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Bonnier, to represent the republic in the congress, which was to open on the ist of January ensuing (A.D. 1798).
The ratification by the Directory of the treaty of Udina, or Campo-Formio, as it was more usually styled, was followed by a proclamation addressed to the armies, in which it was observed, “ that although so much had been done, so many kings conquered, so many people set free, and the republic itself established by the valor of its arms, yet the country expected one more facrifice ; fince the enemy, who had been the original cause of all the horrors and miseries which they had suffered, both from foreign and civil war, remained yet to be crushed ; and that the safety of the republic was endangered whilft the ENGLISH GOVERNMENT existed.” This declaration was followed by two resolutions: ift, That an army should be immediately affembled on the coasts of the Channel, under the name of the Army of England; and, 2dly, That general Buonaparte should be appointed the commander-in-chief.
On the injudicious recall of Mr. Monroe, the American ambassador, from France, the Directory refused to receive the credentials of Mr. Pinckney, his successor, until their grievances were redreffed ; and in the month of Janųary, 1797, that minister received formal notice to quit the territory of the republic; in consequence of which order he accordingly retired to Amsterdam. At the opening of the ensuing session of the congress at Philadelphia, in the spring of 1797, the new president, Mr. Adams, declared it “ to be his fincere decre to preserve peace and friendship with all nations, and that, believing neither the honor nor the interest of the United States absolutely to forbid the repetition of advances for securing these defirable objects with France, he should institute a fresh attempt at negotiation.” Three commisioners were named for the purpose--Mr. Marshall and Mr. Gerry being joined with general Pinckney. These gentlemen were allowed to remain quietly at Paris, but could make little or no progress to
wards an accommodation of differences. The spirit of intrigue, extravagance, and corruption, at this period, peryaded every branch of the directorial government, which was diflinguifhed only by its tyranny, its imbecility, and rapacity. After the revolution of the 18th Fructidor, scarcely did this government deign to attempt the concealment of its vices. At a conference, held by the commiffioners in the month of October (1797), with a confidential friend and agent of the minister of foreign relations, Talleyrand, that person expatiated largely on the animosity discovered by the American prefident, in his speech to the congress, against the French republic---and on the keen resentment which it had excited in France ; saying, that satisfaction was indispensably necessary previous to negotiation : « But,” said he, “ gentlemen, I will not disguise from you, that, this fatisfaction being made, the efiential part of the treaty remains to be adjusted--- Il faut de l'argent, il faut beaucoup de l'argent."---He affirmed, “ that the Directory were jealous of their own honor; jealous of the honor of the NATION; and this honor must be maintained, unlefs we substituted, in place of the reparations demanded, something perhaps more valuable--that was MONEY! There were to the amount of 32 millions of florins of Dutch inscriptions, which, if the commissioners would engage to take as a security for a loan to the same amount, it would be a great accommodation. There shall,” said he, “ be first taken from the loan certain sums for the purpose of making the customary distributions in diplomatic affairs. This fum, according to diplomatic ufage, he estimated at about 1,200,000 livres.” The commissioners replied, “ that the American government would have supposed such a propofition, if made by them, would have given mortal offence." He asked, say the commissioners in their official account of this conference, “ if our government did not know that nothing was to be obtained here without money?" The commissioners answered,“ that such a state of things was
not even suspected.” He appeared surprised at it, and said, « there was not an American in Paris who could not have given that information." The commissioners refusing with disdain these ignominious conditions of peace, the negotiation remained entirely suspended : and the president, Mr. Adams, in a message to the congress (March 1798), with good reason declared, “ that he perceived no ground of expectation that the objects of their mission could be accomplished on terms compatible with the safety, honor, or the effential interests of the nation.”
M. d'Aranjo, ambassador from Portugal at Paris, had been this summer employed in negotiating a separate peace, and had actually concluded a treaty on the 10th of Auguft, which was to be ratified in two months ---a period which was, no doubt, by the court of Lisbon deemed sufficient 10 determine the ifsue of the negotiation depending between France and England. The negotiation breaking off, and the treaty consequently not being ratified, it was declared by the Directory null and void, and M. d'Aranjo ordered to quit the territories of the republic. But lingering, probably for some purpose of political intrigue, beyond the time specified in the order, he was, by an extraordinary stretch of power, committed prisoner to the Temple ; whence, however, he was released, after no long interval of confinement or sufferance.
In the course of the present year died the celebrated Danish minifter, count Bernstorf, deeply lamented by his countrymen, and all the friends of peace and humanity throughout Europe. Diligent and indefatigable in business, he had a ready conception, and a happy manner of expresfing his ideas. An enemy to flattery, indifferent to pleafure, firm, sagacious, beneficent-never was any statesman more universally admired and revered. Easy of access, simple in his manners, with a temper always equal, communicative, and affable---never was any man in his indi
vidual Vide - Official Narrative of the Commiflioners."
vidual capacity more esteemed and beloved. The affranchisement of the Danish peasants, the abolition of the negro trade, the acquisition of Holstein, and the calm wifdom with which he steered the vessel of the state amid the storms and tempests which agitated Europe for the last seven eventful years of revolution and war, will render his administration for ever memorable in Denmark.
In the month of November this year a personage of a very different description, Frederic-William II. king of Prussia, departed this life. During his reign, which lasted eleven years, Prussia maintained her full influence as a political power in Europe ; though his ability for government did not rise above the royal accomplishment of KING-CRAFT, or what is in other men styled cunning. The fabric of Prussian greatness had indeed been constructed with a master-hand ; nor were the fame talents requisite for maintaining as for erecting the edifice. His general conduct participated more of the rapacity of a robber than the ardor of a hero---all was mean, selfish, and contracted; nor can the nearest view detect one virtue to mitigate the horror with which every honest man must contemplate the conspirator of Pilnitz and the plunderer of Poland.
Since the commencement of the present war, a proclamation had issued every year for the observance of a Fast ; and a service composed for the occasion by the bishops was ordered to be read in the churches---many of the offices contained in which were by some thought rather calculated to inflame the minds of the ignorant multitude against the enemy, than to impress upon them sentiments of penitence, devotion, or humanity; and the general strain of them better adapted to the character of priests of Moloch than of CHRIST.-" We prostrate ourselves before thee" such is the language of the first morning collect of this pious ritual—~ in earnest prayer and supplication, in behalf of ourselves and other Christian nations, exposed at this time to the cruelty or groaning under the oppreslion of
apoftates from thy truth, and defpifers of thy holy name, who have spread desolation wherever they have erected their standard.”---And in a certain form of words called A PRAYER for our ENEMIES! we find the following meek and benevolent expressions:---- Suffer us, we beseech thee, in the spirit of Christian charity, to offer our humble intereelfions for the repentance and conversion of men who have cast off their faith in thee the living God, and, following the vain imaginations of reprobate minds, have plunged themselves into crimes and impieties which aftonifh the Christian world. Open their eyes, O LORD!
-Strike them, in thy mercy, with remorse and compunction,” &c. &c.
At the end of the present year, Providence having declared fo openly and decidedly in our favor by the late naval victories, it was determined by his majesty to go, attended by the two houses of parliament, and the great officers of state (December 19), in religious and triumphal procession, to the cathedral of St. Paul, in order to offer up a public and national thanksgiving for the same. The flags and colours taken from the French, Spaniards, and Dutch, accompanied with bands of music, &c. were borne in folemn pomp to the cathedral, and deposited with holy exultation upon the altar. After which a sermon was preached by the lord bishop of Lincoln, fraught with such sentiments of self-abasement, contrition, and humanity, as the following :-" Where will be found such strict adherence to public faith, such impartial administration of justice, such fidelity in the concerns of private life, such liberal attention to the poor, such kindness to the ftranger, such generosity to the prisoner, as in this country? While our enemies have insulted the MAJESTY of HEAVEN, we have HUMBLED ourselves before God, and ACKNOWLEDGED our TRANSGRESSIONS.While THEY have impiously denied his all-controling power, we have prayed unto the Lord to give wisdom to our councils, success to our arms, and steadiness to our people, and he has heard us ! -The banners which you have this day feen