Obrazy na stronie

a directly opposite nature may be expected. The distant, and, we may venture to say, that if on this occasion warm air of the Equator will be carried above five times the number had been sent, there would have towards the North and South Poles, and these been no difficulty in providing for them all. currents, moving from parts which have a greater Committee appointed at Algoa Bay by the London Society,

By the communication from Captain Brenton to the diurnal motion, to those which have less, will cause and from them to the Emigrant Committee of Albany, a relative motion of the upper regions of the air extracts from which we annex,-it appears that the total from the West towards the East. Thus, the clouds cost of passage and outfit of each of these boys, including above the Trade Winds are almost always observed every item, will probably amount to 121. 10s. each, which to blow in an opposite direction to that of the wind: the Society at home look to have eventually refunded from

hence. and Captain Hall found, on the top of the Peak of

We need not urge, we are assured, upon the respective Teneriffe, a gentle gale blowing from the S.W.

masters of these friendless boys, the sacred obligation directly opposite to the course of the Trade Winds. under which they are laid, to treat them with due kindness The westerly winds, which prevail between the and regard, and to pay such attention to their morals, as latitudes 30° and 60°, both in the northern and will render them an actual benefit to the community of southern hemispheres, are no doubt occasioned by which they now form a part. It is clear, that they have a the descent of the more swiftly moving air, which

more than ordinary claim to the sympathy of those who

have so adventitiously become their guardians; and the has become cooled, and therefore heavier, in its simple fact of their forlorn condition, adds very greatly to passage from the Equator towards the Poles.

the weight of the obligation. But, it is useless to dwell on Those who are desirous of seeing the whole phe- this part of the subject, confident as we are, that every nomena of the Trade Winds and Monsoons beau- circumstance in the future history of these young emitifully and familiarly explained, should consult Captain grants, will be a full and sufficient refutation of the unBasil Hall's Fragments of Voyages and Travels, Second founded calumny mentioned by Captain Brenton, and will Series, Vol. I., ch. vii.


prove, that those who give currency to such allegations are utterly unacquainted with the subject upon which they

suffer themselves, so confidently, yet so rashly, to proJUVENILE VAGRANCY.

nounce judgment.

The Committee have also accepted a trust of no ordinary We stated in a former paper*, that the Society for difficulty, and which will require in its discharge great the Prevention of Juvenile Vagrancy had sent out a judgment and delicacy. It must never be lost sight of, number of youthful Emigrants for apprenticeship to that they stand in the situation of the parents of these the Cape Colonists. This first experiment answered boys, and hence they are equally bound to exercise due so well in every respect, that the plan was further precaution, that no one is so placed as to be exposed

to the contamination of vice, as they are to guard against pursued, and we understand that nearly 300 children his being subjected to the effects of privation and illhave been provided with comfortable situations in treatment. It is proper, also, that the dispositions of that part of the world, during the present year, the youths should be consulted before they are placed through the exertions of that valuable Society. The in service, in order that they may be extensively serfollowing extracts from Cape and Graham's Town viceable both to themselves and to their masters. This newspapers, communicate the results of this inter point, as well as an acquaintance with the previous habits

of each individual, will be very important, and serve as the esting experiment.

best guide to the selection of the most suitable situations ENGLISH APPRENTICES.

for them. We have a perfect confidence in the discretion The Committee for the Management of Juvenile Emi

as well as humanity of the present Committee; they are grants, intend to write to the Society in London by the

not only men of business, but they have families, and their first opportunity, for a certain number of Apprentices, boys characters and habits give the best assurance that every and girls, the latter under fourteen years of age. It is re

arrangement will be made, conducive to the future welfare quested, that applicants for one or more of these appren: The youths have most of them been to school, and are by

of the boys, as well as to that of the community at large. tices will state in writing to the Committee, the age at which they would prefer having them, and the employment

no means destitute of intelligence; it therefore will not be for which they are required. The Committee take this irrelevant, if we state what is the line of conduct expected

from them. opportunity of stating, for the satisfaction of the public here, and in England, that the youths hitherto received

It is proper that these boys should understand that they and apprenticed, have conducted themselves with the have now the good fortune, not only to be placed in comgreatest propriety, and have given every proof that could

fortable circumstances, with regard to all the necessaries of be desired, that they will become most valuable members

life, but that they are associated with a community of of society. John FAIRBAIRNE, J. R. TUNES,

young persons, who are, generally speaking, distinguished Cape Town, Sept. 2, 1833. Secretaries.

for their exemplary deportment, and that a contrary line o conduct on their parts will, most assuredly, meet with

merited disgrace and punishment. At present, their chaWe announced last week the arrival in Algoa Bay of the Maria, Captain Burton, having on board the twenty boys them so to behave, that this feeling may be removed.

racters are viewed as equivocal, and it is incumbent on destined for this district by the Society for the Suppression They are bound so to act, that if there be any persons who of Juvenile Vagrancy in London. On Saturday at noon, the boys reached Graham's Town, and were, within one

have permitted themselves to indulge in uncharitable re

flections and surmises, they may feel some remorse-not hour after their arrival, comfortably provided for in the merely for refusing to aid, but aspersing those whose sole habitations of the respective masters selected for them. offence, as far as they are informed, is their forlorn and The general appearance of these youths afforded much destitute condition ; it will be for them to show, that they satisfaction to the Emigrant Committee, as well as to others

are not insensible to kindness conferred--a fact which will whom curiosity had attracted to the spot as spectators of their arrival. All of them appeared remarkably healthy

be best indicated by a constant anxiety to discharge, with and cheerful, and most readily assented to the arrange- steadily availing themselves of the various means of im

diligence and integrity, the duties assigned to them, by ments for their disposal, which had been made by the Committee previous to their arrival. From the number of provement now placed within their reach, and by carefully

shunning all those pursuits which foster idleness, debase the unexceptionable applications which had been made, no other equitable mode presented itself, than that of selecting

mind, and eventually lead to irretrievable ruin f. twenty masters by ballot, making, however, eventually,

Graham's Town is now a thriving place, it contains some few alterations, which the previous habits and pur

more than six hundred good substantial houses, two suits of the boys rendered absolutely necessary. The un public libraries, a handsome commercial hall in successful applicants will have the preference on the next progress, a newspaper, several excellent inns, a popuarrival, which we have reason to expect will not be very | lation of between two and three thousand souls, and • Vol. III. p. 155.

its annual exports exceed 50,0001. sterling. South Africun Advertiser, Sept. 4, 1833.

Graham's Town Journal, July 18, 1833.



seven Saxon idols : commencing with that of the Sun, I. SUNDAY.

we quote the following description from Richard VersteAr this happy period of the world, we cannot reflect gan, â laborious English antiquary, who wrote in 1605. on the idolatry of ancient times, without some astonishment at the folly which has, in various regions, so sadly clouded the human mind. We feel, indeed, that it is impossible to contemplate the heavens above us; to view the planets moving in their governed order; to find comets darting from system to system in an orbit of wonderful extent; to see stars beyond stars, and to have evidence of the light of others, whose full beams have not yet reached us : cannot meditate on these things, without a feeling of awe, that this grandeur of nature proclaims an Author tremendously great. But it is difficult to conceive, how the lessons of the skies should have taught that narrow and confined idolatry, which their amazing grandeur and almost endless extent seem calculated to forbid.

In every nation but the Jewish, a gross system of superstition was gradually established. Human folly chose out strange objects to represent the Deity; the most ancient of these were the heavenly bodies, the worship of which was so strictly forbidden to the

BON Israelites ; The sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, which the Lord thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven." (Deut. iv. 19.) The departed heroes and kings, belonging to heathen nations, were raised into gods. Foolish fancy soon added so many others, that the air, the sea, the rivers, the woods, and the earth, became stocked with divinities : and it was easier, as an ancient sage remarked, to find a deity than a man.

When our Saxon ancestors had settled themselves in England, they had many gods, and worshipped various images. Speed, the historian of Britain, observes, As in virtues the Saxons outstripped most

“He was made as here appeareth, set upon a pillar, his Pagans, so in the zeal of their heathenish superstition face as it were brightened with gleams of fire, and holding, and idolatrous service, they equalled any of them; breast: the wheel being to signify the course which he

with both his arms stretched out, a burning wheel upon his for besides Herthus, or mother Earth, they worshipped rupneth round about the world; and the fiery gleams and Mercury (or more probably Mars), under the name brightness, the light and heat wherewith he warmeth and of Woden, as their principal god of battle, and comforteth the things that live and grow." sacrificed to him their prisoners taken in war; and of him named one of the week-days Wodensday CHARACTER OF A True Friends-Concerning the man (WEDNESDAY). His wife, named Frea, was, by the you call your friendstell me, will he weep with you in the like foolery held to be Venus, a goddess, unto whom face, for actions for which others are ridiculing or censuring

hour of distress? Will he faithfully reprove you to your another of their week-days was assigned for name

you behind your back? Will he dare to stand forth in and service, which of us is called FRIDAY."

your defence, when detraction is secretly aiming its deadly There is, however, a beauty in the name given by weapons at your reputation ? Will he acknowledge you the Saxon and German nations to the Deity, whom with the same cordiality, and behave to you with the same they ignorantly worshipped, which is not equalled friendly attention, in the company of your superiors in

rank and fortune, as when the claims of pride or vanity do by any other, except his hallowed Hebrew name,

not interfere with those of friendship? If misfortune and JEHOVAH. The Saxons call him God, which is losses should oblige you to retire into a walk of life, in literally The Good; the same word signifying both which you cannot appear with the same distinction, or the Deity and his most endearing quality.

entertain your friends with the same liberality as formerly, Mr. Sharon Turner, to whose History of the Anglo- will he still think himself happy in your society, and, Sarons we are indebted for most of the above remarks, instead of gradually withdrawing himself from an unproobserves, that the peculiar system of worship among friend, and cheerfully assist you to support the burden of

fitable connexion, take pleasure in professing himself your the English Saxons is too little known to us for its

your afflictions ? When sickness shall call you to retire stages to be distinguished, or its progress described. from the gay and busy scenes of the world, will he follow It appears to have been of a

very mixed nature, you into your gloomy retreat, listen with attention to your and to have been long in existence. Some of the tale of symptoms," and minister the balm of consolation objects of their adoration, however, we find in their to your fainting spirit? And lastly, when death shall

burst asunder every earthly tie, will he shed a tear upon names for the days of the week :

your grave, and lodge the dear remembrance of your Sunday The Sun's day

mutual friendship in his heart, as a treasure never to be Monday The Moon's day.

resigned? The man who will not do all this, may be your Tuesday

Tiw's (or Tuisco's) day. companion-your flatterer-your seducer,--but, depend Wednesday Women's day:

upon it, he is not your friend. -ENFIELD. Thursday

Thunre's (or THOR's) day.
Friga's (or Frea's) day.

Seterne's (or Saturn's) day.


PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS We propose to give, from time to time, cuts of these

Sold by all Booksellers and powevenders in tlie Kingdom,



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of Mr. Murdoch, who, after a course of experiments at OF THE MANUFACTURING TOWN OF

Redruth, in Cornwall, lighted the shops of this factory, BIRMINGHAM.

and, in 1802, displayed the success of his researches in a

public illumination of the Soho, to celebrate the peace This celebrated manufacturing town is situated in the with France. Thomason's manufactory, in Church-street, County of Warwick, 109 miles from London, and con has a splendid suite of show-rooms, containing fine specitains about 147,000 inhabitants. The earliest authentic mens of gold, silver, and plated ware, medals, bronzes, &c. notice of it occurs in Domesday Book, in which it is called There are also show-rooms in Birmingham of improved Bermengeham, whence may be easily deduced Bromwycham, japan and papier maché ware, a pin-manufactory, and a which name, together with those of Castle-Bromwich and general repository, called Pantechnetheca, for the sale of West Bromwich, two adjacent villages, is supposed to be articles from the various manufactories. derived from the quantity of broom growing in the neigh Birmingham is pleasantly situated on an eminence, at bourhood. Some antiquaries suppose it to have been the the north-west extremity of the county, and is about two Bremenium of the Romans; but others believe that it was miles in length. The streets are generally spacious, well a British town prior to the Roman invasion, and famous paved, and lighted with gas. The houses are mostly for the manufacture of arms. Its history, prior to the modern, and some of them are very handsome. In enterConquest, is involved in obscurity; and from that period, ing Birmingham from London, the road, by a stone bridge till the reign of Charles the First, few incidents of moment over the small River Rea, leads up an ascent into the marketare recorded. In the civil war during that reign, the place, in the centre of which is a statue, in bronze, of inhabitants embraced the cause of the Parliament; and, Lord Nelson, finely executed by Westmacott. The market in 1642, after the King had passed through the town, on place has lately been verv much enlarged, and a handsome his route to Shrewsbury, they seized the carriages con- market-house erected. taining the royal plate and furniture, and conveyed them to The New Town-Hall, which is nearly finished, and is Warwick Castle.' In 1643, Prince Rupert, on his way to intended to be used for public meetings and for the musical open a communication between Oxford and York, here met festivals, is situated at the end of New-street. It is a with considerable resistance, which so provoked him, that noble edifice in the Grecian style, erected from the designs he set fire to the town, and, after several houses had been of Mr. Harris, and built of marble obtained from the rocks burnt, the inhabitants saved themselves from further on the coast of Anglesey. The total height of the building suffering by the payment of a heavy fine.

is 84 feet; the basement is rustic, and above it is a handOn the 14th of July, 1791, a party having met at an some colonnade, with entablature and pediment. The prinhotel to celebrate the anniversary of the French Revolution, cipal room is said to contain a larger quantity of cubic feet a mob collected in front of the house and broke the windows; than any other in Europe, and will accommodate between they thence proceeded to burn down two meeting-houses, three and four thousand persons sitting, or. ten thousand and destroyed Dr. Priestley's dwelling-house, about a mile standing. It is 140 feet long, 65 high, and 65 broad. The from the town, together with his library, philosophical whole will be completed for less than 20,0001., and the buildapparatus and manuscripts. The riot continued several ing is intended to be opened at the Musical Festival in days, during which other meeting-houses and private October next. (See Engraving, p. 16.) mansions were set on fire; but, on the arrival of the military The NEW MARKET-HALL, erected from designs by Mr. from Oxford and Hounslow, order was restored: at the ensu- C. Edge, is a noble structure, the first stone of which was ing assizes four of the ring-leaders were convicted, and laid in February, 1833. It is built of enormous blocks of two of them suffered the penalty of the law. Shortly after stone, many of them weighing nine tons each, and is in this occurrence, barracks were erected near the town, on the the Grecian Doric style of architecture. The principal Vauxhall-road.

front is in High-street, but there are altogether twelve The extraordinary increase of Birmingham, the im- spacious entrances. The length of the building is 365 provement of its manufactures, the extension of its trade, feet, and the breadth 108 feet. It occupies an area of and the rapid growth of its commerce, within the last 4379 square yards, and is expected to be completed in June century, may be attributed chietly to the mines of iron-ore of the present year. and coal with which the district abounds, and to the The Cattle-Market and Horse-Fair are held at Smithnumerous canals by which it is connected with every part field, outside the town, on Thursday, and, on the same day, of the kingdom. Birmingham, in the reign of Henry the a sale of horses by auction takes place ,at Beardsworth's Eighth, was inhabited principally, as described by Leland, Repository, an immense establishment near the spot, which “by smithes that use to make knives, and all manner of comprises accommodation for nearly 200 horses, standings cutting tooles, and lorimers that make bittes, and a great for 400 carriages, and rooms for visiters. many nailours." Soon after the Revolution, in 1688, the The town is under the jurisdiction of the county magismanufacture of fire-arms was introduced, and continued to trates and a high bailiff, who presides at all public meetings. flourish till the close of the late war, during which the Birmingham possesses a News Room, erected in 1825, Government contracts for muskets alone, generally averaged Two Public Libraries, a Philosophical Society, a School of 30,000 per month; the manufacture of swords and army- Medicine, established in 1828, a Society of Arts, instituted accoutrements is still carried on to a considerable extent, in 1821, which has an annual exhibition of pictures, a and, since the erection of a proof-house, by an Act of Mechanics' Institute, established in 1825, a Theatre, and Parliameut obtained in 1813, that of fowling-pieces has Baths. greatly increased. The manufacture of buttons has always Prior to 1715, Birmingham was comprised in one parish, been a source of wealth to many, and of employment to and for all secular purposes it is still so considered ; at ihat thousands; but the buckle-trade, established soon after the time, a small portion of the original parish of St. Martin Revolution, became nearly extinct in 1812. The leather was formed into the parish of St. Philip; and, in 1829, trade has also much declined, and at present there is only two other districts were formed into the parishes of St. one tan-yard in the town. The principal branches of manu- George and St. Thomas. St. Martin's is an ancient strucfacture are those of light and heavy steel goods, (here ture, in the decorated style of English architecture, concalled toys,) gold, silver, and plated wares, trinkets, jewel- taining some curious monuments. St. Philip's, erected in lery, fancy articles of every kind in the gilt toy-trade, 1725, is in the Grecian style, and occupies the centre of a machinery, and steam-engines. There are many iron and spacious area, surrounded by handsome modern buildings. brass founderies, several rolling-mills of great power, and St. George's was built in 1822, in the English decorated metallic hot-house manufactories, in one of which a hot-style, and contains 1378 free-sittings. St. Thomas's is also house was recently made for the Duke of Northumberland, a modern church, having been completed in 1829; it is in at an expense of nearly 50,0001. Casting, modelling, die- the Grecian style. In addition to these there are St. Mary's sinking, and engraving, have been brought to great per-Chapel, built in 1774; St. Paul's Chapel, in 1779, to fection, and there are several glass-houses, and mills for which an elegant steeple was added in 1820; Christ cutting glass.

Church, erected in 1813, for the especial accommodation The most ancient and extensive manufactory is the Soho, of the poor; St. Bartholomew's; and St. Peter's, built in about a mile from the town, where, under the superin- 1827. There are also places of worship for various classes tendence of Messrs. Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham of Dissenters. manufactures were brought to their present state of per The Free Grammar-School was founded by Edward the fection. In this factory were coined many of the penny-Sixth, and endowed with the revenue of the guild of the pieces still in circulation; and hore, also, gas was first Holy Cross, which, prior to the dissolution, occupied this used as a substitute for oil and tallow, under the auspices | spot. The endowment, arising from land, at that time

amounted to only 301. per annum; at present, the ground | has been in the hot water. As long, then, as we trust having been_let on building leases, it produces from 80001. merely to our own sensations, we can have but a very to 10,000l. There are seven exhibitions, of 701. per annum each, to either of the Universities; and the number of of the air, or of any other substance. Much less can

uncertain estimate even of the sensible heat and cold scholars on the foundation is 150. The building has recently been taken down, and is about to be re-erected in we estimate the sensible heat of bodies which part the Gothic style, on a magnificent scale. The Blue-Coat with their heat differently. If a piece of wood, a Charity, established in 1724, and enlarged in 1794, main-piece of marble, and a piece of iron, are all placed in tains and educates 130 boys and 60 girls. There are also

a room heated to a temperature much higher than National and Lancasterian Schools, and an Infant School. that of the human body, and the hand is then laid

The General Hospital is a handsome brick building, upon each, although each of these substances have containing 14 wards, in which are 165 beds. It is sup: the same actual temperature, the iron will feel the ported chiefly by the receipts of a musical festival, held in Birmingham every third year. The Dispensary was

hottest, the marble not so hot, and the wood still less established by subscription in 1794, and affords medical hot. And the reverse will be the case, if each is first relief to about 4000 patients annually; it is a handsome exposed to the action of a temperature much colder building of freestone. Birmingham also possesses a Self-than that of the human frame, it becomes, then, supporting Dispensary, maintained by small annual subscriptions from the poor, aided by those of the honorary highly desirable to have some instrument, which shalí members; an Infirinary for Diseases of the Ear and Eye;

measure exactly the changes of heat in the atmoan Infirmary for the Cure of Bodily Deformity; a Fever sphere, or in any other body. Such an instrument is Hospital; an Asylum for Deaf and Dumb; a School of called a THERMOMETER, a word which implies HeatIndustry, in which 300 children are maintained, and measurer. employed in platting straw, heading pins, &c.; Almshouses for the aged and infirm, and numerous and extensive funds structed, is very simple. All fluids, when heated,

The principle, upon which a Thermometer is confor charitable

purposes. About a mile from the town is a chalybeate spring ; and swell out, so as to take up more room ; and again about three miles to the west, are the remains of a large shrink, when they are cooled. Hence, if we can quadrangular encampment, surrounded by three ditches, measure the quantity of expansion or contraction, we which, from the extent of its area, being more than 30 can measure the quantity of heat which has been acres, is supposed to be of Danish origin; picces of added, or taken away, provided that equal additions armour, broken swords, and battle-axes have been ploughed of heat always cause equal quantities of expansion. up in the vicinity. Inconsiderable vestiges of an ancient Priory are still visible in the cellars of some houses in the Mercury, or quicksilver, is the most convenient fluid square which now occupy its site, and a great number of for this purpose; since, as far as can be ascertained, human bones and sculls have been found in the neighbour- it does expand equally for all equal additions of heat, hood, parts of which still bear the names of the Upper within the limits which it is required to measure. and Lower Priory.

Suppose, then, a certain quantity of mercury
to be put into a tube ab, having a very small

uniform bore from A to B, and a bulb at the FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL

end B.

While the end a remains open, let

the mercury in the bulb B, be violently No. VIII. CHANGES IN THE ATMOSPHERE, heated. The mercury will expand, so as to THERE are several causes, which tend constantly to fill up the whole length of the tube, and produce changes in the atmosphere. We have drive out any air which is in it. When the already noticed, that the air which we breathe is com- mercury has reached a, the end of the tube at posed of several different dry gases, that it also con- A must be closed, by suddenly heating it by tains a great quantity of the vapour of water in an means of a blow-pipe. We have now the invisible state, besides the vapour which exists in the bulb and the tube filled with heated mercury. visible form of clouds, and mists; and that currents But as the mercury is left to cool, it shrinks of wind are always moving some parts of the air over

back into the bulb, leaving a part of the tube the ocean, and others over large tracts of land, by A perfectly empty; except, indeed, that a which they become heated or cooled, and raise greater very fine vapour of mercury still remains the or less quantities of water by evaporation. Besides effects of which may be neglected. these causes, there are others—for instance, the Now suppose the bulb of the thermometer action of electricity, the effects of which upon the air to be plunged into melting ice, and that the are less known, but very great. Thus we might mercury sinks to the point F. That point is expect, from the combined action of all these causes, called the freezing point of water, which gives that the atmosphere should be in a state of constant

one natural point from which temperature change.

may be measured. Again, let water be made to boil The real wonder is that, in a fluid so subtile as the when the pressure of the air is in its mean state, or air, yielding to every pressure, and expanding or con

when the Barometer (which we shall afterwards tracting with every alteration of temperature, the describe) stands at a certain height, and suppose the changes of the air should be confined within such mercury in the tube of the thermometer then to have moderate limits as to be scarcely ever injurious.

expanded as far as the point G. This gives us a The principal changes in the atmosphere are those second natural point for measuring temperature. which affect its heat, its weight, and its moisture. The space between F and G may be divided into such The changes of heat, are those of which we are the

a number of equal parts, as may be thought conmost sensible. But our own feelings give us a very im- venient. In Fahrenheit's thermometer, which is perfect measure of heat and cold. A simple experiment commonly used in England, the space between the will show this,-suppose a person puts one of his hands freezing and boiling points of water is divided into into snow, or into very cold water, and the other 180 equal parts : the freezing point being 32 degrees, hand, at the same time, into water as hot as he can and the boiling point 212 degrees. In Réaumur's bear it ; and, after suffering them to remain in that thermometer, the freezing point is 0, and the builing state for a few minutes, puts both his hands into water point 80; in Celsius's thermometer, which is now moderately warm. This water will convey a sen

most frequently used on the Continent, the freezing sation of warmth to the hand which has been plunged point is 0, and the boiling point 100. An easy rule into the snow, but will feel cold to the hand which reduces the degrees of one of these scales to either of



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