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THE CHURCH OF NOTRE-DAME, packed up, and placed on carts with its bell, and
carried to Dijon, where it was put up, and there This church, of which we have given a view in the strikes the hours day and night." This clock preceding illustration, is, in France, esteemed to be ornamented with two moveable figures, and is one of one of the purest specimens of Gothic architecture the earliest specimens of a regulated horological that exist. It is curious in its appearance, and in- machine, which history mentions. teresting as a subject of comparison with the more Of the other churches of Dijon, the most remarksplendid and celebrated edifices described in this able is the Cathedral of Saint-Benigne, the spire of work.
which has an elevation of 375 feet. Behind the The town of Dijon stands in the interior of France, choir of this church, there formerly existed an at about eighty miles from its eastern limit, and at ancient circular temple, which was said to have been nearly equal distances from the seas which bound it ecrected A.D. 173, under the Emperor Marcus Aureon the North, South, and West. It is an ancient and lius, and dedicated to the worship of Jupiter, Mars, well-built town, and was formerly the capital of the and Saturn. It was subsequently consecrated to the Duchy of Burgundy, and the seat of the Parliament Virgin; but was entirely swept away at the time of of that province. It is now the chief town of the the French Revolution. It was in this church, that department of the Cote-d'Or, and, in extent and the Dukes of Burgundy swore to maintain the rights importance, may be classed with our English cities and privileges of the province. of Exeter and Worcester. It possesses an University
The church of Saint-Michel is distinguished by of a high character; and an Academy of Science and the French, for the richness and magnificence of its Literature, which has long maintained a distinguished portal, which is said to yield, in those respects, to but reputation. Among the principal public edifices, one few ecclesiastical edifices in France. It was erected of the most striking is the palace of the ancient about the middle of the eleventh century, and subDukes of Burgundy, which now contains a gallery sequently repaired and restored at diiferent periods. of painting and sculpture. It is surmounted by an The architect of the present building was a native of extensive tower, which once bore the name of the Dijon, and is said, to have been a friend and pupil of terrasse du logis du Roi, and is now used as the Obser- the celebrated Michael Angelo. The general effect of vatory of the Academy,
the interior is, however, described as heavy and disThe churches of Dijon are numerous, and among pleasing; and the whole edifice is, perhaps, more them, the Church of Notre-Dame is the most worthy curious than beautiful. of attention. Its origin is commonly attributed to At a short distance from the town of Dijon, there Saint Louis, and it is, in many respects, similar to the formerly stood a celebrated Chartreuse, or monastery church at Mantes, also ascribed to that monarch.
of Carthusians, where the ashes of several Dukes of The period of its foundation, is generally supposed Burgundy were deposited. The mausolea which to be the middle of the thirteenth century; but contained them, are said to have been among the there is no account of its consecration, until 1334. most beautiful monuments of art existing in France; The western, or principal front, resembles in some
but they were demolished during the Revolution, degreo, the southern porch of the Cathedral at Dijon is remarkable for the number of eminont Chartres. It has an open portico, which presents men which it has produced. It was the birth-place three arches in front, and extends two arches in of Bossuet, Crébillon, Piron, and many other distindepth. The doorways are ornamented with columns guished characters. It has, however, greatly decliuod crowded together in a singular inanner; and on
in importanee from its former state, and its popusome of them, statues, which have been destroyed,
lation is now much less than it was two centuries ago. were once placed. The canopies which project above, consist of architectural models, exhibiting, for the most part, a repetition of the same subject. The
THE TURKISH MARTYR. space over the arches, was originally occupied with ABOUT fifteen years ago, thero resided in the city of figures; and a species of Roman or Arabesque orna Smyrna two tanners, the one, named Mustapha, a native ment is there observed, which indicates an approx
of the island of Mitylene, a Turk by birth and religion, imation to the Roman style, not unfrequent in the
but speaking the Greek language; the other, a Greek of earlier Gothic.
Athens, and a Christian.
The Turk, who was frequent in his visits to his neigharches rise, the one upon the other, and each sup- bour's shop, was much struck with the manner of Califorported by a lung range of nineteen columns, The nius, an open-hearted boy of fourteen, whom he occasionally plan of the building is a Latin cross, One of the found reading most remarkable circumstances in its architecture,
" What book is that?" one day inquired Mustapha. is the extreme thinness of its walls. Those of the
“ My Ketab," replied the boy, meaning the Holy Scripturrets, which rise 100 feet above the roof, are not six
tures, which had been given him a short time before. inches thick, and others are in the same proportion. Not so," replied the boy. “ If," added he, with his usual
The Turk requested Californius to read a portion to him. The shafts which are used in ornamenting the interior simplicity, “ you were a Öhristian, the case would indeed be of the tower, are, some of them, only seven inches different." in diameter to twenty feet in length, and others, only
The Turk rose and left the shop; but scarcely was he five and a half inches in diameter, although fifteen out of sight before Demetrius, the elder Greek, fell upon feet long; These frequently consist of one single his brother, upbraiding him for his inconsiderate answer -
" What have you done?" exclaimed he: "how could you stone, and are all entirely detached from the wall. The clock which belongs to this church, is curious know that he can inform against us? We shall then be
speak to the Turk of becoming a Christian? Do you not in itself, and remarkable for the associations con both sent to prison, our property will be seized, and, perhaps, nected with it. It formed a part of the spoils of the even death may be the consequence of your rashness." town of Courtrai, which was sacked by Philippe le
The poor boy began to weep bitterly, for his brother's Ilardi, in 1384, on the occasion of suppressing a
fears were but too well grounded; the tyrannical law of revolt of the Flemings, “The Duke of Burgundy," Turkey having made it a crime for a Christian even to says Froissart, “ had taken down a curious clock speak of his religion to a Mohammedan, and to name his
conversion, a capital offence. which struck the hours, the handsomest that was to In a few moments the Turk re-entered; he insisted on be seen on either side of the sea, which he had knowing the cause of his favourite's tears, and, on his
brother s leaving the shop, Californius confessed the whole. , and caused a great sensation among the Christians.
-“ By all that is holy," said Mustapha, " I swear that I A Greek, named Georgius, who had an academy at the will not inform against you ; only read to me a part of place, immediately assembled the scholars of his first your Ketab.” The boy complied, and the Turk listened class, consisting of youths of about twenty years of age, with the most profound attention.
and related to them the melancholy fate of the Turk, and From this time, Mustapha, watching from his window called upon them to offer up supplications in his behalf. the departure of Demetrius, would repair to the young “But it is not enough that we pray for him," continued Christian for further information. Four months passed in Georgius, " we must also endeavour to visit him in prison, this manner, during which the word of God found its way to comfort and console him. Which of you will adventure into the heart of the Turk, who resolved to abjure the false his life in this undertaking ?" faith of Mohammedanism, and embrace the Christian “I, I,” re-echoed from all sides, and a contest arose religion. With this view, he disposed of his business, and among the lads for the honour of this dangerous enterprise. repaired to a Greek priest at Smyrna, to whom he made John Skonzes, a young Athenian, at length claimed the known his desire to be baptized.
preference, a countryman of his having been the first But so rare and remarkable a circumstance is it for a instrument, under Divine Providence, which led to the Turk to embrace Christianity, that the priest looked prisoner's conversion. To him, therefore, the others yielded, upon the application as a snåre, to betray him to death, and the following stratagem was resorted to, to gain adand earnestly besought the Turk to leave him. Mustapha mission into the prison. Skonzes disguised himself as a applied to another, but was dismissed with the same / bricklayer, and took the road to Magnesia : while a Greek entreaty, for God's sake leave me."
of the same trade, went to the magistrate, and charged Distressed and mortified at this unexpected check, the his apprentice with having decamped to Magnesia, with mind of Mustapha almost sunk in despair. One resource à sum of money. Pursuit was instantly made. Skonzes alone remained,--the monks of Mount Athos. To them was arrested, and sentenced to confinement in the same ne repaired; but, though their body is numerous, they, prison as the Turk, it being the only one in the city. every one, like the priests at Smyrna, refused to give ear But what were the feelings of Skonzes when he beheld to his entreaties. Knowing the jealousy with which the the unfortunate Turk. Exhausted from the tortures of Turks eyed their order, they deemed it necessary to observe the rack, Mustapha lay with his feet suspended by a rope a greater degree of caution against any arts which might from the ceiling, and his head dragging on the ground. In be practised upon them by the Mohammedans.
this condition he was to remain, till he should renounce Dismissed from the convent as a hypocrite, Mustapha Christianity. With difficulty Skonzes suppressed his resolved to apply to the hermits who inhabit the caves and compassion and his indignation, but he kept quiet till midgrottoes of Mount Athos, and are, in some degree, dependent night, when, watching the other prisoners till they fell on the convent. With this intention he entered the asleep, he stole softly to the Turk, sought to comfort him, dismal habitation of an aged recluse, to whom he made and assured him of the cordial sympathy of his fellow known the circumstances of his conversion, and the recep- Christians, and that their compassion for his fate, had been tion he had experienced from the Christian priests, to the motive of his seeking imprisonment. whom he had applied for baptism. The venerable old man “I thank you for your love towards me," replied the was much affected, but, fearing to offend the monks, would martyr, “but praised be God, I stand in need of no encounot venture to perform the rite, perhaps, also, entertaining ragement. I shall continue faithful to the end." some doubt as to the Turk's sincerity. Again rebuffed, he In a few days, Mustapha was conveyed to Constantibent his steps towards the brow of the mountain with a nople. Rewards and allurements were held out on every heavy heart.
side ; liberty, riches, and a lovely bride were promised, on A young priest, who happened to be with the recluse, the only condition that he should return to the Mohammedan offered to conduct him through the wood, and employed faith. But in vain. Tortures, still more excruciating than every means of comforting him, but Mustapha refused to those which he had endured at Cydonia were resorted to, listen, and burst into an agony of tears. The priests but they, too, were unable to shake his Christian confidence. heart melted at the sight. My dear friend,” said he, He was then sentenced to be beheaded, and the same “ have you then, in truth, a sincere desire to become a Almighty power that had sustained his spirit or. tlie rack, Christian?" “ Do not these tears show you the fervency was with him in his hour of need. of my wishes ?" exclaimed Mustapha.
This story was related to M. Fenger, a Danish mis“Then follow me," said the priest; “ here is a cave sionary from Copenhagen, by a Greek of Smyrna, one which will afford you shelter; remain here, and I will of the scholars at Cydonia, who was fully acquainted daily bring you food, and converse with you on the nature with all the circumstances of Mustapha's untimely fate. of Christianity;". Mustapha remained several months in this grotto, and the young priest daily brought him food, as well as spiritual comfort.
THE MINES OF GREAT BRITAIN. In the mean while, the old hermit, who had been much struck with the fervour of the Turk's manner, not unfre II. THE COPPER MINES OF CORNWALT. quently reproached himself for sending him away with so In our account of the Botallack Mine, (Vol. IIJ., much seeming indifforence. He one day named his regret to the young priest, and expressed a wish to see the Turk page 178,) we slightly noticed the history of the art once more. The priest smiled, and offered to conduct him of mining; in the present paper, we shall describe to the place of his concealment. The meeting was one more fully the mode of procuring the ore, and the of mutual gratification, and Mustapha's admission into the means employed to prepare it for the market. Christian church took place a few days after.
Rocks of most kinds are traversed in every direction He continued to reside with his friends on Mount by cracks or fissures, having, in many instances, Athos, for several years, but his ardent spirit would not let him rest here. He had an aged mother, and a brother
the appearance of those formed in clay and mud, at Mitylene, and his soul thirsted to bring them to the while gradually becoming dry during hot-weather. knowledge of the true faith. After duly considering the These fissures are in general filled with substances risk he might run, he left his peaceful and secure retreat, formed of materials differing from the rocks in and took shipping for Cydonia.
which they are
situated. When they contain This flourishing city is chiefly inhabited by Greeks, at minerals, partly composed of any kind of metal, they least, prior to the revolution, there were but few Turks
are called metallic veins, lodes, or courses. there, except such as held oflicial situations. One of
Metallic these, recognising the new convert, by a scar on his fore- veins are only found in what are called the primitive head, ordered the vessel, which was on the point of rocks, as granite and slate, and in general, their putting off for Mitylene, to be seized, and the Turk to be course is from East to West. A vein seldom brought before a magistrate. Without hesitation, Mus- consists of metal in a pure and malleable state, tapha acknowledged himself a Christian, and declared his
the contrary, it is almost always found in determination to die rather than renouince his faith. The chemical combination with other substances; in magistrate commanded him to be taken to prison, and
this state it is called an ore, and the metal is placed on the rack; but, under the most agonizing torments, Mustapha continued firm.
separated from it, by a process called smelting. This circumstance soon became known in the town, | The thickness, extent, and direction of a vein of
metal, depends on many circumstances; in general, being one sixty-fourth part. Any part of the conits course downwards is in a slanting direction, more cern held by one person, is called a dole, and its or less inclined; if it continues in a straight line, value is known, by its being denominated an eighthand of a uniform thickness, it is called a rake (1); if it dole, a sixteenth-dole, &c. The bounds or limits of a occasionally swells out in places, and again contracts, mine, are marked on the surface by masses of stone it is termed a pipe-vein (2), and the wider parts of the pitched at equal distances, but the property of the vein are called floors (3,3); sometimes the vein divides soil above, is entirely distinct from that of the mine itself into two branches, and it is then said to take beneath it; the miner, however, has the privilege of horse (4); in other cases, a cross-vein will interfere with making openings or shafts at stated intervals, for the it, and heave or lift it, as it were, from ten to twenty purpose of raising the ore, and admitting air to the feet out of its course (5). At times it will be reduced works. In opening a new mine, considerable knowto a mere thread, and at last, become completely ledge of the country, and of the most likely situation obliterated, appearing again at a distance (6). In many of the metallic veins, is of course necessary, to avoid of these cases, it is easy to perceive how difficult the the chance of useless labour; for it is very seldom, task of the miner must be, in tracing these precious that the first portion of a vein containing metal, deposits through their rocky labyrinths.
is fallen in with at a less depth than thirty fathoms, or one hundred and eighty feet from the surface.
The spot for commencing operations having been selected, a perpendicular pit, or shaft, is sunk, and at the depth of about sixty feet, a horizontal gallery, or level, is cut in the lode by two sets of miners, working in opposite directions; the ore and materials being raised in the first instance by a common windlass. As soon as the two sets of miners have eut, or driven, the level about 100 yards, they find it impossible to proceed, for want of air: this being anticipated, two other sets of men have been sinking from the surface two other perpendicular shafts, to meet them, from these the ores and materials may also be raised. By thus sinking perpendicular
shafts a hundred yards from each other, the first The mines of Cornwall are generally worked by level or gallery may be carried to any extent. a company of proprietors, called adventurers, who While this horizontal work is going on, the original, agree with the owner of the land, or lord of the or, as it is termed, the engine-shaft, is sunk deeper; soil, as he is usually called, to work the mine for and at a second depth of sixty feet, a second horia certain number of years, paying him, by way of zontal gallery or level is driven in the same direction rent, a proportion of the ores raised, or an equivalent as the first, and the perpendicular shafts are all succesin money. The grant thus made to the adventurers, sively sunk down to meet it; in this manner, galleries is called a set, and the lord's rent, if paid in ore, is continue to be formed at different depths, as long said to be the lord's dish; if paid in money, his dues. as the state of the lode renders the labour profitable. The adventurers divide their undertaking into shares The engine-shaft in the mean time, is always conof different magnitude, the smallest usually held, tinued to a greater depth than the lowest level, for the
purpose of keeping the working-shafts free from water. I heap of ore, at the weekly ticketing. At this The object of these perpendicular shafts, is not so meeting, all the mine-agents, as well as the agents much to get at the ores which are directly procured for the several copper-companies, attend, and it is from them, as to put the lode into a state capable of singular to see the whole of the ores, amounting to being worked by a number of men; in short, to make several thousand tons, sold without the utterance of it what is termed a mine. It is evident, that the one single word. The agents for the copper-comshafts and galleries divide the rock into solid, right- panies, seated at a long table, hand up individually angled masses, each three hundred feet in length, to the chairman, a ticket or tender, stating what sum and sixty in height. These masses of three hundred per ton they offer for each heap. As soon as every feet, are again subdivided by small perpendicular man has delivered his ticket, they are all ordered to shafts, into three parts, and by this arrangement, be printed together, in a tabular form. The largest the rock is finally divided into masses called pitches, sum offered for each heap, is distinguished by a line each sixty feet in height, and about one hundred drawn under it in the table, and the agent who has feet in length.
made this offer, is the purchaser. In the Cornish mines, the sinking the shafts, and In order to prepare copper-ores for market, the driving the levels, is paid by what is termed tut-work, first process is to throw aside the rubbish with which or task-work, that is, so much per fathom; in they are unavoidably mixed; this task is performed addition to this, the miners receive a small per- by children. The largest fragments of ore are then centage on the ores, in order to induce them to keep cobbed, or broken into smaller pieces, by women, and, the valuable portions as separate as possible from after being again picked, they are given to what the the deads, or rocky parts of the mass.
Cornish miners term maidens, that is girls from sixIn addition to these horizontal and perpendicular teen to nineteen years of age. These maidens buck shafts, another description of gallery is formed, the ores, that is, with a bucking-iron, or flat hammer, called an adit; the use of this shaft is to drain the they break them into pieces not exceeding in size the water from the lower part of the mine. Where top of the finger. the mine is formed in an exposed rock, as is the The richer parts of the ore, which are more easily case with the Botallack mine, the adit can carry off broken, are now crushed smaller in a kind of mill, the water, without the aid of machinery, as long the interior arrangement of which is shown in the as the lowest shaft is above the level of the sea; diagram. The coarsér portions, which but when the shafts are sunk below that level, or that of the adit itself, recourse must be had to the assistance of steam-engines, to pump up the drainage to a sufficient height. The great Cornish adit, which commences in a valley above Carnon, receives branches from fifty different mines in the parish of Gwennap, forming, altogether, an excavation nearly thirty miles in length. The longest continued branch, is from Cardrew mine, five and a half miles in length; this stupendous drain empties itself into Falmouth harbour.
The lode, when divided as above described, is open hardest, are bruised in a stamping mill, by means of to the inspection of all the neighbouring miners in heavy weights, or hammers, which are lifted by mathe country, and each mass or compartment is let chinery, and allowed to fall upon the ore, a stream by public competition for two months, to two or of water constantly passing through the mass, and four miners, who may work it as they choose. These men undertake to break the ores, and raise them to the surface, or as it is termed to grass, and pay for the whole process of dressing the ores, that is, preparing them for market. The men by whom the mines are worked in this manner, are called tributers, and their share of the value of the ore, which varies according to its richness in metal, is named tribute. This tribute is paid over to them every week, the mineral being disposed of at a ticketing, or weekly sale. In addition to the working miners, a set of men, whose experience entitles them to the office, are engaged at a stated salary, to act as overlookers, and direct the labours of the rest; those whose business lies in the mines, are called underground captains, and those employed above ground, grass captains.
The weekly produce of the mine being made up by the tributers, into heaps of about one hundred tons each, samples, or little bags from each heap, are sent to the agents for the different coppercompanies. The agents take these to the Cornish assayers, a set of men, who (strange to relate) are destitute of the most distant notion of the theories of chemistry or metallurgy, but who, nevertheless, can practically determine, with great accuracy, the value of each sample of ore.
As soon as the agents have been informed of the assay, they determine how much a ton they will offer for each
SECTION OF THE CRUSHING MI1.L.
TREATMENT OF THE DEAD IN THIBET.
washing away the portion which is bruised suffi- and often ruddy; they are naturally a cheerful
ciently small to pass through an iron plate, pierced people, and, after passing so many hours in subter- with holes, and forming one side of the box in which ranean darkness, they may well hail with delight the stampers work.
the sunshine of the returning sabbath, and the sound The next operation is that of jigging, this used to of the bell by which they are summoned to seek be performed entirely by boys, and consists in shaking rest and comfort in the temple of their God. a quantity of bruised ore in a kind of sieve, with an iron bottom to it, while under water. This occasions the heavier parts, which consist almost entirely of metal, to sink to the bottom; while the earthy matter The people of Thibet instead of burying or burning the is washed away, and the small fragments of stone, bodies of the dead, throw them into a walled enclosure,
that they may be devoured by birds of prey; but they being lighter than the metal, and containing little or
hold an annual festival in honour of the deceased, which is no ore, are left on the surface in the sieve: these thus described by Captain Turner. are carefully skimmed off with the hand, and the On the 29th of October, as soon as evening drew on, and remainder is piled up in heaps for sale. This process it became dark, a general illumination was displayed upon has been much improved in the works of the Fowey the summits of all the buildings in the monastery of Teshoo Consols Mines, near-St. Blazey, where the more
Loomboo, close to which was the Golgotha, if I may so call uniform action of the machinery represented at the
it, to which they convey their dead; the tops also of the
houses upon the plain, as well as in the most distant head of this article, is employed in a part of the
villages, scattered among the clusters of willows, were in operation. The engraving at the foot of the last the same manner lighted up with lamps, exhibiting altocolumn, is an enlarged view of one of these im gether, a brilliant and splendid spectacle. The night was proved jigging-machines. In this case the con dark, the weather calm, and the lights burned with a tents of five sieves at once are subjected to the clear and steady flame. The Thibetians reckon these ciraction of water which is forced up through their cumstances of the first importance, as, on the contrary,
they deem it a most evil omen, if the weather be stormy, perforations, by a plunger which is alternately raised
and their lights extinguished by the wind or rain. and lowered violently into the water contained in
It is worthy of notice, how materially an effect depends the vessel a, beneath the platform, and immediately upon a previously-declared design, and how opposite the under the sieves.
emotions may be, although produced by appearances In our first paper, we described the commencement exactly similar. In England, I had been accustomed to of a miner's day, in the words of a writer in the Quar- esteem general illuminations as the strongest expression
of public joy; I now saw them exhibited as a solemn token terly Review, and we cannot do better than employ
of melancholy remembrance, an awful tribute of respect his description of the return of these hardy labourers paid to the innumerable generations of the dead. The to the light. “But it is time the underground captains darkness of the night, the profound tranquillity and silence, should come to grass, and that the whole body of interrupted only by the deep and slowly-repeated tones of subterraneous labourers should be released; and the nowbut, trumpet, gong, and cymbal, at different interthose who have attended to their labours through the vals; the tolling of bells, and the loud monotonous repetition day, will scarcely regret to see them rising out of of sentences of prayer, sometimes heard when the instru
ments were silent; were all so calculated, by their the earth, and issuing in crowds from the different solemnity, to produce serious reflection, that I really believe holes or shafts around-hot-dirty---jaded; each no human ceremony could have been contrived more effecwith the remainder of his bunch of candles attached tually to impress the mind with sentiments of awe. In to his flannel garb. As soon as the men come to addition to this external token of solemn retrospect, acts of grass, they repair to the engine-house, where they beneficence performed during this festival, are supposed to generally leave their underground clothes to dry, washing to their ability, to distribute alms, and to feed the
have peculiar merit, and all persons are called upon, accordthemselves in the engine-pool, and put on their
poor. -TURNER'S Embassy to Thibet. clothes, which are always exceedingly decent. By this time the maidens and little boys have also washed MATERNAL COURAGE.-As we passed through the streets their faces, and the whole party, frequently upwards of Nazareth, loud screams, as of a person frantic with rage of two thousand strong, migrate across the field in and grief, drew our attention towards a miserable lovel, groups, and in different directions to their respective whence we perceived a woman issuing hastily, with a homes. Generally speaking, they now look so clean cradle, containing an infant. Having placed the child and fresh, and seem so happy, that one would upon the area before her dwelling, she as quickly ran back scarcely fancy they had worked all day in darkness again; we then perceived her beating something violently,
all the while filling the air with the most piercing shrieks. and confinement. The old men, however, tired with Running to see what was the cause of her cries, we their work, and sick of the follies and vagaries of observed an enormous serpent, which she had found near the outside and inside of this mining world, plod her infant, and had completely despatched before our artheir way in sober silence, probably thinking of their rival. Never were maternal feelings more strikingly porsupper. The younger men proceed talking and trayed than in the countenance of this woman. Not laughing, and where the grass is good, they sometimes satisfied with having killed the animal, she continued her
blows until she had reduced it to atoms, unheeding any stop and wrestle. The big boys generally advance thing that was said to her, and only abstracting her attention by playing at leap-frog, and the little ones run on from its mangled body, to rest, occasionally, a wild and before, to gain time to stand on their heads. As the momentary glance towards her child.-Dr. É. D. CLARKE. different members of the group approach their respective cottages, their numbers of course diminish; Dr. Johnson was exceedingly disposed to the general and the individual who lives farthest from the mines, indulgence of children, and was even scrupulously and like the solitary survivor of a large family, performs ever, full of indignation against such parents as delight to
ceremoniously attentive not to offend them. He was, howthe last few yards of his journey by himself.”
produce their young ones too early into the talking world, The Sunday is kept with great attention. The and was known to give a good deal of pain by refusing to mining community, male and female, are remarkably hear the verses that children could recite, or the songs they well dressed ; and, as they come from the church, could sing ; particularly to one friend, who told him that there is certainly no labouring class in England
his two sons should repeat Gray's Elegy to him alternately,
that he might judge who had the happiest cadence. “No, at all equal to them in appearance, for they are
pray, sir," said he, “let the little dears both speak it at generally good-looking ; working away from sun and
once; more noise will by, that means be made, and the wind, their complexions are never weather-beaten, noise will be sooner over,