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SELF SUPPORTING DISPENSARIES. contributions and donations from persons not reII.

ceiving benefit from the Dispensary.

We will not cite any other instances of these In a former paper*, we endeavoured to explain the Dispensaries; but will now merely observe, that, principle of SELF SUPPORTING DISPENSARIES, and wherever they have been established, in proportion pointed out the beneficial effect that might be ex

to their success and efficacy, they have been practipected to result from their general adoption. That cally found to foster in the poor, the pride of honest article having produced numerous inquiries on the independence, and to teach them forethought and subject, we shall now proceed to a statement of facts, forbearance;—they have tended to separate the pruextracted from the Reports of some few of these dent from the improvident and vicious poor;—they Dispensaries, established both in smaller and more have been effective auxiliaries to Savings Banks;— populous places, in various parts of the kingdom.

they have checked mistaken charity;—they have One of the earliest places where the experiment was mitigated and averted some of the evils of the poortried, was Atherstone in Warwickshire; and there, laws; -- they have repressed a disposition to riot and it appears, the Dispensary reckoned, in the first year, disturbance ;-and, while they have afforded many 764 free members, (that is, members who, by their advantages to medical practitioners, they have led contributions, entitled themselves to medical aid in individuais of different professions, and of varying the case of sickness,) and had a surplus income of opinions, to meet and act together in promoting £80 11s. 31d., to be divided among the medical schemes of real beneficence. practitioners of the place.

It may, however, be briefly added, that the prinIn the village of Wellesbourne, (a village strictly ciple of these societies of Mutual Assurance against agricultural,) we learn by the_Sixth Half Yearly sickness in general, may be applied to a provison Report, that the subscribing Free Members had against any particular disorder ;-of which there was gradually increased from 140 to 225. It also ap

an excellent exemplification at Southam, the place pears, that only two or three persons had applied to where the Self Supporting Dispensaries originated. the Honorary Members for White Tickets, that is, In the year 1832, when the country was visited by tickets enabling the holders to obtain medical relief the Cholera, at the suggestion of Mr. H. L. Smith, without contributing; a circumstance highly grati- the founder of these Dispensaries, seventy-five fying to the Committee, and showing there was no disposition on the part of the labourer to solicit persons of Southam agreed to pay from 6d. to 28. 6d.

a week, so long as the disease continued within gratuitous relief, while, by a small contribution, even

twenty miles of the town, or till all the demands on from the hard earnings of his own industry, he was the Treasurer were paid. This fund was to be allowed to provide against the time of sickness and applied, under the direction of a committee, towards necessity.

allowing to the subscribers from five to thirty shillings In mentioning Chesham in Bucks, we can give no per day, while the disease should be in their houses. report of the Self Supporting Dispensary established These contributions were made principally by small in that place, as it dates only from the year 1833. tradesmen and labourers, and were really and truly a We are, however, induced to advert to this case, fulfilment of the precept of every man laying by in both on account of the remarkable liberality of the store as God had prospered him. In four months there medical gentlemen of the place, and also, because it

was upwards of £50. in the Savings Bank.' And exhibits an example of the manner, in which a num

what is most remarkable, however the fact may be ber of adjacent villages may combine with a central accounted for, there was a cessation of the disease in town, and that a town of no great magnitude, for the town and neighbourhood, from the day the colthe purpose of obtaining the advantages of one of lectors of the Cholera Assurance Society commenced these institutions.

their visitations. The sums contributed for this We now proceed to mention some larger places, especial purpose, were returned to the subscribers where, it must be allowed, the operation of the when the disease was duly reported to be at an end. system can best be developed and exemplified.

G. C. By the last report received from Derby, it appears the Free Members were upwards of 800, and the Dispensary was going on well, with satisfaction to PUNCTUALITY.—Mr. M—, a merchant of Mthe Committee, and benefit to the public.

great lover of punctuality in all its forms. Calling upon a At Burton on Trent, the Dispensary thrives, and mechanic one day, who was notorious for the nonfulfilment the members consider themselves a model for similar of his engagements, and by whom he had frequently been

deceived, “When," says he, “Mr. S- , can I have my institutions. They had, last year, a surplus income work finished and sent home? Take your own time, but of £100, which was laid by in store, to meet any tell me positively, and do not deceive me, for I do not like additional expense of cordials, wine, drugs, &e., to be disappointed." “ On Thursday next,” says the which might be required, if the place should be mechanic, “if I am living, you shall positively have it.” visited by any virulent epidemic.

Thursday came and passed, but no work made its appear

ance. In the evening the merchant called upon the printer, We will only add the case of Coventry, where a

with the request that he would insert the death of Mr. Dispensary on the improved principle is established, SS which he accordingly did in the following morning's with a series of excellent rules, and with such good raper. What was our mechanic's surprise, on taking up success as might have been anticipated. The Free the paper the next day, to find an announcement of his Members are 2800.. There is, also, a sufficient own death! Up he goes to the printer for an explanation.

There he was told that Mr. M authorized it, and they income to remunerate and to satisfy the medical men attached to the Dispensary. Nor can its popularity merchant to know what it means. Mr.

Mshows great

had supposed it correct. He, of course, repairs to the poor be better evinced, than by the fact, surprise on beholding him, and can hardly be persuaded he that, in the last year only, nearly seventy labouring is not a ghostly appearance, “ For," says he, “ you solemnly persons have at once paid 10s. each, in order to be promised me, that if you were living, I should have my admitted members of the Dispensary, under cir- work done and returned on Thursday: no work appearing, cumstances peculiarly designated by one of its rules. I very naturally concluded you were dead, and had it At Coventry, the great want seems to be, that of accordingly so announced." Mr. S— was abashed and

silent, and, we hope made better by the well-intended Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 230.

joke.

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The sound state of the bridge of Wandipore, when At length we reached the foss. I do not remember to it was visited by Captain Turner in 1783, is men have seen a sight so calculated to inspire terror. The tioned by him as a striking proof of the durability Moen rushes through a rock blackened by time, and falls of turpentine-fir, of which it was constructed: its of the same dark material. The foam, or rinken, rises so

from a height of 450 feet perpendicularly, into a caldron age at that time was one hundred and forty years, high as to conceal from the distant spectator the depth of the and it exhibited no symptom of decay, though no fall, which we could duly appreciate only when lying on the composition of any kind had been made use of, to ground, and looking over the edge of the precipice at its protect the wood from the effects of the weather. highest point. Whether real or fancied, the earth seemed He describes the bridge as of “singular lightness to tremble under the concussion of the continuous torrent.

At this moment the sun burst from behind a cloud, and, and beauty in its appearance; it is composed entirely shining upon the falling water and the playful spray, cast of fir, and has not the smallest piece of iron, or any obliquely on the dark background a perfect double rainbow, other metal to connect its parts. It has three gate- approaching nearly to a circle. The effect was exceedingly ways;—one on each side of the river, and another striking. Placed in the only point where the circumference erected in the stream, upon a pier. The span of the was incomplete, we saw ourselves clothed with the rainbow. first bridge, which occupies two-thirds of the breadth Unprepared as we were for so extraordinary a position, it of the river, measures one hundred and twelve feet: the vesture with which we were surrounded; while in the

was too sublime, and we almost shuddered at the glory of it consists of three parts, nearly equal to each other beauty and grandeur of this masterpiece of His hand, we in length; the two ends, having a considerable slope, recognised the power of Him who weigheth the mounraise the elevation of the centre platform, which is tains in scales," and “covereth himself with light as with horizontal, some feet above the floor of the gateways. a garment." Four rows of timbers, inserted in the masonry of the

This phenomenon, in itself so remarkable, was rendered bank and pier, support each end of the arch; the yet more interesting by the recollection, that equal dimencentre platform is laid across at the top. The beams waterfall in the world, and never attained by the covenanted

sions are exhibited by the rainbow of scarcely any other and planks are all of hewn fir; and they are pinned bow in the clouds. You remember that, from the relative together by large wooden pegs, which form all the position of the spectator and the sun, and from the convex fastening I could observe. It is secured by a neat figure of the earth, the natural rainbow can never be seen light rail. The bridge from the pier to the hill on larger than a semicircle, and that only for a moment when which the castle stands, has a penthouse over it, the sun is emerging from, or dipping under, the horizon. which is covered with shingles.”—Embassy to Thibet.

Embassy to Thibet. -ELLIOTT S Letters from the North.

KNOWLEDGE is never of very serious use to man, until it A DOUBLE RAINBOW.

has become part of his customary course of thinking. The On Tuesday morning, we started for the famous waterfall knowledge which barely passes through the mind resembles of the Rinken, called Rinkenfoss. Only one horse was that which is gained of a country by a traveller, who is in the village ; but the distance was short, and after the whirled through it in a stage; or by a bird fitting over it, first ten miles, a horse could not proceed. For four miles in his passage to another. —Dwight. we scrambled over rocks, whero, in places, there was nothing more than a ledge just large enough to catch the side of the foot. The scenery is grand beyond description,

LONDON: The mountains, on either side of the valley, are covered to

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. the very summits with wood, while, in the middle, the river rolls its angry waters through a rugged channel, whose PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE Penny, and IN MONTALY PARTS, inclination augments constantly their velocity.

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsrender in the Kingdom,

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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ROKEBY, situated at the junction of the rivers Tees bracing the cause of that monarch, and the estate and Greta, in a picturesque part of the North | soon passed into other hands. But perhaps, the Riding of Yorkshire, possesses no common claims circumstance which, in the present day, gives the to the attention of the traveller. In this parish, chief interest to - Rokeby, is its having formed the rich in beautiful scenery, may be discovered the scene of a poem by Sir Walter Scott. The Lay of traces of a Roman "station : it is also distinguished the last Minstrel, Marmion, The Lady of the Lake, and by the fine remains of an ancient priory. The lords | Rokeby, had gained a high literary reputation for that of Rokeby were celebrated as soldiers and states- i great writer, long þefore “the Author of Waverley," men, from the Conquest to the reign of Charles the or, as he was sometimes called, “ The Great UnFirst, when the family suffered grievously, on em- known,” came before the world. Vol. IV.

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In Rokeby, with its enchanting views, and the Rev. Dr. Whitaker, expresses his regret, that its wild traditions connected with the place, Scott seems foundation cannot be assigned to the Rokebys. The to have found much that was suited to his taste : founder is unknown: it is, however, supposed to A stern, and lone, yet lovely road,

have been Ralph De Multon, in the beginning of the As e'er the foot of Minstrel trode;

reign of Richard the First. Dr. Whitaker describes the and the readers of that poem, who have visited church, as being still nearly entire; but complains, in the spot from which it takes its title, must be struck his peculiar way, of "a wide, yawning east-window; with the skill with which the poet has introduced the supported, instead of ramified tracery, by perpendivarious interesting objects in the neighbourhood,cular mullions, which give an impression of tempo(Barnard Castle" Eglistone's gray ruins ;" Mort- rary props, erected to sustain a falling arch. Of this ham Tower—"the Roman Legion")—and still more design,” he adds, so unhappily and tastelessly con-. with the accuracy, as well as spirit, shown in his ceived, I have only seen one other specimen; yet it poetical descriptions of scenery. Indeed, so faith- has not escaped the gothicizers of the present day, ful was he to nature, whether portraying her milder who, in their neglect of better things, have not failed or more majestic features, that after going attentively to copy the east-window of Eglestone!" The church over some of his more finished representations, we was the place of interment for the Rokebys, and might almost fancy we had been viewing a well- formerly contained the tombs of members of that executed picture. In passing from Yorkshire to family, as well as those of Bowes and Fitzhugh. Durham, over the modern arch called Abbey Bridge, Scott alludes to the present state of the ancient fabric, which is represented in the engraving, we look down and the injuries it sustained from republican fury on a rocky ravine: through this the Tees forces its with the feelings of a poet and an antiquary : passage, amidst irregular masses of rock, in the

The reverend pile lay wild and waste, crevices of which, many trees and shrubs have fixed

Profaned, dishonoured, and defaced :
their roots; and we may then call to mind the verses Through storied lattices no more
of the Northern Bard :

In softened light the sunbeams pour,
Then in broad lustre shall be shown,

Gilding the Gothic sculpture rich,
That mighty trench of living stone;

Of shrine, and monument, and niche.

The civil fury of the time
And each huge trunk that from the side,
Reclines him o'er the darksome tide,

Made sport of sacrilegious crime;

For dark fanaticism rent
Where. Tees, full many a fathom low,
Wears with his rage no common fue;

Altar, and screen, and ornament;
For pebbly bank, nor sand-bed here,

And peasant hands the tombs o'erthrew,
Nor clay-mound checks his fierce career,

Of Bowes, of Rokeby, and litz Hugh.-Canto vi.
Condemned to mine a channelled way,

No part of the ancient mansion, formerly inO'er solid sheets of marble gray.-Canto ii.

habited by this once-powerful family, is now in being. His account, also, of the torrent of Greta, and of the Mortham Tower, however, became the dwelling of banks on each side, is no less accurate than grand some of its later branches, till altered circumstances It seemed some mountain rent and riven,

compelled them to part with this residence also. A channel for the stream had given,

"The ancient castle of Rokeby," says Scott, So high the cliffs of lime-stone gray,

“stood exactly upon the site of the present mansion, Hung beetling o'er the torrent's way, Yielding, along their rugged base,

by which a part of its walls is enclosed. It is surA flinty foot-path's niggard space;

rounded by a profusion of fine wood; and the park Where he, who winds 'twixt rock and wave,

in which it stands is adorned by the junction of the May hear the headlong torrent rave;

Greta and of the Tees. The title of Baron Rokeby And like a steed in frantic fit,

of Armagh, was, in 1777, conferred on the Right That flings the froth from curb and bit, May view her chafe her waves to spray,

Rev. R. Robinson, Primate of Ireland, descended of O'er every rock that bars her way;

the Robinsons' family of Rokeby, in Yorkshire. Till foam-globes on her eldies l'ide,

“From the Robinsons, the estate was purchased by Thick as the schemes of liuman pride,

the late J. S. Morritt, Esq., whose son, J. B. S. MorThat down life's current drive amain,

ritt, Esq., is the present owner.” This gentleman has As frail and frothy, and as vain!

a large collection of antiquities, many of which are The cliffs that rear their haughty head,

Roman relics, discovered at Rokeby, and other cuHigh o'er the river's darksome bed,

riosities connected with the situation. Dr. Whitaker Were now all naked, wild, and gray,

· renders the word Rokeby, as the dwelling near the Now waving all with greenwood spray,

Rock.
Here trees to every crevice clung,

Should our readers require further infor-
And o'er the dell their branches hung,

mation on the subject, we recommend them to conAnd there, all splintered and uneven,

sult WHITAKER's History of Richmondshire, and the The shivered rocks ascend to heaven.-Canto ii. notes to Scott's beautiful poem above quoted. The Abbey Bridge was built by the late Mr. Morritt, of Rokeby. Through the arch, on the left, are seen the ruins of Egglestone priory or abbey, standing on the brink of an eminence at the junction of ficent bell cast for the church which he had built at Aix-la

The Emperor Charlemagne was desirous to have a magnithe Tees with a little dell called Thorsgill. In page Chapelle. The artist Tancho, who had cast one very much 96 of the present Number, our readers may have admired for the church of St. Gall, was employed by the a nearer view of this interesting Præmonstraten- Emperor, and furnished at his own request with a great sian Priory*. That excellent antiquary, the late quantity of copper, and a hundred pounds' weight of silver, * The Præmonstratensian canons were those who followed cer

for the purpose. Tancho, being of a covetous disposition, tain rules laid down by St. Norbert, in 1120. This order obtained kept the silver for his own use, and substituted in its room its name (in Latin, Præmonstratus) from a story told by the monks. a sufficient quantity of highly-purified tin, with which he They declared that their founder received his rules bound in gold furnished a most admirable bell, and presented it to the from the hand of St. Augustine, whose apparition came to him in Emperor. The historian adds, however, that it being the night! After this distinguished visit, it was alleged that St. suspended in the tower, the people were unable to ring it, Norbert received another from an angel, who showed him the meadow in which he was to build his first monastery; from which circum

Tancho himself being called in, pulled so hard that the stance, it was called Præmonstratus (or Prémonstré), meaning iron tongue fell on him and killed him.-RANKEN'S His Fore-shown. This order first settled in England at Newhouse, tory of France. Lincolnshire, in 1140.

M.

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part with some of his cattle for cloth, of which he the effort of each man, with a view to his own credit,

SOCIETY. V.

in themselves, either virtuous or vicious. A desire Origin OF MONEY, &c.

of gain, which is either excessive, or has only selfish VARIETY of production is clearly the foundation of indulgence in view, is base and hateful; when the Variety of production is clearly the foundation of object is to keep one's family from want and dependexchange ; for, as long as each person provides for all his own wants, and only for them, he will have

ence, it is praiseworthy: when wealth is sought as a nothing to part with, and nothing to receive. Barter, Emulation, again, when it becomes envy, is odious;

means of doing good to others, the pursuit is noble. then, having become a common matter of business, when directed to trifling objects, despicable; when would naturally give place, in the progress of society, duly controlled, and directed to good objects, is a to the employment of some kind of MONEY. It is not intended to enter here on the important in both cases, there are, between the highest and

useful and honourable hand-maid to virtue. And, and curious questions which belong to the subject of the basest motives, innumerable gradations. But it money. It will be enough for our present purpose is to be observed, as a point most interesting in the to state, that, by money is meant any commodity in general request, which is received in exchange for present inquiry, that, by the wise and benevolent other commodities not to be directly used by the arrangement of Providence, even those who are only party receiving it (for that is barter), but for the pur- the pursuit of selfish ends, unconsciously assisting

thinking of their own credit and advantage, are, in pose of being again parted with, in exchange for others. The public welfare is not left to depend something else. It is not the very article which the party wants, or expects hereafter to want; but it is merely on the operation of public spirit. a security, or pledge, that he may obtain that article industry and ingenuity to increase the produce of

The husbandman and the weaver exert their utmost whenever he wants it from those who have it to the earth and of the loom; each, that he may be spare. The herdsman who needed, or expected here. after to need, a supply of corn, might, if he could but, in so doing, the husbandman and the weaver

enabled to enjoy a better share of other productions: not in any other way effect an exchange, be willing to

cause men to be better paid and better clothed. And had no need, in the expectation of being able to exchange that again for corn with some one who when this becomes general, the whole society to rise

to rise, or, at least, not to sink, in society, causes, either needed it, or would take it in the same manner

in wealth. as he had done. The cloth would do as well as money, till it should reach the hands of one who

The rate of progress thus occasioned by Emulation designed to keep it for his own use.

And it appears,

is never fixed; because the object aimed at by each of that there are some parts of Africa, where pieces of

a great number, can never be reached by all of them, cloth, of a certain fixed size and quality, are, as it

If men's desires were limited to a supply of the were, the current coin of the country. In other

necessaries and commonest comforts of life, their

efforts to reach this, would, indeed, bring the society parts of Africa, wedges of salt are said to be used for the same purpose,

up to a certain point, but not necessarily further : But the herdsman would, most likely, rather it were, the society might there become stationary.

because this object might be gained by all. And if receive in this way, instead of any articles which he But when a great portion of its members are striving, did not himself need, some ornamental article in general request, such as a bracelet, or necklace, of rative degree of wealth, there must always be many,

each to attain, not merely an absolute, but a compagold, silver, or valued shells or stones, not only as less who, though they continue advancing, will yet remain bulky, and less liable to decay, but because they could in the same position with regard to their neighbours, be used by him for the purpose of display, till he should who are equally advancing and thus the same have occasion to part with them, and could then be inducement will continue to operate from generation paid away without inconvenience.

Accordingly, the aim has always been to use, as a means of ex

to generation. The race never comes to an end,

while the racers are striving, not to reach a certain change, rather than all others, articles of an ornamental kind, prized for their beauty and rarity. Such of the rest, or, at least, not to be among the hind

fixed goal; but each, either constantly to keep a-head are gold and silver, which have long been much the

most.

D. most generally used for this purpose ;—the cowrieshells, admired for making necklaces, and commonly used as money throughout an extensive region in Frugality of manners is the nourishment and strength of Africa,—the porcelain shells, adopted in like manner, bodies politic: it is that, by which they grow and subsist, in some parts of India; and the wampum of some of until they are corrupted by luxury, the natural cause of

their decay and ruin. -Bishop BERKELEY. the native American Indians, which consists of a kind of bugles wrought out of shells, and used both

A STRANGE CASE.-A case in law was related to Martin as an ornament and as money.

Luther; namely, that a miller had an ass which ran out of THE EFFECT OF EMULATION.

his paddock, and came to a river's side, where he went into

a fisherman's boat that stood in the river, to drink thereout. As wealth increased, the continued effect of Emulation But inasmuch as the boat had not been tied fast by the would be, to make each man strive to surpass, or at fisherman, it floated away with the ass, so that the miller least, not fall below his neighbours: for it is important lost his donkey, and the fisherman his boat. The miller to keep in mind, that the selfishness, the envy, the thereupon, complained of the fisherman for neglecting unfairness, the baseness of every kind, which we so

to tie his boat fast; and the fisherman accused the miller, often see called forth in the competitions of worldly. I his boat. Now, the question was, What is the law? Did

for not keeping his ass at home, desiring satisfaction for minded men, are not caused by the increase of

the ass take the boat away, or the boat the ass ?

Wherenational wealth. Among poor and barbarous nations, upon Luther said, “ These are called cases in law: they we may find as much fraud, covetousness, vanity, and were both in error; the fisherman in not tying his boat envy, called forth on the score of a string of beads, fast, and the miller in not keeping his ass at home. a hatchet, or a musket, as are to be found among there was negligence on both sides: such cases wave the

There is a fault on both sides; it is a chance-medley: wealthier states.

rigour of lawyers: for the extreme rigour is not to be The desire of wealth, and Emulation, the desire of exercised, but only equity. All things are to be governed equalling or surpassing others, are neither of them, by equity." --LUTHER's Familiar Discourses.

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