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somewhat deeper than I think has yet been done into the origin of things created, and, by penetrating the other way somewhat further than has yet been attempted, into their furthest, yet unborn consequences and developements,' he hoped to display, somewhat more extensively than has yet been attempted, the relations that really exist between all the different external objects, more proximate or more remote, of our feelings and of our thoughts; between those productions of the great primitive cause of all known effects that are earlier, and those that are later; between those that are nearer to, and those that become more distant from, that first cause itself; between the past, the present, and the future, unto their furthest limits. In other words, if we rightly comprehend this obscure passage, the author set out with the hope of gathering from his own mind, and from the contemplation of external objects, without any assistance from Scripture, arguments sufficient to convince him of the certainty of a future existence: or, as he elsewhere much more clearly expresses his intentions, 'to trace the origin, the vicissitudes, and the final destination of man.'

But he observes, the very globe on which man first arises, is not a distinct and separate whole. It is only a late, a small, a remote part of an universe of things created, comprehending millions of other globes earlier and larger than our mole-hill, to many of which it is only a mite, and to some of which it owes its own later existence; and that of all the entities of which it becomes gradually composed; nay, to all of which it remains to a certain degree subservient; in so much that we can only of the origin and prospects of the entities that arise on its surface, form a sound judg.. ment, by casting our glance constantly both forward and backward on all the other globes by which we are surrounded.--vol. i. p. 38.

The theme is undoubtedly well worthy of all the labour which the author has bestowed upon it. But we shall find that he who deems the Scriptures superfluous, for the disclosure of one momentous truth, will not be very apt to submit his understanding to them, upon other points of doctrine and rules of conduct. Having rejected the light of revelation as to the future destiny of man, and imposed upon himself the task of discovering that destiny by the aid of the little lamp which flickered in his own brain, he would, as a matter of course, inculcate, with respect to the essential points of religion, theories which he had borrowed, rather from profane than from sacred antiquity, from the disciples of the Academy rather than from those of Gethsemane, and Mount Olivet.

We do not mean to say that Mr. Hope's work is an impious one, that it is atheistical, and inculcates infidelity and vice; very far from it. The whole scope and tendency of this dissertation is to induce man to believe in the existence of a God, and to practice virtue, as being the only means of our attaining happiness both here and hereafter. But the misfortune is, that the author treats man as if he had been left without any divine light to lead him to truth, or to teach him that he is to practice virtue, not merely be

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cause it is expedient for his own happiness that he should do so, but because it is a homage which it is his duty to render to his Creator. Mr. Hope conceived that he might frame a system of belief, grounded upon human reason, which would have the same results, so far as man is concerned, as faith founded upon revelation. But the difference between the two is fraught with the most extensive consequences. For although we might, under Mr. Hope's guidance, avoid evil, and raise our minds to the contemplation of the Deity, we could learn nothing from such an instructor of the great system of Christianity, which teaches a morality altogether unlike that which mere philosophy can inculcate. He treats of the cardinal virtues of faith, hope, and charity, as rationally understood; that is to say, as arising out of his arguments and reflections, and not out of the lessons which the REDEEMER has taught us with so much divine simplicity, and for the practice of which He has given us such exalted motives.

Mr. Hope's notion of the Deity is, however, if we rightly understand it, very peculiar. He expresses his belief,' that all modifications of an intellectual nature which we behold, arise partly out of prior modifications still merely physical;' and that these latter must arise out of modifications of space and time, of which, he says, 'I

, call the first cause and author Jehovah, God, the Deity!' He then goes on to say, that all creatures of the Deity are integral parts of itself, or, in other words, that we human beings, for instance, are so many peculiar forms which the Deity successively assumes,' not only to make, but, in our name and under our appearance, to receive, the peculiar sensations, and even for a time to experience the peculiar ignorance or lack of sensation to which we creatures are liable.' According to this doctrine, the Deity, in the first place, would be occasionally reduced to the limited and imperfect state of our intellect, which is contrary to his attributes of omniscience and perfection; and we, instead of having been created, as the Scriptures inform us, to the likeness of God, are, as Mr. Hope expresses it, 'all parts of the Deity. This doctrine is not indeed new; but we think it is a little startling : for, if we be portions of God, how can we err? what beconies of our free will? why was it necessary that we should have been redeemed ?

But this is not the only startling part of Mr. Hope's theory. Another principle, which runs throughout his dissertation, is this,and it may be considered as a corollary from the one above mentioned,- that all mankind, or, as he expresses himself, ' the higher genera on this globe, now in reality separated, and forming individuals distinct from each other, are hereafter to be united and to constitute but one individual, or one continuous whole, of which we can here only form in our mind an abstract idea or representation.' Indeed, he adds, the generalizations formed here, will probably only prove anticipations of the state of things we may really expect to experience hereafter; and thus all the evils which on this globe result

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from minor individualities, distinct and separate from, and interfering with, each other, will, in another world, be corrected and removed.'

This doctrine is intelligible enough, and perhaps reconcileable to our previous notions, imperfect as these may be. But we confess that when the author, endeavouring to escape beyond the visible boundaries of sense, attempts to explain the exertion of that power, which he calls propulsion, as differing from attraction, or gravitation, we cease to understand the ideas which he wishes to convey. His style is so vague and obscure, his sentences so long, and his words thrown together with so little attention to arrangement, that of all that he has written upon this subject we can comprehend little more than this; that there is neither gravitation nor attraction in matter, but that what natural philosophers have deemed such, is nothing more than the result of an impetus, which was originally given to matter, by the Almighty standing at the outskirts of space. We are free to own that we cannot understand what is meant by the outskirts of space, for we have no idea of the space of the universe being bounded by a coast, upon which the Almighty, taking his stand, should propel into the void a ball of matter such as our globe. This propulsion the author describes as subsequently divided into rays of gravitation, to which he gives a centripetal and centrifugal direction, and upon these he expatiates in language, which, we are sorry to say, appears to us to make a much nearer approach to that of the maniac, than to that of the philosopher. It never has fallen to our lot to wade through such a mass of incomprehensible jargon, as that which Mr. Hope has poured out upon this subject. We must, in our own defence, lay a specimen of it before the reader, as our justification for passing over the whole of this portion of Mr. Hope's system.

That gravitation of a centripetal sort, from a wider external circumference converging to a more confined internal focus, when by an opposite internal gravitation arrested, repelled, and made to recoil, with that other produces a later gravitation of a centripetal sort, from a narrower internal focus again diverging outward to a wider and more external circumference, appears, since, after converging gravitation has from on high made vapours descend till round the earth they collect and condense in clouds, the centripetal gravitation again from the earth recoiling, keeps these clouds at a certain distance from its body suspended or rather supported over the same, without approaching nearer; and since, even after converging gravitation has from on high driven fluids down till they be in their further lapse by the solid earth arrested, they will, by later gravitation from that earth recoiling, again be made to rise to a certain height above its surface, as we see in jets d'eaux; and since, where centrifugal gravitation from on high driving fluids down is by solid bodies interposed between this gravitation and the earth, so arrested as only to make these fuids reach the upper side of these bodies and there remain, the centrifugal gravitation, from underneath recoiling upward, is by this arrestation of the converging force from on high, left at liberty to act with so much more power than before, as to

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drive other fluids from the earth upwards, till they are arrested by and made to cling to the undermost surface of those very intervening solid bodies, of which the upper surface arrested the fluids from on high; and since gravitation, from the outside of a hoop from its rapid circular motion so drawn in, as by recoil from its prior converging and centripetal direction to be within that very hoop again driven outward in a centrifugal direction, will drive and press a glass filled with water outward till it reach the inside surface of the hoop, and during all the later successive circular motions of that hoop, sufficiently rapid to keep up this pressure from within, while from without the further divergence of the glass of water is stopped, continues pressing the cup and making it cling to the inner surface of the hoop; and since a solid body, by centripetal gravitation from on high driven to the solid surface of the earth with such impetus and velocity as not to let the force of gravitation, intervening between itself and the earth, escape sideways before it be greatly compressed, will again, by the subsequent dilatation of that intervening portion of gravitation, be made to rebound to a certain height before that intervening gravitation, by making its escape laterally, leaves the body a second time to fall to the ground without again rebounding; and since a solid body, by side-long gravitation cast forward laterally in the same way till the gravitation intervening between that body and a solid wall be compressed a very small

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will equally, by the subsequent dilatation of that compressed gravitation, increasing in proportion as the pressure from behind on the moving body by dilatation becomes weaker, again makes that body rebound. And since where gravitation of a centripetal sort has by narrow tubes its further descent and pressure downwards so interfered with, as to leave gravitation of a centrifugal sort ascending from the earth, when ascending through these tubes, more unobstructed play, this gravitation of centrifugal sort forces liquids through these tubes upward, by what is erroneously called capillary attraction, in a direction opposite to that of centripetal gravitation; and since, where tubes even wider than those already calculated to. disturb the straightforward movement of converging gravitation, the aperture from above is by a solid body unprotected from the influx of that gravitation, the centrifugal gravitation from underneath attains in these tubes an unimpeded power so much greater still, as even to force up in them large columns of Auid ; as we see in pumps; and since heavenly bodies, from great distances by gravitation driven towards others, when approaching nearer to these others, are again by opposite gravitations from them proceeding outward, repelled and made to retrogade; and finally, since round Saturn we see a solid ring detached from its body, which yet during the movements of the planet is constantly, by the gravi. tation from its nucleus radiating outwards, on all sides equally repelled, and on all sides kept at an equal distance from its surface.vol.i. pp. 146--149.

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It seems to be a part of the author's theory, that cold is not a mere privation of heat, but a positive attribute of itself, produced by certain modifications of gravitation, or rather indeed by a sort of electricity which is the result of those modifications, and by which heat is also produced, by means of its combining and deconibining power. We cannot undertake to explain how this is done,

VOL. 11. (1831.) NO, NI!.

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nor. can we follow the author through the history of the various modifications which he assigns to gravitation, electricity, substances and bodies, gaseous, liquid and solid. His theory of light is scarcely more intelligible. He holds that before light existed, objects might have been visible to senses such as ours, and that it is neither the offspring, the necessary companion, nor the parent of heat. Metals, for instance, often give out heat without light; snow and other phosphorescent substances, intense light without heat. In attempting to explain the origin of light, the author has left behind him a memorable example of the blindness, the confusion, the miserable weakness of the human understanding, when it sets itself up as capable of supplying the place of revelation, or of dispensing with its assistance. Instead of receiving with becoming faith, the sublime language of Holy Writ, “And God said, let there be light, and there was light,” Mr. Hope took it upon himself to shew how, and in what manner light was made. Probably,' says this proud philosopher, 'after gravitation converging and centripetal had first formed those distinct foci, the cradles and seats of future worlds; and had on its return outward from these seats in a centrifugal direction, with fresh gravitation centripetal, in the vast surrounding regions of space formed the stores of electricity--the first materials of light-further gravitation of a converging sort hying to these foci, of this electricity and this light thus far diffused in an imperceptible state in the regions of space, from all sides drove portions to and compressed them round these foci in those denser masses which first lit up these sites of future globes, rendered them visible, and, when from these again emanating outward, caused them to become perceptible to distant beholders, as soon as any such beholders arose to conteinplate them.' What nonsense men may write under the protection of a "probably”! With respect to colours, Mr. Hope holds that rays of light, which come to the earth tinged with different colours, are not originally, that is to say, at the point of emanation, so distinguished from each other; but that all light is originally white, and that in its progress from the luminous object, electricity, (which is his god) endows it with the colours which it is seen to possess. So also, according to his theory, savours and odours probably arose out of the force of radiant electricity.' Electricity moulds substances in a gaseous form, makes them liquid, or solid, imparts to them the property of sound, and, in short, governs all nature.

Mr. Hope professes great respect for the Scriptures in general. and says, that the author of Genesis was much better acquainted, than the vulgar herd of men, with the real data of physics and metaphysics. He could not, however, bring bimself to believe that Adam and Eve were literally the first created of human beings, or the only individuals from whom all the varieties at present existing on this globe are descended. As to the state of innocence in which Adam and his consort are said to have lived at first, it

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