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is that you, Maggy?' quoth Jamie Mill, 'weel, I've seen the sublime language of the Psalmist: The floods have blyther sights than you are at this precious moment; but, lifted up, O Lord! the floods have lifted up their voice! black though ye be, I maun have ye out o' that.' And the floods lift up their waves! The Lord on high is so he crept up the roof and pulled her out of the chimney mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the When they came round to the door, the house was so deep mighty waves of the ocean."" This old bridge, which with water, that there was barely space to thrust our stood an assault so terrible, is above five hundred years heads between the stream and the lintel, so that I was old, and presents a singular specimen of the Gothic arch. forced to dip the bit bairnies in the water, before I could At the head of the Don, a shock of an earthquake was get them out. That did gang to my very heart !"

felt, and a singular noise heard, which appeared connected The bridge over the Spey at Fochabers, consisted of four with it. Instances of outbursts of subterranean water arches. The view from it on the morning of the 4th, were very frequent in the mountains in Braemar. On presented one vast expanse of dark-brown water, from the the north side of the red granite hill of the Muckle Glasfoot of the hill of Benagen to the sea, about ten miles in hault, near Invercauld, are no less than fifteen or sixteen length, and in many places more than two miles broad. of these openings, varying in breadth from thirty to forty The surface was varied only by floating wreck, or by the yards. Each of these appears to have bad an immense column tops of trees, or roofs of houses, to which, in more than of water issuing from it, which has cut a track for itself, one instance, the miserable inhabitants were seen clinging, to the very base of the mountain. The tracks are all of while boats were plying about for their relief.

very peculiar formation: their margins or sides are com By eight o'clock the flood was seventeen feet up on the pletely defined by a fence of stones, raised considerably bridge, which, however, stood firm, though the water boiled, above the surface, something like that left by the track as it were, in caldrons round the piers. Crowds of people of an avalanche. Dr. Robertson, of Craithie, concludes, had been on it watching the river during the morning, but from the appearances, that the water burst from the it happened that there were but few persons at twenty mountain in repeated jets, rather than in one continued minutes after twelve, when a crack, no wider than the cut stream; and such we know to have been the case at Toof a sword, opened across the roadway before them, and manurd, on the Spey, where a similar phenomenon occurred. backwards, parallel with the parapet. With a cry of alarm Mr. Grant, of Culquoich, was passing the hill of Tothey sprang forward: the crack yawned wide, before Mr. manurd, on Tuesday, the 4th of August, and observed a Russel, one of the number, could step across it. He leaped quaking of the earth for sixty or seventy yards round the from the falling ruins, and alighted on the part which was spot, which continued for some time. At length an imyet firm, with one foot hanging behind him in vacancy. mense column of water forced itself through the face of Down went the whole mass of the two arches next the the hill, spouting into the air, and tossing around large bank. The stream, for a moment, was driven back with stones and great quantities of gravel. Sometimes it ceased impetuous recoil, baring its channel to the very bottom, then altogether, and nothing was heard but the rush as of a again rushing onwards, its thundering roar proclaimed its considerable river. Again it would burst forth like a victory, and not a vestige of the fallen fragments was to geyser, with renewed energy, tearing up whole banks of be seen.

earth, and hurling them to the distance of 300 yards. The So great was the body of water that rushed into the sea, water was quite transparent, and had so much the appearthat no tide could enter the river, which, at Garmouth, ance of boiling, that Mr. Grant at first really imagined it previous to the flood, was not above twenty yards wide. It must be warm. There were various conjectures as to the had now been widened to about four hundred yards, by cause of this prodigy. I am rather disposed to think that which the vessels in the harbour were exposed to the the hill must contain some subterranean reservoir, which greatest danger; many were driven on shore, but fortunately produced the effect by becoming surcharged. no lives lost.

The scene for miles along the beach was at once ani We cannot doubt that so terrible a judgment was sent mated and terrible. Crowds were employed in trying to by the Almighty Governor of the Universe for some great save the wood and other wreck, with which the heavy and beneficial purpose; and the mercy that was mingled rolling tide was loaded; whilst the margin of the sea was with the chastisement, may well teach us the love of that strewed with the carcasses of domestic animals, and with Heavenly Father from whose hand it comes. Amidst all millions of dead hares and rabbits. Thousands of living the terrors and dangers of this unexampled calamity, when frogs also, swept from the fields, were observed leaping thousands of lives were placed in jeopardy, the instances among the wreck.

of providential deliverance were so numerous, and so extraA little stream which runs into the Deveron, carried ordinary, that throughout so great an extent of flooded away a mass of basaltic rock, which I measured, eight rivers, we have only the loss of eight human lives to feet long, five feet wide, and four feet deep, weighing, deplore. probably, between seven and eight tons; and removed it [Abridged from the interesting Account of the Floods in Moray, &c full three hundred yards. The inclination of the channel

by Sir Thomas Dick LAUDER.] of the stream is considerable: but the rock had not been rolled, for some delicate plants of maiden-hair fern were left growing on its upper surface, unharmed. In its progress, it leaped over a cascade of about thirty feet fall. Nor more necessary are constant supplies of water to the In this neighbourhood, as in some others, a shock of an growth of vegetation in the sultry regions of the East, earthquake was distinctly felt.

than the influences of divine truth to the existence of Near the mouth of the Deveron, many vessels seemed human happiness. If a tree, planted by the margin of a so distressed by the storm, that parties of the Whitehills refreshing river, is proof against the heat of the sun, or fishermen patrolled the beach during the tempestuous the unfavourableness of the seasons, he, also, who, into a night of the 3rd, to be ready with their help, if help well-prepared heart, receives continual infusions of relimight yet avail. At about one o'clock in the morning, the gious wisdom, is flourishing and happy amidst all the

coal-brig, Success, came ashore among the rocks, and six inconveniences of life. Bishop JEBB. men and a woman, all in an exhausted state, were safely landed by the intrepid and well-directed exertions of these When we see our enemies and friends gliding away before praiseworthy fellows. So furious was the surf, that it us, let us not forget that we are subject to the general law instantly beat the vessel to pieces, and literally pounded of mortality, and shall soon be where our doom will be her cargo to a powder, that blackened the white waves fixed for ever.--Dr. JOHNSON. around.

The river Don, as it approaches the ancient “ Brig It is certain, that all the evils in society arise from want of Balgownie,” becomes narrowed on both sides by the of faith in God, and of obedience to his laws; and it is no rocks. The waters rose opposite to the centre of the arch, less certain, that by the prevalence of a lively and efficient somewhat in the form of an arc. From this height, they belief, they would all be cured. If Christians in any poured down in a cascade of many feet, to the lower side of country, yea, if any collected body of them, were what they the bridge, where they produced a frightful whirlpool. “I might, and ought, and are commanded to be, the universal have seen the waves of the Atlantic rolling down the reception of the Gospel would follow as a natural and a Pentland Firth," says my informant, Mr. George Tulloch, promised result. And in a world of Christians, the ex “and wasting their gigantic strength on the iron-bound tinction of physical evil might be looked for, if moral evil, coasts of the north; but even there, my impression of that is, in Christian language, sin, were removed. power was less vivid. Nothing seemed to describe it, but SOUTHEY.

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FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL being dashed against the top; and even if
PHENOMENA.

that were guarded against, the surface of the No. IX. ON THE USE OF THE BAROMETER. mercury would be so constantly in motion, We have seen that the Barometer is an instrument

that it would be scarcely possible to observe M ·so constructed as to measure the pressure of the air its height. To prevent this inconvenience, at any time. That pressure arises from the weight a part of the tube, a b, between the mercury of all the air above the instrument up to the highest at m and the basin, is made very small, by

which means the undulation of the mercury part of the atmosphere. And if there are any changes in the air which affect that pressure, the arising from the motion of the ship is totally variation in the height of the column of

prevented. mercury

in the Barometer will measure their effect.

A contrivance of the same kind is used, The first effect which we will notice is that occa

when it is required to observe the exact sioned by the wind. If a bent tube,

height of the tide. It would be impossible C A B C, partly filled with a coloured Auid, to notice, with any accuracy, what is the and open at both ends, be held with

average level of the waves which are dashing

But if a
the two legs, A B, C B, vertical, the fluid against a pier by the sea-side.
will stand at the same level, P, Q, in each

tube, ABC, communicates with the water
tube. In this case, the pressure of the at A, and is made very small in one part, ab, the
atmosphere upon P and Q is the same;

water in it will rise to l, the average level of the the height of the columns of fluid, PB,

waves, which may thus be exactly observed.
QB, is also the same; so that'the whole
pressure at b is equal in each leg of the
tube, and the fluid will remain at rest.

Now suppose a person blows briskly
with a pair of beilows, or by the force
of his own lungs, across the mouth of
one leg of the tube at A, the fluid p in Another important use of the Barometer is to
that leg instantly rises, and the reason measure heights. Since the whole pressure of the
is this; the side-way motion of the air, air, which is measured by the height of the mercury
across the mouth of the tube, A P, dimi in the Barometer, arises from the weight of all the
nishes the pressure of the air upon the

air which is above it, it is plain that, if the instrument fluid at P, while the pressure at Q re

is raised above its former position, part of the air, mains the same ; Q, therefore, will be which caused the pressure upon the mercury, will be pressed down, and will rise, until the pressure of now beneath the instrument, and the pressure will be the fluid in P B is as much greater than that in Q B, diminished by the quantity which was occasioned by as the pressure of the air at r is less than that at Q. the weight of that part of the air.

Any one may see the effect of lateral motion in a The celebrated Pascal was the first person who fluid to diminish its pressure downwards, by simply established this fact by experiment. In his time, it observing the surface of a stream which is in rapid was not completely established that the mercury in motion, as through the arches of a bridge. It will the Barometer was sustained by the pressure of the be observed, that the surface of such running water air. He argued, that, if that were the case, and he is not horizontal ; it is highest where the current is ascended a mountain, the pressure of the air between most rapid, which is generally near the middle of the bottom and the top of the mountain would be the stream.

taken off from the mercury, which woyld conseWhen, then, the wind is blowing rapidly in any quently stand at a less height. He tried the expepart of the earth, even if there were no alteration in riment, on the mountain called the Puy de Dôme, the quantity of air over the place where the current and found that the mercury did stand considerably of air is moving with the greatest velocity, the lower at the top of the mountain than at the bottom. downward pressure of the air would be diminished, Any one, who possesses a Barometer, may satisfy and the mercury in the Barometer would fall. And himself of this fact, by observing accurately the if, as is probably the case, the causes which produce height of the Barometer, at the top and at the a gale of wind at the surface of the earth, begin to bottom of a hill fifty or sixty feet high, or even in a act in the upper regions of the air before their effects lower and in an upper room of a house of three are sensible below, the fall in the mercury of the stories. An elevation of one hundred feet occasions Barometer will predict the gale of wind.

a depression in the column of mercury of about a This is, accordingly, one of the most valuable uses tenth of an inch, a quantity which is very perceptible, of the instrument. Between the tropics, and at the without any contrivance for measuring minute difsurface of the sea, there is very little change, gene- ferences. ra!ly, in the height of the Barometer; but the sudden If the air were, like water, nearly incompressible, and violent squalls which are so dangerous to the a vertical column of one hundred feet in length seaman, are almost invariably predicted by the rapid would have the same weight, at whatever altitude fall of the mercury in the Barometer, so that the in the atmosphere it was taken. But since air is constant observation of that instrument is a most compressible, that nearest to the surface of the earth, important part of the navigator's duty. Many most being pressed by the weight of all the air above it, valuable lives, and property of immense amount, is the heaviest, and causes the greatest pressure; and have been preserved by timely warning thus given by it grows lighter and lighter as we rise higher from the Barometer.

the earth. Hence if, after having risen to the height We may observe that, in order to render the Baro- of one hundred feet, we again rise through an equal meter fit for use at sea, where it is constantly in space, we shall take off from the mercury in the motion, a very ingenious contrivance is employed. Barometer the pressure of a column of air, which If the tube, which contains the mercury, were of weighs less than the first column of the same length; the same size throughout as in the common Baro so that the mercury will not sink so much for this meter, the tube would soon be broken by the mercury second elevation as for the first. And thus, for

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A LEGEXD OF TUE DUCITY OF XASSAU.

same means.

equal clevations above the earth, the corresponding

THE SERPENT'S BATH. depressions of the mercury become less and less.

There is, however, a rule, by which tables are Once upon a time, it seems, there was an heifer, with constructed, showing what is the elevation corre which every thing in nature seemed to disagree. The more sponding to different depressions of the mercury in she ate the thinner she grew—the more her mother licked the Barometer, after applying the corrections for the her hide, the rougher and the more staring was her coatchange of temperature: and by the use of these not a fly in the forest would bite her-never was she tables, heights may be measured with very consi- her hips seemed actually to be protruding from her skin.

seen to chew the cud-but hide-bound and melancholy, derable exactness. It is by this method that persons What was the matter with her no one knew—what could in a balloon can tell with great precision their elevation cure her no one could divine-in short, deserted by her above the earth: and the heights of mountains, and master and her species, she was, as the faculty would term other places of less 'elevation, can be found by the it, given up. The method might, indeed, be em

In a few weeks, however, she suddenly reappeared ployed much more extensively than it has ever yet deer-skin sleek as a mole's-breath sweetly smelling of

among the herd, with ribs covered with flesh-eyes like a been.. If the height of the mercury in the Barometer milk-saliva hanging in ringlets from her jaw! Every were observed with accuracy in different places, for day seemed to confirm her health; and the phenomenon a considerable time, for instance, during a year, and was so striking, that the herdsman having watched her, the mean height ascertained, after making allowance discovered that regularly every evening she wormed her for the difference of temperature, the difference in way in secret into the forest, until she reached and rethe level of the places of observation would be found freshed herself at a spring of water-haunted by harmless

serpents, when full grown about four feet in length. with great accuracy.

The circumstance, it seems, had been almost forThe changes of the height of the mercury in the gotten by the peasant, when a young Nassau lady began Barometer also indicate, in some degree, the changes to show exactly the symptoms of the heifer. Mother, of the weather. The causes which influence these sisters, friends, father, all tried to cure her, but in vain; atmospheric changes, are too little understood to and the physician actually enable us to reduce such observations to any certainty.

Had ta'en his leave with sighs and sorrow,

Despairing of his see to-morrow, Still, as a general rule, it will be found that a rising when the herdsman, happening to hear of her case, prebarometer is accompanied with fair weather, and a vailed upon her at last to try the heifer's secret remedy; she falling barometer with stormy weather. The marks, did so, and, in a very short time, to the utter astonishment however, of “Fair," “ Set-fair,” “Rain," “ Stormy,”

of her friends, she became one of the stoutest young women and the like, which are sometimes placed upon in the duchy. What had suddenly cured one sick lady Barometers, cannot be depended upon. When the

was soon deemed a proper prescription for others, and all Barometer stands at the point marked "Rain,” but notice and repute. I may observe, by-the-by, that even to

cases meeting with success, the spring gradually rose into is rising, it is more likely to introduce fine weather, this day, horses are brought by the peasants to be bathed than if the Barometer stands at “ ‘Fair,” and is

and I have good authority for believing, that, in cases of falling. The direction of the wind also influences the slight consumption of the lungs (a disorder common Barometer materially. In this country, the Baro enough among horses), the animal recovers his flesh with meter usually stands higher when the wind blows surprising rapidity. Nay, I have scen even pigs bathed, from a northern quarter, than when it blows from a

though I must own that they appeared to have no other

disorder except hunger.- Quarterly Review. scuthern one. The Barometer shows very clearly what an enor

THE INDIAN ICHNEUMON. mous pressure our own bodies are constantly sus The Indian Ichneumon is a small creature, in appearance taining from the atmosphere, without our being between a weasel and a mungoose. It is of infinite use to sensible of it. The pressure upon every square inch the natives, from its inveterate enmity to snakes, which would of our body, at any time, is exactly equal to the otherwise render every footstep of the traveller dangerous. weight of a column of mercury, an inch square, and The proofs of sagacity which I have seen in this little animal of the same height as that in the Barometer at the wislom with which Providence has fitted the powers of

are truly surprising, and afford a beautiful instance of the time. When the Barometer stands at thirty inches, every animal, to its particular situation on the globe. This this pressure is about 15 lbs. upon each square inch, diminutive creature, on seeing a snake ever so large, will so that an ordinary man sustains, on his whole body, | instantly dart on it and seize it by the throat, provided he a pressure of about 30,000 lbs., or 1000 lbs. for each finds himself in an open place, where he has an opportunity inch of the mercury. If the mercury in the Baro

of running to a certain herb, which he knows instinctively meter, therefore, falls one inch, the pressure which such to be an antidote against the poison of the bite, if he should

I was present at an experiment a man sustains, is diminished by about 1000lbs.; if tried at Columbo, to ascertain the reality of this circumthe mercury falls the tenth of an inch, the pressure stance. The Ichneumon, procured for the purpose, was is diminished by 100 lbs., and in the same proportion first shown the snake in a close room. On being let down for other changes,

to the ground, he did not discover any inclination whatever The reason why we are insensible of this great to attack his enemy, but ran prying about the room, to pressure is, that it is equally exerted upon every might get out. On finding none, he returned hastily to

discover if there was any hole or aperture by which he part of our body, above, below, and on all sides: so

his master, and placing himself in his bosom, could not by that the atmosphere acts not as a weight, pressing any means be induced to quit it, or face the snake. On down, but as an elastic bracc, encompassing our being carried out of the house, however, and laid near his limbs, and tending to strengthen the vessels against antagonist in an open place, he instantly flew at the snake the internal pressure arising from the blood, and and soon destroyed it." He then suddenly disappeared for other fluids which they contain.

C.

a few minutes, and again returned as soon as he had found the herb and eaten of it. This useful instinct impels the

animal to have recourse to the herb on all occasions, wbere The first ingredient in conversation is truth, the next good it is engaged with a snake, whether poisonous or not. sense, the third good humour, and the fourth wit.----Sir The one employed in this experiment was of the harmless W. TEMPLE.

kind, and procured for the purpose. —PERCIVAL'S Ceylon. There is nothing too little for so little a creature as man.

LONDON: It is by studying little things that we attain the great art JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. of having as little misery, and as much happiness, as pos PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS, sible.- Dr. Johnsox.

Suld by all Booksellers aul Newsreuders in the King'um,

PRICE SIXPENCE, AND

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL.

Succeeding Abbots continued to add to the work, THE City of Gloucester is said to have been called particularly Walter Froucester, who died in 1412, by the ancient Britons CAERGLOW, The Fair City, after having made the spacious and handsome cloisfrom its fine, healthy situation, and the beauty of ters; and Abbot Seabroke, who pulled down the old its buildings. This name was changed by the Romans tower, and began to build the present beautiful one; into levum, or Gleva, to which the Saxons, as was he also paved the choir. He died in 1457, and was their frequent custom, added cester, which mean buried in the chapel on the south-west end of the castle or fortification, and called it Glev-cester, whence choir, where his monument appears, with his figure its present name is easily derived.

in alabaster. In this Abbot's time, the New Inn, in The Cathedral is an ancient and noble fabric. Its Northgate Street, was built by one of the monks, tower is considered one of the handsomest and most who had an underground passage made from the curious pieces of Gothic architecture in England. Inn to the Abbey, which passage still remains, but is Our readers will perceive by the engraving, that it walled up at both ends. The inn was built for the consists of two stories, of equal height, and that it benefit of the Abbey, and for the reception of pilis richly ornamented. The upper story terminates grims.

The last Abbot was William Parker, who in a parapet with battlements, and from the cor

was elected in 1514; before quitting his office, he ners rise light and graceful pinnacles, but of great vastly improved the Cathedral, and the premises strength.

attached to it. His monumental effigy, with the Before, however, we enter into the particulars of mitre and crosier, may be seen in the chapel on the the present building, we will furnish a short account north side of the choir. The establishment continued of the ancient Abbey, on the site of which the to be governed by Abbots, till the Reformation in Cathedral stands. Wulphere, the first Christian the reign of Henry the Eighth, when its income, king of Mercia, began the Abbey of St. Peter's, according to Dugdale, was upwards of 19001. Gloucester; and Ethelred, his brother and successor,

the suppression of the Abbey, Henry made Gloucester who was afterwards a monk, carried on and finished a Bishopric, and the Abbey Church became a it about the year 680. It was originally governed

Cathedral. by abbesses, the first of whom was Kyneburg, the

The second person consecrated Bishop of Glouwife of Aldred, king of Northumberland, After cester, after the Reformation, was John HOOPER, the death of the third abbess, which happened in who subsequently became Bishop of Worcester, 767, and during the wars which followed between holding, both dioceses together. But this did not the rival kings of Wessex and Mercia, the nuns

last long; as on the accession of Mary, Hooper was left their monastery. It continued desolate till about marked out for the first sacrifice, by Gardiner and 823, when it was restored. King Canute, in 1022, Bonner, who disliked him, on account of his former having turned out the secular monks, placed in it opposition to them. Accordingly, after remaining monks of the Benedictine Order, appointing Edric for some time in prison, he was brought before the first Abbot. Next to him, Aldred, Bishop of Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, and several others, Worcester, greatly added to the monastery, having at St. Mary Overy's Church, (now St. Saviour's pulled down the old church, and built a new one Southwark,) and there condemned as an heretic. nearer the walls of the town. În 1087 this new This was in January, 1554-5. He was soon removed Minster, as it was called, was burnt, with a large to Gloucester, and on February 9th, this martyr to portion of the city, by the adherents of Robert, the truth was burnt, near an elm-tree without the Duke of Normandy. But though it was quickly gate, on the north-west side of the lower churchrestored, it was again burnt in 1101, a casualty yard. which occurred repeatedly afterwards; but it was,

The dimensions of the Cathedral, as stated by probably, on no occasion entirely destroyed to the Dugdale, are as follow: ground.

Total length and breadth 420 feet by 144. The Abbots had great power, and sat in the Length of the Nave

171 feet. House of Lords as Peers of the Realm, Under Length of the Choir

140 feet, (86 feet high.) them were numerous officers belonging to the monas Length of our Lady's Chapel 90 feet by 30.

225 feet. tery, and the number of monks residing in it, in Height of the Tower

Cloisters 1104, amounted to a hundred. It is recorded, that

148 feet by 141. on the occasion of the horrible murder of Edward To each of these we will shortly advert in their order. the Second at Berkeley Castle, in 1327, the Abbot The Nave of this beautiful Church consists of a (Thokey), hearing of it, assembled his convent, middle-aisle and two side-aisles, separated from the and accompanied by them in their full robes, and middle by two rows of pillars, eight on each side, seven by the greater portion of the inhabitants of Glou- of which are round, and are about seven yards in cester, went in a procession to Berkeley, and brought circumference; the eighth is fluted. On entering the away the corpse of the murdered king. It was Choir from the nave, the view is exceedingly fine. afterwards privately, and decently, buried in the This part of the structure, indeed, includes every Abbey. His son, Edward the Third, erected a fine perfection to which Gothic architecture had attained monument to his memory, and founded a chantry on during the fifteenth century. In 1741, during the the spot where he was buried. The circumstance of removal of an old stone screen, which divided the Edward's having been so “ cruelly butchered in nave from the choir, the bodies of three Abbots were Berkeley Castle," which fills one of the most painful discovered, in stone coffins, part of the gloves and and affecting pages of the history of England, proved, dress still remaining. In 1820, the present screen in its result, a source of extraordinary profit to the was added, and certain judicious alterations and imAbbey of Gloucester. The city was hardly large provements were adopted. enough to contain the numbers of people who Extending from one side of the choir to the other arrived with offerings at the ill-fated monarch’s is the famous WHISPERING-GALLERY, built in the shrine; and from that period may be dated the form of an octagon. If a person whispers at one origin of the Cathedral as it now appears.

The side, every syllable may be clearly heard on the other cross-aisle was built by Abbot Wygemore (1330), side, which is seventy-five feet distant, although the out of these oblations,

passage is open in the middle, and there are large

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