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In speaking of the points which the plenipotentiaries of the enemy proposed for separate discussion in their first conference with the English ambassador, his majesty styles them “ at once frivolous and offensive, none of them productive of any solid advantage to France, but all calculated to raise new obstacles in the way of peace.” Doubtless all demands, just or unjust, made by an enemy in the course of any negotiation, may, in a general sense, be regarded as raising new obstacles in the way of peace. But how the requisition of the French republic to the king of Great Britain, to defift from the vain and foolish affumption of the title of King of France, could, in any rational sense, be considered as offensive, or even as frivolous, is not easy to divine ; and still less how the restoration of the ships taken at Toulon, or the renunciation of a mortgage on their revenues, should not be productive of solid advantage to France.—The royal declaration concludes with the assertion, highly laudable in itself, and no less acceptable to the public, “ that, though his majesty's wishes and endeavours to restore peace to his subjects had proved fruitless, his sentiments remain unaltered. He looks with anxious expectation to the moment when the government of France may shew a disposition and spirit in any way corresponding to his own.”

Amid the civil commotions which agitated France at this period, the fathers of the Gallican church, who had conformed to the severe injunctions of the constitution on ecclesiastical points, had ventured once more to assemble, in order to deliberate on a mode or plan of conciliation, to repair and cement such genuine parts of this sacred edifice as had been shattered by the rude and savage hand of perfecuting power. The past and present state of the church was laid before this venerable body. Amongst other lamentable instances of apostacy were mentioned the marriages of twelve bithops ; twelve others had abdicated their seats ; eight had perished on the scaffold; one, the bishop


of Dol, who had acted in a military capacity, had been shot as a rebel;"* and of the emigrant bishops forty had died in foreign countries. After attempting to re-organize the administration of the church, the next solicitude of these bishops was to call back their brethren who had wandered from the fold. The general answers given by the incivic clergy were comprised in a few words ; such as " wolves," " forswearers,” « intruders," “ robbers,” “ heTetics,” “ scismatics,” according to the report of Grégoire, constitutional bishop of Blois, who alone, as he declares, had the patience to read over the enormous collection of three thousand pacquets laid before the fynod.

The first acts of this council were, the publication of a fynodical letter to the pastors and to the faithful, on the means of establishing religious peace; and another addreffed to the bishops and priests resident in France, who had separated from the national communion. It was proposed that a general oblivion should cover all former diffenfions, and that the acknowledged tenets of the Christian church should alone be the prescribed articles of belief, whatever might have been their opinions on the questions which had divided the church of France. Amongft these articles the council numbered the grand pofitions ;---that the Pope is the visible head of the church on earth; that he poffeises thereby the primacy of honor and jurifdi&tion; and that all Christians are bound implicitly to receive the dogmas promulgated by the catholic and universal church, and to condemn all the errors which it has proscribed.

Although the French government did not, and, according to the acknowledged principles of toleration, could not, interpose to prevent the deliberations and acts of an assembly which cautiously restrained its proceedings within the limits


Had the bishop of Dol been reclaimed as a son of the church by the father of the faithful, his coat of mail might, agreeably to a famous hilto rical anecdote, have been transmitted to the holy pontiff with the questioa fubjoined, Say whether this be thy fon's coat or no?"

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of the law and constitution, they regarded nevertheless those proceedings with a jealous eye ; and, with a view of counter-acting the latent fanaticism of the vulgar religion, the Directory gave great encouragement to a new fect, recently established under the name of Theophilanthropists ; one of the members of the directorial board, La Réveillière Lepaux, declaring himfelf openly a patron and protector of it. These religionists, rejecting all revelation, confined their worship to one supreme being : and, gradually increafing in number, they at length took possession, by permission of the municipalities, of very many of the public churches -occupied, also, at other hours of the fame day, by the Catholics : and the offering of the wheaten ear and the bouquet of flowers to the divinity, as prescribed by the elegant though already fuperftitious ritual of the new sect, was preceded, or followed, by the mystic and fumptuous rites of the Romish church.

From the period of the signature of the preliminaries of Leoben, general Buonaparte had been deeply engaged in regulating the interior or political concerns of Italy. Conferences had long since been opened at the village of Campo Formio, near Udina, with the plenipotentiaries of the emperor, with a view to a definitive treaty, which was at length concluded on the 17th of October, 1797. By the terms of this treaty the former preliminary articles were confirmed, but with the addition of a new one, which excited great astonishment and indignation in Europe. This was the cession, by France, to his Imperial majesty of the city of Venice, and the whole of the Venetian territory eastward of the Adige; and a line passing through the Lake de’ Guarda, including that part of Istria, Dalmatia, &c. formerly belonging to the Venetian republic :--the valuable islands in the Levant, Corfu, Zante, Cephalenia, &c. being allotted, in this division of spoils, to France. Those who were attached to the antient régime were exasperated at the diffolution of the regular and long-established govern


ment of Venice, and scandalized at the facility and even eagerness with which the emperor, who had entered into the war as the champion of civil and social order, and the defender of the political relations of Europe against the common destroyer, grasped at his share of the golden spoil This was a transaction which admitted of no gloss, and exhibited itself to the perception of all as an act of unprincipled and profligate rapacity.* ---On the other hand, France had made voluntary and prodigal professions of protection and fraternity to all those nations which suffered under oppression, and were desirous to embrace the blessings of liberty. Instead of acting in a manner correspondent to her professions, and re-constructing the fallen government of the Venetians on principles of justice and equity, she now treacherously transferred to the Austrian despotism a people over whom she possessed no other right or power excepting that which always appertains to the strongest. The Venetians themselves were struck with consternation at this unlooked-for proceeding. Not only had the inhabitants of the Venetian states indulged the idea of exchanging their oligarchical regimen for the bleffings of a free government, but they had actually named, under the fanction of the French general, in almost every commune, provifionary authorities, and taken every step for the formation of a republic founded on equal rights. It was therefore with bursts of indignation and despair that they heard of that article of the definitive treaty which consigned them to Austria; and it was said that general Buonaparte himself yielded with great reluctance to the sacrifice, and only


• " The coalesced powers," says Mr. Burke," were easily taught to fide back into their old habitual school of politics, and to consider the flames that were consuming France as an happy occasion for pillaging the goods, and carrying off the materials, of their neighbour's house."

! REGICIDE PEACE.' To accuse the coalesced powers of fiding back into their old habits secas unjust-it does not appear that they ever relinquished them.

in obedience to the positive orders of the Directory, who could not be supposed regardful of those sacred rights in other communities which they had with unhallowed and parricidal hands well-nigh extinguished in their own.

By a secret but important article of the treaty of Campo Formio, the archbishopric of Saltzburg, with some adjoining districts of Bavaria, making the river Inn the boundary on that Gde of the Austrian territory, was also allotted to the emperor ;---all which tract of country, as well as his Venetian acquisitions, were so conveniently situated, and coalesced so well with the general mass of the Imperial dominions, as to form much more than a compensation for the remote and insulated provinces which he had lost.

The treaty of Campo Formio being concluded with the emperor only, as king of Hungary and Bohemia, the pacification of the empire with the French republic was referred to a congrefs to be held at Rastadt. The organization of the new Cisalpine republic, agreeably to the model of France, was by this time completed, and all places of trust and dignity filled according to the recommendation of general Buonaparte, who made, at the instalment of the executive government, an able and eloquent speech, exhorting them, “ now they had attained to liberty, to conduet themselves in such a manner as to become worthy of their high destiny, in making only wise and moderate laws, and executing them with force and energy, by favoring the diffusion of knowledge, and respecting the rights of conscience.The new and friendless monarch of Sardinia was still left in nominal poffeffion of Piedmont, at the price of entering into a strict alliance, offensive and defensive, with France.---At the latter end of November general Buonaparte left Italy; and, taking his journey through Berne and Rastadt, receiving everywhere the highest honors, this extraordinary perfonage arrived at Paris near the end of the year, leaving the commissioners, Treilhard and


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