, there was a long piece about “Death and
“Milan” and “the Po” is indeed “a fancy, not the Lady," which the free maids” used to chant. worth a serious answer." “Mirry-land toun" is This exhausts my present reminiscences, so I shall Lincoln = Mere-land town = Merry-land town proceed to give you “ Long Lankin":
=the town of Mere-land = the land of meres, or
fen-lakes. Any one who has visited the Fens “ Said my lord to his lady as he got on his horse, Take care of Long Lankin, who lives in the moss.'
must have heard such phrases as “A good farm, Said my lord to his lady as he rode away,
but too merey”; “Too much mere-land,” &c. &c. * Take care of Long Lankin, who lives in the clay. The meres have been mostly drained, but many of The doors are all bolted, and the windows are pinned, the larger ponds still retain the name of “meres.” There is not a hole where a mouse can creep in.'
S. Then he kissed bis fair lady as he rode away ; For he must be in London before break of day. The doors were all bolted, the windows all pinned,
QUEEN BLEAREYE'S TOMB: PAISLEY ABBEY. But one little window where Lankin crept in.
(4th S. i. 309, 486, 584; ii. 60.) • Where's the lord of this house ?' said Long Lankin. • He is gone to fair London,' said the false nurse to
ESPEDARE's last able paper (in which, however, him.
he speaks too flatteringly of my humble aid) goes • Where's the lady of this house ?' said Long Lankin. far to solve the difficulty that has been long felt •She's in her high chamber,' said the false nurse to regarding this tomb, and I think establishes clearly
him. "Where's the young heir of this house ?' said Long the fact that it is a composition of two: (1) the Lankin.
recumbent figure, intended for Marjory Bruce; *He's asleep in his cradle,' said the false nurse to him. (2) the altar-tomb, that of some dignified eccleWe'll prick him, we'll prick him all over with a pin, siastic—the laymen's shields being those of allies And that will make your lady come down to him.' or relatives of this latter personage. They pricked him, they pricked him all over with a
It will interest ESPEDARE to know that the pin, And the false nurse held a basin for the blood to drop in. Crocs were, at an early period, among the landO nurse ! how you sleep, and O nurse how you snore ! owners of the county of Peebles, as well as RenYou leave my son Johnson to cry and to roar!' frew. (See Orig. Paroch. Scot., vol. i.). • I've tried him with suck, and I've tried him with pap;
He is perfectly right in his correction of my Come down, my fair lady, and nurse him in your lap: I've tried him with apple, and I've tried him with
erroneous construction of the curious charters by
Robert III. to his brother and nephew, the Alpear; Come down, my fair lady, and nurse him in your chair.' banys. I delayed acknowledging this till I had again consulted the originals; and these show they do not seem to understand: there are of distinctly that it was the “homage and service,” course a few exceptions. I have tried hard to not the money grant, which were to be received "educate" them up to the mark, but I have now by Sir Robert Stuart after the death of his bro- abandoned the task in despair. ther the Earl of Carric. Perhaps the following But the object of my present writing is to extract (supplying contractions) may be acceptable, make a few comments upon the statements of as it is not every one who examines the Great Seal G. W. M. in “ N. & Q.” 4th S. ii. 262, and reregister:
move some misapprehensions which he seems to “ Robertus, etc., Sciatis nos dedisse concessisse et hac entertain. presenti carta nostra confirmasse dilecto consanguineo Let me first say that the registrars under me nostro Murdaco Senescallo militi pro homagio et servicio (and I believe the praise may be given generally) nostro et speciali retinencia sua * carissimo primogenito
are · most earnest and indefatigable in the pernostro David Senescallo Comiti de Carric, ad terminum
formance of their duties. Deaths there is but vite sue continuand. et ipso primogenito nostro in fata forsan decedente continuand. similiter dilecto filio nostro little chance of their omitting to register, as their Roberto Senescallo militi prout in literis ipsius Murdaci certificate is required to be shown to the minister inde confectis plenius continet centum marcas sterlin- or other person burying; or if not shown, the clergorum annuatim levand. et percipiend. de magna cus
gyman officiating is bound to report the fact to tuma nostra burgi de Abirdene per manus custumariorum nostrorum ibidem qui pro tempore fuerint proporcionaliter
the registrar, that he may have the proper entry ad festas pentecoste et sancti Martini in Yeme," etc. etc.
made. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 213, No. 51.
With “ births" I admit that there is some I think the epithet “primogenitus” is quite difficulty, as, unless the parent feels the importance conclusive against the statement of Abercromby of registering his child's birth, the registrar may and Duncan Stuart, that Robert III. had an elder never hear of it. In country places the gossips son John. These writers are considered very in- take care that the fact is known; but in large different authority. ESPEDARE is also rigħt in towns it is impossible for the registrar to find correcting me as to the existence of Robert III.'s them out for himself. I trust, therefore, that other natural son James of Kilbride, who occurs in G. W. M., when he is next blessed, will not wait Robertson's Index of Lost Charters' as having had for the registrar calling upon him; for although a grant of that barony,“ with ane taillie” [entail). that officer is entitled to, and is paid (by the This was one of the forfeited estates of the Comyns, guardians) a fee upon every entry, he cannot and had been bestowed by Robert I., or his son register that of which he is not informed. David, upon the High Steward. I am almost I will now proceed to notice G. W.M.'s peculiar ashamed to confess that, though I spent the best grievance. Why in a large town, no entry of a part of my life within a ride of Paisley, I have birth may not be made unless the father of the only seen this tomb on two occasions; and my
child “takes the trouble” to give notice to the knowledge of its architecture is chiefly derived registrar, I have abore shown; but does G. W.M. from the very beautiful and accurate work of
think it “ a trouble to perhaps secure the civil Mr. Billings.
rights of his child by an authorised and legal
entry of the fact of its birth ? How many an inPARISH REGISTERS, ETC.
heritance has been lost by the want of such &
record ! (40 S. ii. 262 et antea.)
Surely no parent can think this &
“ trouble.” But, it seems, he registered his I am very glad to find that the subject of parish child's birth, without giving a (Christian) name. registers is now receiving attention, and trust that This the law allows, but as it also allows six by the persevering efforts of “N. & Q.,” Parlia- weeks after the birth for gratuitous registration, ment may ere long be induced, not only to pro- I find that in almost all instances the name is devide for the safe custody of existing books, but to cided upon before the registration takes place. provide the clergy with persons better qualified to Still it sometimes happens that no (Christian) make the entries correctly than they have proved name appears in the first entry. But here the themselves to be.
law provides a remedy, as is shown by G. W. M. As a superintendent registrar, I have to receive himself. After baptism, the name may be inevery quarter from the incumbents of the several serted; but any request to add anything to the parishes in my district copies of the marriage register, as required by G. W. M., would have entries for the preceding quarter; and sad it is to subjected the registrar to severe punishment, and see the little attention that men of education (as rightly. I will only ask, in conclusion, why, if our clergy are) bestow on the plainest requisites. after discussion (no doubt with his better hálf) They have had to fill up forms, but even those G. W. M. was able to decide upon a name next
In Robert Duke of Albany's Charter, immediately day, he could not have had the discussion” on following, are added here the words “ in pace et guerra.'
the day before, and thus saved all parties much Its terms are otherwise the same.
16 trouble" ? A SUPERINTENDENT REGISTRAR,