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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEI)GE.
SCREEN: -WESTMINSTER ABBEY.
LOAN FUNDS. WESTMINSTER Abbey has been justly said to be
No. III. part of the Constitution, and it is impossible that an With the wish to convey any information that seems Englishman can walk through the aisles of that likely to lead to the improvement of the condition majestic building, without being impressed by its and comforts of the humbler classes, we return to grandeur, and without a feeling of pride that he this subject. Two former papers on Loan Funds, belongs to a country, which contains so noble a supplied by an intelligent gentleman, 'will be found temple, and so rich a sepulchre.
in another part of the Saturday Magazine* We Those walls, where speaking marbles show
again quote his observations, What worthies form the hallow'd mould below:
Supposing that the advantages of the proposed plan Proud names, who once the reins of empire held; were thought real and substantial, a beginning might In arms who triumph'd, or in arts excell'd;
be made with a very trifling sum, as the repayment of the Chiefs graced with scars, and prodigal of blood; loan by weekly instalments produces, during the year, a Stern patriots, who for sacred freedom stood;
very large amount to be circulated as capital. Each pound Just men, by whom impartial laws were given,
must be repaid in the course of twenty weeks, and the sum And Saints, who taught, and led the way to Heaven. brought in every week, by way of instalment, may be lent
It is not our present purpose to give any general out the same day, and produce a new available income. description * of this edifice, but to confine ourselves So extensive is the pecuniary power of the system, that an to a notice of the beautiful Choir Screen represented to be diffused among those classes to whom such assistance
original sum of £100 would circulate above £500 a year, in the accompanying print, and which has been is most valuable. And should only a much smaller sum, recently executed under the direction of Mr. Blore, at be attainable", there is no reason that the endeavour the expense of the Dean and Chapter of the Church. should not be commenced, as a person devoting even £20 to
The Screen of a Cathedral, dividing the nave and the object, in the circle of a small village or unfrequented choir, as the present one, is a prominent and im- district, would circulate loans to the amount of £100 a year, portant feature, as, from the main western entrance, which, in some places, might be all that is needed. When
the plan is once begun, its utility appears so evident, that, the eye almost immediately rests upon it. In some
in general, there is no want of adequate subscriptions. of our cathedrals, (York, for instance,) the choir screen is of most elaborate sculpture, and the good either by printed notices, or in any other way which may taste of the present age, has removed from several of seem fit, that the industrious poor will receive the aid of our churches the barbarous additions introduced in loans, for approved purposes, on adequate security, by the days of James the First, and of successive application to the Managers of the Loan Fund, at a speci
fied time and place. monarchs; and has replaced them with ornaments, which harmonize with the general character of the would be to ascertain diligently the condition of the appli
On application being made for a loan, the first point buildings in which they are placed.
cant, and the object for which the money is wanted. None The late Screen in Westminster Abbey, was of should be allowed to borrow, who are not so circumstaneed modern date, and was probably erected either by, or in pecuniary affairs as to render them fit objects of such under the direction of Mr. Keene, Surveyor of the assistance, the funds not being intended to advance the
condition of those already well off, but to prevent persons Works, about the year 1775; (at which time the from falling into extreme distress, and to give a help towards choir was fitted up much in the state it now appears,)
the exertion of industry. The same principle is to be held and as our readers will recollect, it accorded but little in view, whether the money is supplied altogether gratuiwith the beauty of the fabric.
tously, or whether a small interest is charged: gain for The present Screen is divided into three highly themselves, in neither case, being obtained or desired by ornamented arches, with trefoil heads.
the supporters of the institution. The centre one, which forms the entrance into the
Neither should loans be made to those whose object is
merely to deal or sell again, without their being able to Choir, is distinguished from the side arches by a
prove themselves under particular circumstances of need. pediment enclosing rich tracery. The two side arches Disregard to this point would encourage idle traffic, and form recesses, containing the monuments of Sir deprive the general trader of his fair profits. Isaac Newton, and James, the first Earl Stanhope. Nor should any one obtain assistance whose habits are Both these monuments were designed by Kent, and marked by idleness, drunkenness, dishonesty, or any other executed by Rysbrack, and in their design, they pos
notorious faults-for three reasons--first, because this way
of expending the money would deprive the poor and insess a general uniformity.
dustrious of that which was intended for their special use; It may be questioned, how far monuments orna- secondly, because it would defeat one of the chief objects mented with sarcophagi, recumbent statues, &c., are of the fund, viz, the encouragement of good conduct; and, suited to a Screen like this, but as the architect thirdly, because the interest of the securities should not be found them so placed, he had no alternative but to overlooked ; and none ought to obtain relief, who very set them off to the best advantage, and this he has probably would become defaulters. managed most successfully. Between the arches, and as to his means of future weekly repayment, as no borrower
Strict inquiries should also be made from the applicant, at the angles of the Screen, are placed bold and lofty should obtain a second loan till the whole of the former was turrets, in niches on the fronts and sides of which are repaid: fair warning should also be given him against placed, under canopies, full-length figures of Edward borrowing without these means, and the necessity of punethe Confessor and his Queen, the founders of the tuality strongly enforced. Church; and of Henry the Third and Edward the
These various points should be strictly looked to; and First, and their respective Queens, by whom it was
though individual cases of apparent hardship may occur,
and cases in which the personal feelings of the managers rebuilt. A great addition has recently been made to would induce them to relax, yet the general good, and the the effect of this Screen, by a new organ-case of stability of the fund, require no small degree of strictness corresponding design, executed in oak- by Mr. Francis and caution. No denial need cause pain or injury, if Ruddle of Peterborough, erected also at the expense
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., pp. 94, 198. of the Dean and Chapter, from the designs of the + M. F. de Fellenberg described to the writer a species of Juvesame architect; but the limits of our work have pre- nile Loan Fund of the most pleasing and useful character, which vented our representing the whole instrument in They subscribed their money till a sufficient sum had been collectel
was carried on by the pupils of his father's school at Hofwyl. connexion with the Stone Screen, to which it forms to buy a flock of goats and sheep, which they temporarily lent 10 a most appropriate appendage.
H. M. any distressed families, to supply them with the milk of the e
animals, which forms a main article of sustenance in that neighAt an early opportunity, a Supplementury Number will be bourhood. This example might serve as an encouragement to the devoted to this subjeci,
young, or to those who have but little means at their command,
attended by kindness of manner, and a proper explanation | smallness of the sum to be obtained by any one person, of the reason of the refusal.
and the number of observers interested in a judicious To facilitate the necessary inquiries respecting the management of the finances, will, it is hoped, prevent such borrower and the security, and to arrive at the truth, the occurrences. It has also been observed, that the manageassistance of the Parochial Clergyman, or some other con ment of such an extensive concern would require too much stant resident intimately acquainted with the neighbour-| time and trouble: but the attention of two persons during hood, is desirable, or rather indispensable.
two hours in the week is sufficient for the direction even of The first and most obvious ground of opposition, on a very extensive Fund. proposing such an establishment, arises from a suspicion It may be well to mention a few facilities which attend that money lent will not be repaid. Such an opinion some this mode of bettering the condition of the poor. times proceeds from too low an estimate of the character of Pecuniary contributions are required but once, as after the poor; sometimes from a knowledge, if not personal the first establishment, the plan requires no additional experience, of losses to which the charitable and humane Funds for its maintenance, have been subject, from having made loans in their private There is a very trifling cost for setting up; perhaps thirty capacity without being repaid. That such losses frequently shillings or two pounds for a book of accounts, and a set occur there is no doubt, but the case is quite altered in a of tickets to last for several years. fund attended by publicity, strict rules, and all necessary The money remains unconsumed, should it please the precautions. On inquiry, ample evidence of this will be subscribers to apply it at any future time to another found in different parts of the country, and in neighbour- purpose. hoods of diversified local character. Should any losses of Extensive assistance and co-operation, though manifestly importance occur, they may always be attributable to errors most desirable, are not absolutely requisite, either in of management, avoidable without difficulty. The Derry reference to money or time; as though in all probability Fund (mentioned before, in a quotation from the Parlia- there would be an ample and useful demand for a fund, mentary Reports), is a most striking instance, among however large, yet a tünd, however small, will be of promany others, of exact and punctual repayment, continued portionate utility. for a long series of years. It is there directly stated, that The plan here described, is not one of those grand and the sum lent, and put in circulation, had amounted to captivating schemes, which are daily put forth and rapidly £27,300. On this sum the loss, by default of payment, forgotten. Many establishments of these humble and has not exceeded £7. ls. Here is positive and authorized retired pretensions are at present in operation. The object evidence, quite sufficient for the case. Other establish- of the writer has been merely to set before those, who are ments of the kind might be mentioned, where nothing willing to make the experiment in their own district, a whatsoever has been lost; and though it must be expected plan which may facilitate their object, and supply practical that accident or misfortune must cause an occasional defal- hints for their adoption: Far from interfering with, or cation on the part of the borrower, yet, with due precau- supersering any other manner of assisting the poor, as by tion as to securities, no losses of any consequence need be Savings Banks, Benefit Societies, &c. &c., a proper system incurred from the original amount subscribed. Incredibly of Loans will be found a powerful auxiliary towards carseldom is it requisite to call upon the securities for repay, rying many other useful designs into permanent and ment; and unless grossly blinded by personal interest, as complete effect. well as indifferent to their reputation in a matter of much Although the plan of a Loan Fund has in general been publicity, they will immediately acquiesce in the justice highly successful, yet improvements will naturally sugand necessity of the demand. If accepted with tolerable gest themselves to the reader, together with various adapjudgment, they will feel themselves bound, both by principle tations according to local circumstances. Perhaps the and promise, to adhere strictly to the rules in which they statements here thrown together may induce some more voluntarily acquiesce, and will pay the sum due with competent persons to turn their minds to the necessity of perfect readiness.
assisting the poorer classes, by some such means on a Some have also conceived that a Fund of this kind en more extensive scale.
T. courages a pernicious habit of borrowing.
As to the habit of borrowing, there is no doubt that such a habit is injurious in itself, speaking in a general way, and without qualification; but that borrowing for the A GOLDEN EXAMPLE.-Edward Richards, aged 68, the purposes here specified is injurious, is by no means ap- father of six children, the son of a poor man, and the parent. Every thing depends on the object for which youngest of eleven children, has resided in Cirencester people borrow, with their capacity for applying the money parish fifty-two years, and during the early part of his life well; and the question comes to this, whether the poorer was a common labourer. About thirty-five years ago he classes are to do without capital at all, (the most usual agreed with a farmer to clear out and improve an acre case,)—to borrow it on terms exceedingly ruinous—or to of rough quarry-land, on condition of having it three years obtain it for proper objects, by means of their wealthier rent free, and then give it up to the owner.
On this unneighbours.
promising spot, he and his wife expended their surplus Some have also maintained that the prospect of being labour to such advantage, that, during these three years, able to obtain a loan will foster idleness and improvidence, he cleared 401. He then purchased two acres of then poor but the very contrary is the result, as no one has the land, for which he gave 801. These two acres are now, least prospect of meeting assistance, who does not maintain and have long been, in a highly productive state. Soon an habitual character for industry. If space admitted, after he entered on the cultivation of this land, he raised, strong facts and testimonials might be produced on this in one year, seven quarters of wheat from it, and he had part of the question.
refused one hundred guíneas for it. He has now been lord Others also have asserted that the system gives an of this little manor for thirty-two years. By the kind offices undue advantage to those who receive loans over those of a worthy medical gentleman, who had attended him when who do not, and places the command of money in the unwell, he obtained from Earl Bathurst seventy-five perches hands of those who otherwise would be unable to obtain it. of poor, waste, unproductive land, subject to be overflowed This is undoubtedly and completely true, but none should with water, at a quit-rent of 10s. per annum. This spot, make it an objection, except those who are ready to main which the writer of this has seen, he has possessed about tain and support the propriety of witholding all aid how. thirty years, and has brought it to a state of value and ever cautiously applied, and all pecuniary assistance from productiveness that must be seen to be rightly appreciated. the rich to the poor. The great fallacy of those who adopt for the last ten years, this laborious and industrious man the idea, of its being advantageous that there should be a has rented five or six acres of land, besides the two plots sparing, instead of an abundant communication of worldly already referred to; and during that period has kept two, goods, from those who have them to those who have them and sometimes three cows, as also sheep, pigs, &c.; and it not, lies in their begging the question that those who give may not be uninteresting, in these times, to state, that he and communicate amply are less likely to do it with care, has been long a rate-payer, but never a rate-receiver. In caution, and vigilance, than those who communicate short, by honest industry, sobriety, and good conduct, he is sparingly, whereas the very reverse is generally the faet, a man of substance, an independent Englishman, respectas the very feeling of duty which makes people give, will able and respected; and the writer, with feelings of sincere make them examine how they give.
pleasure, remarked that he set a high value on what it The possibility of an improper use being made of the was never his good fortune to possess, a sound and useful loan, is sometimes another source of objection; but the education.- Labourers' Friend Society's Magazine.
No. II. THE BATTLE OF ASSAYE; ITS CAUSE, nial of respect; and, on his accession to office, AND CONSEQUENCES.
always received the dress of honour from the Rajah, We sometimes read in history of great victories who was thus strangely enough at once his sovereign achieved over large armies, by forces quite insignifi. and his prisoner. cant in point of numbers and physical strength, when Since the first establishment of the Mahratta compared with the hosts which they have vanquished; power, it had always been the policy of the English and, in all such cases, the moral superiority of the in India to maintain a friendly intercourse with the conquerors never fails to excite our highest admira- supreme head of that nation ; and when the fortion and respect. Of this kind is the celebrated midable and inveterate enmity of the native princes, battle of Assaye, which forms the subject of illustra- Hyder Aly and his son Tippoo Saib, threatened to tration in the first compartment of the border of the destroy the British dominion in India, a new treaty Wellington Shield, and which it is our task now to of alliance was concluded with the Peishwah. describe.
Notwithstanding, however, this apparent amity, Amongst the many native powers which ruled in the Mahrattas carried on a secret correspondence the peninsula of Hindoostan at the commencement with Tippoo, and, after his death, endeavoured to of the present century, one of the most formidable excite his family to oppose the arrangements which was that known by the name of the MAHRATTA Em- were made for the settlement of the Mysore country. PIRE. This power exhibited the curious anomaly of The Peishwah himself had in his turn been supplanted a confederacy of princes, all independent of each by Scindiah, a rival prince, and at this time posother,—all rendering a nominal allegiance to one sessed merely a nominal authority. The supremacy common ruler, whom they invested with the title and of this chieftain was, however, contested by an dignities of king, yet whom they debarred from the active competitor, named Holkar, and the result enjoyment of any
real power,—and all submitting to was a war between them. The Peishwah was, of the executive authority of an hereditary supreme course, compelled to aid Scindiah ; but when the magistrate, called the Peishwah.
approach of Holkar had somewhat diminished his The Mahratta tribes were first formed into a nation fear of that chief, he seized the opportunity of pro between the years 1660 and 1670 by Sevajee, who posing an alliance to the British government, which raised up for himself a powerful monarchy, which he should enable him to regain his lost authority. transmitted to his decendants after him. These con- The proposal was accepted, and Scindiah was invited tinued to maintain the authority of their ancestor, to become a party to it; but before any arrangement under the title of Rajahs of Sattarah, until the could be entered into, the hostile armies engaged in middle of the last century, when the reigning king battle. Holkar was victorious, and the Peishwah was persuaded to renounce his kingly power, and took refuge in Bombay, leaving his capital in the sanction all the Peishwah's measures, on certain con- possession of the conqueror. In this state of things, ditions. These conditions were not kept, and the it appeared to the British Governors of Madras and unhappy prince was imprisoned in a dungeon, where Bombay, that they ought to take immediate steps to he soon pined away and died. His descendants suc- bring about the restoration of the Peishwah. A ceeded regularly to his title and his captivity, while detachment of troops was accordingly ordered to the Peishwah as constantly retained the real power of advance into the Mahratta territory, under the comthe government. In his intercourse with them, mand of Major-General Wellesley (now the Duke of indeed, he strictly observed every form and ceremo- | Wellington), who was thought to be peculiarly quali
fied for the service, because of his local knowledge | the Kaitna; the banks of this river are high and of the country, and his personal influence among its rocky, and the only passage practicable for guns inhabitants.
the enemy had taken care to occupy. Their right The fugitive Peishwah was quickly reinstated at was composed wholly of cavalry; and their cannon Poonah, which Holkar had quitted on the approach and infantry, which were the particular object of the of the British force. His old protector, Scindiah, British commander, were on their left, near the forhad in the mean time collected a large army, avow tified village of Assaye. The handful of British troops edly for the purpose of opposing Holkar, and aveng- which was now advancing down on this formidable ing the late defeat. But the enmity of the rivals array, did not exceed 4500 men, but the general sensoon subsided, and merged in a common hostility to timent was that of their commander, “ They cannot the British, in which they were joined by another escape us.” native prince, the Rajah of Berar. Several unsuc Crossing the river beyond the enemy's left, he cessful attempts were made to effect negotiations drew up his infantry between the rivers, in two with the confederates, and their designs becoming at lines, and leaving his cavalry as a reserve in a third, length apparent, the Marquis Wellesley, then Governor- advanced to attack the flank of his opponents. His General of India, instantly concerted vigorous mea intention was perceived, and the enemy, changing sures for their suppression. A campaign was planned the disposition of his infantry and guns, instantly on a scale of magnitude never before contemplated opened a heavy cannonade, the execution of which by any European in India, and the command of one of is described as terrible. The picquets on the English the armies employed was given to General Wellesley. right suffered particularly; their guns were disabled
The great difficulty which Europeans have to and their bullocks killed. The moment was critical, encounter in Indian warfare, is that arising from and a large body of Mahratta horse seized the the predatory plan of operations adopted by the opportunity to charge the thinned ranks of their native troops, who constantly disappear before the opponents; but they were bravely repelled, and the advance of a disciplined enemy, and strive to the order was given for the advance of the British utmost, to avoid being drawn into an open battle. cavalry. “The 19th light dragoons," says Captain Hyder Aly well knew the advantages of this mode, Grant Duff, “who only drew 360 swords, received and he practised it with success. An English com the intimation with one loud huzza! Accompanied mander, weary of pursuing him, once wrote him a by the 4th native cavalry, who emulated their conletter, in which he pointed out how disgraceful it duct throughout this arduous day, the 19th passed was for a prince like himself, at the head of a large through the broken but invincible 74th regiment, army, to fly before the small force of his opponents. whose very wounded joined in cheering them as they “Give me,” replied Hyder, “the same sort of troops went on, cut in and routed the horse, and dashed that you command, and your wish for battle shall be on at the infantry and guns. The British infantry gratified. You will understand my mode of war in pressed forward, the enemy's first line gave way, fell time. Shall I risk my cavalry which cost a thou- back on their second, and the whole were forced into sand rupees each horse, against your cannon-balls the Juah, at the point of the bayonet. As the that cost two pice? No; I will march your troops British line advanced, they passed many of the till their legs swell to the size of their bodies. You enemy, who either appeared to have submitted, or lay shall not have a blade of grass nor a drop of water. apparently dead. These persons rising up, turned I shall hear of you every time your drum beats, but their guns on the rear of the British line, and after you shall not know where I am once a month. I will the more important points of the victory were secured, give your army battle, but it must be when I please, it was some time before the firing thus occasioned and not when you desire it.”
could be silenced. The enemy's horse hovered round General Wellesley was aware of the disposition of for some time, but when the last body of infantry the Indian generals to act upon this policy, and he was broken, the battle was completely decided, and took his measures accordingly. On the 21st of Sep-ninety-eight pieces of cannon remained in the hands tember, he joined Colonel Stevenson, who was sta of the victors.' tioned at Budnapoor with 8000 men; and at this Scarcely ever was there a victory gained against time the whole Mahratta army was strongly posted so many disadvantages; besides the general disparity about Bokerdun. It consisted of about 38,500 of numbers, the enemy had disciplined troops in the cavalry, 10,500 regular infantry, 500 matchlock-men, field under European officers, who more than doubled and 500 rocket-men, with 190 pieces of ordnance. | the British force; and they had an overwhelming In addition to this force, Scindiah had an advanced artillery, which was served with perfect skill, and party of a few thousand well-trained Mahratta horse, dreadful effect. Nor was there ever one more comdispersed through the Adjuntee hills, which sepa- plete, or more bravely achieved; stores, ammunition, rated him from the British army.
camp-equipage, bullocks and camels, standards and A plan of operations was immediately arranged, cannon, were left upon the field, and abandoned to and General Wellesley moved off by the eastern road the conquerors. round these hills, while Colonel Stevenson marched The effect of the defeat was evinced in the proby the western route, so as to leave no way of es- posals which it caused to be made by the enemy. cape open for the enemy to pass to the southward. One of Scindiah's ministers wrote to request that When the general reached the ground of encamp- General Wellesley would send a British officer to his ment which he had intended to occupy, on the 23rd, master's camp, for the purpose of negotiating terms he found himself not more than five or six miles of peace. But they soon resumed their treacherous from the Mahratta army. From certain intelligence, and evasive policy, and not until the combined army he inferred the intention of the enemy to escape, had, in a great measure, been destroyed, would its and he, therefore, resolved to attack them at once, leaders submit to any reasonable conditions. without waiting for Colonel Stevenson. He accord The brilliancy of this victory was justly estimated, ingly moved forward, and found them encamped both in India and at home. The Governor-General between the Kaitna and the Juah, two rivers which expressed his high and cordial approbation of the run nearly parallel toward the point of their junc magnanimity, promptitude, and judgment of Major
Their line extended along the north bank of General Wellesley, whose conduct, he rightly observed