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The Fairford windows are fortunately open to My principal object, however, in now writing, comparison. They may be very advantageously must not be forgotten; which is to invite attencompared with a still more extensive, and in tion, concurrently with that of Fairford, to the fine many respects even superior, series of painted and extensive series of glass-paintings in King's glass in the celebrated windows of King's College College chapel. A very learned and thoroughly chapel, Cambridge. Of that magnificent collec- practical paper on the latter series was printed tion of historical compositions, only the great east by the Rev. W. J. Bolton, in No. 46 of the window is extensively known. It has been en Journal of the Archæological Institute, to which I graved, and may frequently be met with in the contributed two supplemental papers printed in rooms of Cambridge scholars. But the rest, the Nos. 48 and 49 of the same journal. They apside windows, although of very great artistic value, peared respectively in December 1855 and March are much less thought about. They are arranged 1856. in a continuous series of types and antetypes The Fairford windows at that time interested (with figures of prophets and messengers between me deeply, and it was my wish to study them as them: a system which is only partially carried completely as possible. I went so far as to read out in the Fairford glass.
a paper upon them, illustrated with original The east window of Fairford church represent- | drawings made by a very clever amateur, at the ing the Crucifixion, with five smaller subjects | April meeting of the Archæological Institute, below it, exhibits the same subject as the great 1856; but delayed committing it to press in the window of King's College chapel, Cambridge. desire to go more fully into the subject, and to There is great similarity between them. In one produce something much more elaborate. My respect, at least, Fairford has a considerable ad- subsequent occupations and engagements have vantage over the glass at Cambridge, which con- taken a very different turn; but now I rejoice to sists in the very fine west window of the Last find that the Fairford windows are engaging so Judgment. The subject is entirely wanting in much of public attention, and to observe by the University series ; although it would, doubt. an announcement in some of the public papers less, have appeared in the great west window, that a fitting memorial of them is likely to be which still continues blank with plain glass, had secured by the united labours of a committee of the original designs been fully carried out.
savans convened for the special purpose. The west window, containing the Last Judg
G. S. ment, appears to me to be of an earlier date than the rest of the glass at Fairford. It is especially Having access to several German works that interesting as exhibiting a close affinity to the seem to treat exhaustively of Albert Dürer's life, frequently described picture at Dantzig-a large
and of his vast body of compositions, I have altarpiece of the Last Judgment, formerly at
looked into them with great curiosity to discover tributed to Ouwater, and subsequently by Dr.
| if any decisive mention is made of Dürer as a Waagen to Hans Memling. The picture is certainly
painter on glass, but without success. Gessert, in a highly important picture of the Flemish school.
his Geschichte der Glasmalerei (Stuttgart, 1839), The arrangement and general action of the figures, states that the blessed ascending steps with the aid of St. “ neither from any notices on Dürer's part, or by his Peter, and the violent action of the condemned contemporaries, or from modern works, which treat of on the opposite side, are common to both paint
his life and art, can any certainty be arrived at that he ings. At Dantzig, the figures of the blessed enter
actually painted on glass. That he was reckoned among
the masters of our art appears, however, from this—that ing Paradise are entirely nude ; whilst at Fairford, he experimented, with German industry, in the most their habiliments, tiaras, mitres, and crowns, varied branches of art, and therefore could scarcely have distinguish their former grades and positions in wholly abstained from glass-painting, which at his time life. At Fairford, the condemned are much more
was flourishing in its utmost glory. Besides, in the
drawing (or design) of many glass-paintings, the unmisgrotesque; and the demons are scaly, with snouts,
takeable style of this master has led to the opinion that hideously formed limbs, such as beset St. Anthony he completed them in all their parts; wbile, perhaps, he in Martin Schongauer's well-known engraving. A only supplied the carton-an assistance which the most remarkable parallel exists also in the central and distinguished artists of that period did not disdain to dignified figure of St. Michael, holding the scales give.”—P. 135. in one hand and a processional cross in the other. In the copious article on Dürer inserted in the He is fully armed, and the fashion of the armour very valuable and beautifully-illustrated Converin both instances belongs to the fifteenth century. sntions-Lexicon für bildende Kunst, 3' Band,
My lamented friend C. Winston thought very Leipzig, 1846 (a work, unfortunately, never comhighly of this window, and I quite concur in the pleted*), the writer, in summing up the beneficial views which he expressed of the Fairford series in his Inquiry into Ancient Glass-paintings, p. 114
* Will no great publisher, Brockhaus or Cotta, come
forward to complete so invaluable a boon to the fine arts of the first edition.
as this work would be in its perfect state ?
influence of Dürer on all branches of the fine arts, BISHOP PERCY AND HIS “RELIQUES." states it to have been unbounded ; and enumerates My personal recollections of the bishop are in particular its effects on painters in oil, in minia- | about sixty-five years old, but I distinctly bear ture, in enamel, on glass; on engravers, form
in mind his appearance as a venerable-looking cutters, and even on sculptors, goldsmiths, die man, with a placid countenance and regular feacutters, and lithographers. This far-spread and tures, dressed in black, and wearing an apron, powerful influence the writer attributes to Dürer's which last particularly struck me. skill and mastery in design.
I was reading Ovid or Virgil with my father, Connected with Gessert's work, I may here in
who superintended my education, when Dr. Percy cidentally be permitted to mention that, more was rather suddenly announced. Seeing how I than twenty-five years ago, I assisted in com was engaged, after greeting my father, he enpleting a translation of it for a well-known ama
couragingly held out his hand to me, which of teur and patron of the fine arts in this city, Mr. course I took, and never having been so familiar • T. Combe; but by some strange mischance, the with a bishop before, it made an impression upon MS. was lost when about to be sent to the me. What particularly passed in conversation I press, and has never since been heard of. The do not remember, but my mother, who also knew loss was the more to be regretted on account of Dr. Percy, was sent for and came. My be numerous notes and additions to the work kindly | that the acquaintance between Percy and my contributed by an eminent scholar and art-critic, father began when the former was Dean of Carthen a student, and now the Dean of Christ lisle; who, coming to see Dr. Vincent, then Master Church. With regard to the Fairford windows, of Westminster School, extended his walk (for I Gessert merely repeats the common accounts given recollect no carriage) some hundred or two of of them by Dallaway in his Anecdotes of the Arts
yards to call upon a person whom he had known in England. In an enumeration given in the
| a good many years before. He was attended by a Conversations-Lexicon of the glass-paintings to be servant, and this servant had in his care a copy of found in Nürnberg (Dürer's native city), not one the Reliques of the edition of 1775 (by mistake I is mentioned as by him; but several, by modern gave the date as 1774 in my former communicaartists, are stated to be after the great master; tion), which Dr. Percy presented to my father.
That very copy now lies before me, and it is reOxford.
| markable chiefly for the omission of the ballad
“ The Wanton Wife of Bath.” I have seen it Just now that these windows are attracting stated that this so-called questionable production much attention, it may be interesting to see what was left out of the second edition of the Reliques has been said of them by an early writer, Richard in 1767; but such is not the fact, for it is found Corbet, D.D., 1582-1635. The following poem on p. 145 of the third volume of that impression may be considered to escape the charge either of with a brief introduction (as in the edition of profanity or immodesty :
1765) containing merely Addison's recommenda“UPON FAIREFORD WINDOWES.
tion of it. Why Percy presented to my father the Tell me, you Anti-Saints, why Brass
third edition instead of the fourth (which had With you is shorter-liv'd than Glass ?
come out in 1794, as superintended by his nephew) And why the Saints have scap'd their Falls
I know not, while I can easily understand why Better from Windows than from Walls ? Is it because tbe Brethren's Fires
he did not give him the first or the second. Maintain a Glass-house at Black - Fryers ?
The interview did not last long, but my father Next which the Church stands North and South, went out with the bishop, and did not return for And East and West the Preacher's mouth.
some time; and my lessons, I think, were ended Or is't because such Painted Ware
for that day. Of the subjects talked about I have Resembles something that you are,
no trace, but it must have been winter time, and In Manners and in Doctrine found,
the House of Lords then sitting, - for Dr. Percy That, out of Emblematick Wit,
had come from thence to visit Dr. Vincent. I You Spare your selves in Sparing it?
am not aware that his acquaintance with the If it be so, then Fairford, boast
learned author of The Voyage of Nearchus has ever Thy Church hath Kept what all have Lost, And is Preserved from the bane
been mentioned. Through “ the Poets' Corner,” Of either War or Puritane,
in Westminster Abbey, was the nearest way to Whose Life is colour'd in thv Paint,
Dr. Vincent's and my father's, and I have some The inside Dross, the outside Saint.”
notion that the bishop stated that he had come Poems, written by Dr. Richard Corbet, the Third that road, and that he had derived pleasure from Edition, 1672, p. 111.
association. What he said-if he said anything
W. H. S. Yaxley, .
about his Reliques has entirely escaped me. Having another copy, my father never allowed that then presented to him to be used in the family, and it is
So py'de, so seeming, so unsound
now precisely in its original state-bound only in
“MORNING SPRING-SONG. sheep-skin, gilt, which in course of time has some “Walking, lady, let us go: what decayed, but there is not a speck, blemish,
See the sun-shine all a-glow!
Hark! and hear the joyous birds or even crumple of any kind within the covers.
Singing descant without words. This work first encouraged my taste for our old
The thrush upon the tallest tree. popular poetry.
Knocks it loud and lustily. Many years ago I knew an old clergyman who “Some are in the air so high had resided and done duty in a parish near Dro
You might think them of the sky; more. He told me that the bishop's mode of life,
These, indeed, you cannot see, as I could well suppose, was extremely simple and
Though they sing so merrily :
You may hear them for a mile, unpretending, while at the same time he kept up
Whilst both earth and heaven smile. his rank and state in his diocese very becomingly,
“ Then, behold the greeny grass and even somewhat austerely. He was charitable, Kiss your footsteps as you pass. but with due discrimination; very attentive to
See the daisy's open eye the educational wants of his poor neighbours,
Peering upward cunningly, while Mrs. Percy, as her health allowed it, was a
To behold what it may view :
Would I were a daisy too! frequent visitor among them. I asked whether
“ See also the hawthorn blossom, Dr. Percy seemed to feel with any acuteness the
The dog-rose on nature's bosom: severity of Ritson's attacks upon him. So little
Can there be a sweeter sight, so, that my informant had never even heard of
Budding fresh in morning light? them at Dromore. As far as he knew, the bishop's While the thirsty sun drinks up studies, in the beginning of this century, were
The dew-drop from the buttercup. entirely theological and devotional, but he did
“ Walking, lady, if we go,
We shall see all this and mo. not preach very often: his style in the pulpit was
Come away! It is the spring; slow and plain, but impressive. He was generally
Give it thankful welcoming : supposed in Ireland to be a distant relative of the Think what pleasure you will miss dukes of Northumberland.
Keeping house a morn like this." In my former communication (“N. & Q." Aug. If any of the readers of “N. & Q." can point out 22, 1868,) I spoke of a friend to whom I gave where the original is to be found they will do me my drawing of the edifice at Bridgnorth in which a great favour. It seems to me so picturesque, so Percy was born, and who had made and was still animating, and partaking so much of the brightmaking collections, literary and artistic, for the ness and sunshine of the scene it describes, that I illustration of the Reliques. I also there, from can hardly impute it to Percy; yet to whom else a better copy in his hands, made certain correc can we assign it? I have searched many musical tions in a poem, supposed to be the authorship of miscellanies by Bird, Morley, Gibbons, and others, the bishop, and inserted by the Rev. Mr. Pick
thinking it might possibly lurk there, but without ford in his recent highly commendable biogra
J. PAYNE COLLIER. phical essay. I say supposed to be the author
Maidenhead. ship of the bishop, because, looking at the date of it, and the character and wording of the production, I feel some doubt as to its authenticity;
A SCOTISH PEER BY COURTESY. but the same friend was in possession of a much During the discussion which ensued in the rebetter poem, which, he stated, he had tran- | cent competition before a Committee of Privileges scribed from Percy's own manuscript: still my for the Scotish peerage of Balfour of Burley, bebelief is that it was not his original composi tween Mr. Bruce of Kennet and Major Balfour tion, but that he had written it out from some old of Fernie-one the heir of line, and the other the lyrical work that had fallen in his way. For heir-male of the second Lord Balfour of Burley many years I have been in search of it without a good deal was said about charters presumed finding it in Drayton, Daniel, Breton, or any of to exclude the heir of line, of the existence of our poets of that day, and somewhat later; for which no proof was attempted to be adduced. to me it reads as if it were not quite so old as the The Lords rejected these presumed charters, and most recent of those writers. It is rather in the this led to an investigation as to the Scotish law free joyous manner of Herrick, but I can safely of courtesy. assert that it is not contained in his printed vo The original patent of creation of the Burley lumes. It is short, and I will here submit it to peerage contained only the grant of a barony, the readers of “N. & Q." as a very interesting without any mention of heirs. The patentee died, and sprightly relic, premising that I transcribed leaving an only daughter, who had previously been it full forty years ago from a copy which my married to a gentleman of the name of Arnot, friend informed me he had made from one in who during his father-in-law's lifetime took the Bishop Percy's well-known handwriting :
name and bore the arms of Balfour of Burley.
In right of his wife, who upon the death of her | 1683 that any one taking to wife a peeress was, parent succeeded to his title, the husband was by the law of Scotland, entitled by courtesy tó recognised, it was said, as Lord Burley, and as assume her title and sit and vote under it in such sat and voted in the Scotch Parliament. Parliament.
Major Balfour contended that the second lord It may also be noticed that, in Nisbet's Heraldry sat under some patent or charter which was now ! (par excellence the most valuable treatise of the lost, by which the peerage was settled on heirs kind in the North, and which was published in male. 'Mr. Bruce, on the other hand, asserted the early part of last century), when referring to that the second lord was a peer by courtesy, in the Balfours of Burley, the author distinctly right of his wife; that the grant of barony must asserts that Arnot of Fernie, by marrying the be treated as if it were a charter of land, which, daughter of the first Lord Burley, became by if there was no substitution otherwise, fell of courtesy, in her right, a Scotish peer. This valunecessity to the heir of line. Both these pleas able piece of evidence does not appear to have were held by the lords on the committee to be been made use of or given in evidence. The doc
trine of presumed patents, or “must be charters," It is remarkable that the law of courtesy should ventilated in the Burley competition, would be have created doubts at the present date in the very convenient in peerage claims, as it would mind of any one conversant with the law of Scot- supply all sorts of defects. land, and yet this came to be the turning point of Admit the convenient doctrine of presumptions the case. If the learned judges and counsel had not founded on anything like evidence, and where looked into the Life of Lord Chancellor Clarendon, is it to stop ? Lord Eldon is reported to have who lived at a time when the principles relative remarked in a question of pedigree, where counsel to succession in Scotland were more 'understood | learned in law pressed upon his lordship that in England than they appear to be at present, there was only one link wanting in the chain of they would have seen what that eminent man evidence, and that its existence might be preknew to be the law in his time.
sumed. “One link!" quoth the amazed lawyer; Charles II. was anxious to unite his son, after "give me but one link, and I will connect myself wards Duke of Monmouth, to the Countess of with the most ancient and noblest families in the Buccleuch-a peeress in her own right. Desirous kingdom.” “De non apparentibus et de non exof putting him in such a position as might war- istentibus eadem est ratio," is the proper rule to rant his aspiring to the hand of the noble lady, be applied to all similar presumptions, and one he consulted his chancellor, and showed him the uniformly given effect in the Court of Session. draught of a writing in which Monmouth was
J. M. styled the king's natural son, and in which it was proposed to give him a title of honour.
CHAUCER'S CHRONOLOGY.. The chancellor, after reading the paper, told his majesty "that he need not give him any other
Every reader who has ever opened a Chaucer title of honour than he would enjoy by his mar
must remember the opening lines of the prologue, riage, by which he would by the law of Scotland where the poet speaks of the showers of April, be called Earl of Buccleuch, which would be and has the lines — title enough.” He objected to the term of “the
“the yonge sonne king's natural son," as likely to produce incon:
Hath in the Ram his balfe course i-ronne.” venience, and referred to France and Spain, where But this passage has never been explained up to this recognisal was never made, unless the indi- the present moment, and I therefore think that vidual gave notable evidence of his inheriting, or many of your readers would be glad to hear that having acquired, such virtues and qualities as it can be explained so as to be perfectly consistent made him worthy of his descent. He then con- and correct. cluded with observing that “this gentleman Tyrwhitt saw the difficulty of speaking of the was yet young, and not to be judged of; and sun being in the Ram in the month of April, and therefore, if he were fòr the present married to therefore has proposed to read Bole, i. e. Bull. · this young lady, and assumed her title, as he must But the MSS. are here against him. do, his majesty might defer for some years mak-! The exact day of April to which Chaucer refers ing any declaration of paternity.”
is most probably the 17th, as will be shown preCharles however had, like many other people, sently. Where then was the sun on the 17th of no doubt, made up his mind before asking advice, April at that time? The answer is affected by and he shortly afterwards signed the declaration the precession of the equinoxes, which may be of paternity, and created his son Duke of Mon- | accounted for by considering the change of style; mouth. This did not affect the soundness of the with sufficient accuracy, that is, for our present chancellor's opinion, which may be accepted as | purpose. matter of the fact that his lordship understood in The difference between the old and new
which now amounts to twelve days, amounted in “ day artificial,” i. e. of the time between sunrise Chaucer's time to only eight days. Hence the and sunset, would be at about half-past eight, sun, on the 17th of April, 1386, would be very leaving a difference of an hour and a half till ten nearly where he is now on the 25th of April-i.e. o'clock. Yet Chaucer speaks very naturally, since in the fifth degree of Taurus. This can be verified it is very difficult to guess at all closely by such by Chaucer's own words, for he says in his trea- an observation of the sky. Hence, what does he tise on the astrolabe, in a passage which Tyrwhitt make “ our host" do? He first notes that the appositely quotes, that the vernal equinox, or first sun has performed a quarter of his course, and half degree of Aries, corresponded in his time to the an hour besides—aye, and more too, from which 12th of March ; from which it follows, by the use he knows it must certainly be already nine o'clock of an astrolabe, that on the 17th of April (old -a fact which his interest in the stories he has style) he would be in the fifth degree of 'Taurus, heard has prevented him from perceiving before ; as already calculated. But this is not the actual and, secondly, he takes another observation of a and visible, but only the theoretical and supposed more exact character, from which he concludes position of the sun. This is best explained by the that it can want but a few minutes of being ten following quotation from Milner's Gallery of Na- o'clock (I calculate that the sun would be fortyture, p. 149:
five degrees high at about a quarter to ten), and “The effect [of the precession of the equinoxes] has he at once bursts out into exclamations about the been to separate the asterisms from their denominational loss of time. signs, so that .... the constellation Aries is in the sign Since writing my note upon the “Knightes Taurus," &c.
Tale," a friend has drawn my attention to the And, in fact, a glance at a modern celestial globe very ingenious letters signed A. E. B. in “N. & Q." shows that the meridian of the eleventh degree of 1st S. iii. I cannot agree with much that is there Taurus (which is now nearly where the fifth degree advanced, though stated with great ability. For was then) passes near the star u Arietis, which | instance, the third of April is there said to be the is exactly the central star of the constellation of the day of Palamon's being found by Arcite, whereas Ram. Hence it appears that Chaucer is perfectly it is the fourth, since the “ third night” is foland most accurately correct.
lowed by the fourth day, as a matter of course. In the same way the sun would be in the con The true key is Chaucer's own Treatise on the stellation Gemini when in the sign Cancer, as so Astrolabe, never yet correctly printed, but on expressly stated by our poet in the “Merchauntes which I am now bestowing much labour, that the Tale," ll. 978-980.
E. E. T. S. edition may be as perfect as possible. The date, 17th of April, depends on the name Many passages of our early English writers still given to the day following in the beginning of the require, and merit, elucidation. – Man of Lawes Prologue.” On the fifth line of
WALTER W. SKEAT. this Mr. Wright remarks, “ Eightetene is the read 1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. ing in which the MSS. seem mostly to agree. The MS. Harl. reads threttenthe. Tyrwhitt has eiyht and twenty." But the context may here help VERSES TO HENRIETTE MARIE BY JASPER us out. The poet (and astronomer) is speaking of a
MAYNE. day in which the altitude of the sun at ten o'clock is forty-five degrees. Now on the 18th of April the sun,
Reading MR. BOLTON CORNEY'S contribution being in the sixth (now twelfth) degree of Taurus,
| from the Musarum Oxoniensium of 1643(“N. & Q." will have an altitude of about forty-seven degrees
4th S. ii. 147), I was reminded of a similar little at ten o'clock, as nearly as I can tell by the use
| volume on my shelves, also containing a poem to
Charles I.'s queen by the same poet. The volume of a celestial globe; but on the 28th his altitude will be at least fifty degrees. Hence the reading
is probably rare, as it was wanting in my late eightetene is more correct. The reading, threttene,
friend Dr. Bliss's collection of Oxford books, and would make the sun in the first degree of Taurus,
I do not find it described in any work at hand. It and would give an altitude of almost exactly
is a small 4to of forty-four leaves, with the folforty-five degrees; but this rests only upon the
lowing title, which I give in full :authority of one MS., and it would be absurd to
“ Musarum Oxoniensium CHARISTERIA pro Serenis
sima Regina Maria, recens e nixus laboriosi discrimine press the argument from astronomy so closely as
recepta. Oxoniæ, Typis Leonard Lichfield Academiæ ībis, when we notice that the fact of the sun's Typographi, M.DC.xxxvIII." altitude being about forty-five degrees was merely derived from the rough observation of perceiving
The verses are as follows:a shadow to be as long, to all appearance, as the
“TO THE QUEENE. object that cast it. The "half an houre and
“ Whether our fears made dangers, that our joyes more” mentioned in this passage must be inter
Might rise more solemne frö false fames, and noise;
Or whether 'twere a true escape, and we preted much less strictly; for the fourth part of a Are seasonable to our