Space Debris: Hazard Evaluation and Debris
When the first sputnik was launched and the space era began, few gave thought to the possible negative impact of putting satellites into orbit. In fact, man's space activity has led to the formation of a new media named "space debris," i.e. man-made objects and their fragments launched into space, currently inactive and no longer serving any useful purpose. Space Debris: Hazard Evaluation and Mitigation will appeal to readers unfamiliar with the issues, as well as experts and designers. It introduces concepts behind the problems of space ecology. The volume features actual data on the space debris environment; new mathematical models for space debris evolution, production and self-production; description of the existing software and concepts for shield design. The author also reviews methods of collision risk assessment, including the attitudes and inclinations of orbits, collision hazard evaluation and suggestions for preventative measures.
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European Space Agency Activities on Orbital Debris
Mathematical Model for Space Debris Evolution Production and SelfProduction
The Solution of Applied Problems Using the Space Debris Prediction and Analysis Model
Geostationary Orbit Pollution and Its Long Term Evolution
AreaMass and Mass Distributions of Orbital Debris
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altitude altitude distribution Anz-Meador approach area-to-mass ratio atmospheric drag ballistic coefficients breakup models calculated catalogued objects characteristic Chobotov coefficient collision probabilities component containment debris cloud debris evolution debris particles debris population deflagration determined detonation diameter droplets eccentricities elastic energy energy release equation estimate flux forecasts formula function gas phase geo-synchronous geostationary orbit Geosynchronous Orbit graveyard orbit groups hazard hypergolic hypervelocity hypervelocity impact i-th model particle inclination initial j-th phase Kiselev Kosmos launches low Earth orbits mass distribution mathematical models meteoroid number density number of collisions number of fragments number of objects º º orbital debris parameters perigee perigee altitude polydispersed pressure probability of collision radar range re-orbit reaction relative velocity scenario shell sizes Smirnov space debris space objects spacecraft spatial density tank technogeneous temperature total number turbulent values velocity vector wall zone