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is the Barrack of St. Charles, capable of containing and died shortly afterwards at Aosta. Over the entrance nearly 3,000 men. It was erected in 1800.
to the tomb is inscribed, “Intaminatis fulget honoribus." The Workhouse of Amsterdam, situated in the east part He shines with untarnished honours. There are also of the city, has long been celebrated for its excellent ma monuments in honour of Admiral Bentinck, who died in nagement. It is partly correctional and partly charitable, 1781, at the battle of the Dogger Bank, of Admiral and while it affords a comfortable refuge to the poor, is an Kensbergen, and the Dutch poet Vondel. The pulpit is of admirable school for the reformation of offenders. The acacia-wood curiously carved, with representations of the building is three hundred and sixty feet in length, and one Four Evangelists and the Christian Virtues; and the hundred and eighty in breadth, and is capable of accom organ has been much extolled on account of its size and modating nearly a thousand inmates. In the rooms
powers of execution. belonging to the governors and directresses, are some The Old Church, in the Warmoes-straat, dedicated to St. exquisite pictures by Vandyke, Rembrandt, and Jordaens. Nicholas, also contains several monuments, amongst which Some of the offences for which persons are occasionally are those of Admiral Janz Sweers, Vander Hulst, Vander confined in the workhouse, are not such as are usually Zaan, Heemskirk, and Marshal Wirtz. Three large cognizable by English law: for instance, husbands may, upon painted windows in this church are much admired; they complaint of extravagance or drunkenness, duly proved, represent the Salutation of the Virgin, the Virgin visited send their wives to be confined and receive the discipline by her cousin Elizabeth, and the Virgin dying. Two of of the house; and wives their husbands, for two, three, these windows are said to have been the gift of a wealthy and four years together. In one part of the building, burgomaster, named Claas Van Sloppen. He was accused never shown to strangers, young ladies of good family are of heresy, and of favouring the new or reformed religion. confined, by order of their parents or friends, for undutiful The priests and his confessor threatened him with excom deportment.
munication, unless he recanted, and immediately undertook The Rasp House, or House of Correction, where crimi- a pilgrimage to Rome, to obtain absolution from the pope, nals, whose offence is not of a capital nature, are confined, who had, no doubt, previously been made acquainted with is another establishment worthy of notice. The interior is his wealthy circumstances, and also that he was a bon an oblong square, on three sides of which are the cells of vivant. The penance imposed by his holiness was, that he the prisoners, and on the fourth side, the warehouses should make a present of two painted-glass windows to containing the piles of wood, which are given to the the church of St. Nicholas, and that, for one whole year, prisoners as their daily task. Some are employed in he should drink nothing but water. The expense of the cutting the wood, and others, in rasping it for the use of glass windows was but a trifle to a man of his great the dyers. In a corner of the court-yard is a cell, so con- wealth ; but, never having been a water-drinker, he felt trived, that if the person placed in it do not continue to convinced of his inability to perform that part of the pump, he will be drowned." It has not, however, been used punishment. He therefore begged for a second audience, for many years.
at which he acquainted his holiness, that the water of The law in Holland is by no means sanguinary, and Amsterdam was so unwholesome, that nobody drank it few crimes are punishable with death; but it is clearly plain; and all he requested, was to be permitted to add a defined, and the penalty strictly enforced. Its object is to few grains of corn to correct its impurities, or he feared he reform, not to destroy. Those who violate the rights of should die before the windows were finished. The popo society are subject to imprisonment from two to twenty assented to this reasonable request, and Van Hoppen years, and are compelled, by hard labour, to contribute to took good care to malt his water well. The Old Church the revenue of the state.
is two hundred and forty-nine feet in length, two hundred
and twenty-five feet at its greatest breadth, and six hunCHURCHES.
dred and forty feet in circumference. AMSTERDAM contains ten Reformed Dutch churches, a “In Holland clergymen are familiarly, but as a term of French Reformed church, an English Presbyterian church, respect, called Domini. They are easily recognised by twenty-two Roman Catholic churches, a Walloon church, their court-looking dress and cocked hat. In the pulpit, three Lutheran churches, a Greek or Russian church, and instead of a gown, they use a long mantel, which consists several synagogues, but none of these buildings are dis- of black cloth, only six inches broad, edged with silk, and tinguished by much architectural beauty.
fastened with a hook to the collar of the coat. Originally The New Church, so called, although it has been built this mantle, from the numerous plaits of which it is comtwo or three centuries, is one of the principal. It is si- posed, must have been sufficient to envelop the person, tuated on the Dam, near the Palace, and is said to have but probably, has gradually been reduced, to give more been crected in imitation of the cathedral at Amiens. liberty to the speaker. Few of the clergy preach from It is upwards of three hundred feet in length, more than memory. They generally read their discourses; and two hundred in breadth, and is lighted by seventy-five sometimes, though rarely, their prayers. They are held large windows. It contains the splendid monument erected in the greatest respect by the Dutch. In general, they by the government, in honour of Admiral Ruyter, the are certainly exemplary and zealous in the discharge of celebrated admiral who was wounded at Messina in 1676, their sacred functions. And, like the people at large, are
distinguished for loyalty and strong attachment to their passing-bell, no religious ceremony, and seldom any funeralfatner-land*."
procession, unless the following may be so called. The The appearance of the congregation in a Dutch church body is put into an oak coffin, and placed upon a car, is singular. Considerable time and labour are requisite in somewhat like a hearse, but open on the sides, so that preparing for the worshippers, and, in a large church, many the coffin may be distinctly seen. The car is drawn by a attendants are employed. Almost all the females are pair of horses; the aanspreeker walks before it, followed accustomed to keep their feet warm, by placing them on a by the undertaker and his assistant, and the official chauffe-pied, or little pot with burning turf, the lid of which mourner, who is dressed in a mourning cloak, bands, and is perforated to diffuse the heat. The women sit by them- scarf, with a large flat hat, several feet in circumference, selves in the body of the church, and the men in oak- and a wig of dishevelled hair hanging down to the waist. pews along the aisles, and, in cold weather, they also Sometimes, but rarely, a mourning coach follows the car, require the chauffe-pied. The women never alter their containing an individual, as the representative of the family. position after they are once seated, but, during the prayers, In this way the body is conveyed to the Kerk-hof or put a fan before the face. The men sit covered, except burial place. This is a yard usually adjoining the church, during prayer, when they rise and take off their hats. The surrounded by a wall to the height of twelve or fourteen dress of the females, generally consisting of a mob-cap, a feet. The coffins are placed in rows, one above another, print-gown, and a satin-apron, is so uniform, that little till they are nearly level with the top of the wall; a little distinction of rank is visible to an ordinary observer. They sand is then spread over them, and the hof is closed till usually come to church without either bonnet or cloak, and the bodies are sufficiently decayed to be removed. The even if it rain, walk through the shower with the calmest process is hastened by exposure to the atmosphere, but the indifference.
nuisance to the neighbourhood is intolerable. When The dress of the children in the Orphan School of Amster- Holland was in possession of the French, an attempt dam is very singular; the coats, or jackets, of the boys was made to do away with some of these disgusting are divided'lengthways, one-half being of red and the other cemeteries, and to provide more suitable places for the black. The girls are dressed in woollen gowns and aprons, reception of the dead; but the burgomasters pleaded the with a white square linen cap, pinned close to the head. in expense, as the soil being so marshy, it would require a peculiar form.
immense quantities of sand, to make it solid enough for The Beguinest possess an institution in Amsterdam. the purposes of interment, and strong embankments to These ladies reside in a large isolated building, contiguous protect it from the toods; and ultimately succeeded in to which is a church, and numerous inferior offices appro- maintaining the old method. When the hof has remained priated to their order, the whole being surrounded by a closed several years, while another has been filling, it wall and ditch. Any female may enter into this society, is again opened; the coffins are broken up, and the being unmarried, or without children, upon a certificate of fragments tied up and sold as firewood; the furniture is good character, and of her haring an adequate income for collected and sold to dealers in old iron; the remaining her support. Each sister is required to attend stated bones are wheeled away ir. barrows, and thrown into a prayers, and to be within the walls at a given hour at vault beneath the church; and the rest is sold to farmers night; she has a small flower-garden devoted to her use : for manure. The hof is then swept out, and ready to she is not distinguished by any dress, is free to pursue receive new inmates. her own former habits during the day, and may marry from, or leave the establishment, when she pleases.
AMSTERDAM possesses a splendid Museum of Pictures, BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND BURIALS. which is deposited in a building called the Trippenhuis,
from the name of the original owner which was Trip. It ALL births in Amsterdam, as well as 'in other Dutch
was first formed in 1798, and has been gradually increastowns, are registered by the police; and the parents of a ing to the present time. It is a singular circumstance, child are subject to a penalty if they do not give notice of that this is almost the only fine collection in Europe, whichi its birth, within three days, to the nearest magistrate or
was not removed to Paris by Buonaparte. burgomaster. They then receive a copy of the register,
“ The Museum," says a modern tourist*, " is a good which authorizes any minister to baptize the child if building, containing, on two floors, seven or eight rooms, required, but if he should do so without this document, he well filled with nearly five hundred pictures, chiefly of the is liable to a penalty. Marriage, in Holland, is a civil contract, entered into finest specimens of the several masters. Some of the best
Dutch and Flemish schools, and many of them among the before the magistrate, notice having been previously given
were removed from the Stadthuis when it became the palace; of the intention of the parties; they then attend with two
and to these were added others that were purchased, at the or three friends as witnesses, and the magistrate's clerk reads over the marriage-contract, to which they give their public expense, from private collections. A very few only
can be noticed here. There are five pictures of Gerard assent by signing their names. Sometimes a religious Dow, all of them good, but two, in particular, are eminently service takes place afterwards in the church, but this is not beautiful. The one is a large picture of a school by canessential to the validity of the contract. Upon the celebra
The other is a cavalier, and a richly-dressed tion of marriage amongst the genteeler classes, it is the
dle-light. custom for the bride and bridegroom to send each a bottle lady, under the shade of a thick wood, highly and beautiof wine, generally fine hock, spiced and sugareil, and fully finished. There are three pictures of Van Dyke, but decorated with all sorts of ribands, to the house of every
none in his best manner. A magnificent picture of B.
Van der Helst, which Sir Joshua Reynolds pronounced to acquaintance, a custom which is frequently very expensive. be, and few will dispute the propriety of his taste, superior
The manner of performing burials is remarkable. On the decease of any person, immediate notice must be given lection, and so it is considered by the artists of Holland.
to another large picture of Rembrandt, in the same col. to the magistrate, who employs an officer, called the
It represents a feast given by the officers of a company of aanspreeker, or announcer, to ascertain the fact, and to
the civic guard of Amsterdam, commanded by Captain make a public announcement of it. This person acts as a sort of crier, and is singularly dressed, wearing a long the peace concluded at Münster in 1648. Another picture
Witts, to the Spanish ambassador, in commemoration of mourning cloak, a large three-cornered hat, with crape hanging from one of its corners, a pair of large clerical
of Vander Helst, representing a party of cross-bowmen, is bands in front, and a long scarf streaming behind from the fine, but every way inferior to the preceding. A very collar of his coat. In this costume he calls at every door landscape, in the fore-ground of which is a boar defending
large picture of Paul Potter, representing a mountainous in the neighbourhood, and reads from a paper the name, itself against the attack of some dogs, urged by a huntei age, and other particulars of the deceased. If the person be of wealth or consequence, several of these officers are
on horseback, accompanied by another on foot, while on employed, in order to give a wider circulation to the
the right of the picture, a young bear is seen clambering intelligence.
up a tree, with a dog springing after it. Another specimen Preparations are then made for the funeral, which is left
of Paul Potter, is a rich landscape, well filled with oxen, almost entirely to the undertaker and the aanspreeker, the Rembrandt," the most remarkable of which is that well
There are four pictures or
goats, sheep, asses, &c. relatives generally retiring from the scene. There is no
known under the name of the Night Watch, which, if we may • Sreven's History of the Church at Rotterdam.
believe the Dutch, who ought to know, and the descriptive + A religious order of females. The word is said by some to be catalogue, is entirely a misnomer. It represents the derived from St. Begge, Duchess of Brabant, who lived in the seventh century, and was famous for her piety.
* Tour through South Holland.
departure of a Captain Kok, with his officers and arque- | part of the face. Some of the alderly gentlemen may busiers, to fire at a mark. Rubens does not shine here; still be seen dressed as in the days of Queen Elizabeth, there are but two pictures of his. Jan Steen has a great with a large three-cornered hat, a bushy wig slightly number of pictures, the most exquisite of which, if not of powdered, a long-waisted coat with large-buttoned cuffs, a his whole works, is that of a baker, in his shirt, placing satin waistcoat with long flaps, knee and shoe buckles of his hot loaves on the window of his shop, while the boy is massive silver, and a stout walking-cane mounted with blowing the horn to announce“ hot rolls."
gold; but the young men differ but little in dress from There are also in this collection several pictures by the English. Tne little round hat, the puckered jacket, Teniers and Ostade; Sea-pieces, by Van de Velde and and the capacious breeches, having entirely disappoared at Backhuysen; Battle-pieces, by Wouvermans; Birds, Plants, | Amsterdam, and being only visible in some of the remote and Insects, by Hondekoeter; Flowers and Fruits, by parts of Holland. Huysum, Mignon, Van Os, and D2 Heem, besides many other pictures of great merit.
GOVERNMENT. In the same building are deposited numerous antiquities The government of Amsterdam is vested in a senate or and other curiosities; amongst them are two canes, which council of thirty-six members, and twelve burgomasters. belonged to Admirals De Ruyter and Van Tromp, the The members of the council sit during life, and fill up chair occupied by Barneveldt when in prison, and a wooden the vacancies that occur in their own numbers by their ball, into which each of the confederate nobles drove a
own suffrages. The burgomasters, who are chosen by the nail, as a token of fidelity to the league formed against the citizens, out of a double number first nominated by the Duke of Alva. The whole is open to the public.
council, sustain the active magistracy of the city in rotaThere are several literary institutions in Amsterdam, tion; the government of each lasting only three months, which are liberally supported. The Felix Meritis is the and the four who are to preside during the year being principal, and ranks amongst its members the most annually appointed burgomasters regent, an office very eminent literary and scientific men in Holland. Its similar to that of the Lord Mavor of London. These object is, the promotion of the arts and sciences. The
magistrates have the keys of the bank deposited with house in which its sittings are held, is situated in the them. There is also a court of burgomasters which decides Keyser's-graft, and contains a handsome concert-room, a all criminal causes; but in civil causes there is an appeal to theatre for the delivery of lectures, and a museum. There the provincial council. The senate of Amsterdam foris also an Academy of Painting, Sculpture, Engraving, merly appointed the deputies to the States General, in and Architecture.
which this city only held the fifth rank, although it sent At the Anatomical Theatre in the New Market, are four representatives, or double the number of any other of preserved the skeletons of criminals who have been
the cities of Hoiland. executed, and whose bodies have been sent here for dis The police is under excellent regulations, and streetsection. They are dressed in the clothes they wore when robberies and house-breaking are seldom heard of. The living, and bear labels, stating what were the crimes for men employed as watchmen are stout and active, but can which they suffered.
scarcely be justly denominated guardians of the peace and At the southern extremity of the city, near the work quiet of the inhabitants, as they spring their rattles every house, is the plantation, consisting of about a hundred time they call out the hour of the night. Very few acres, laid out in avenues at right angles with each other,
beggars are seen in the streets, and these are generally the interspersed with small villas and summer-houses, and the
aged and infirm. whole surrounded by canals. To this spot such of the Fires very seldom occur in Amsterdam.
To guard citizens and their families repair in the summer, to dine or against their spreading when they do, persons are appointed drink tea, whose finances or spirit of economy will not to stay all day and night in the towers of the highest admit of their having a house in the country. To render churches, and as soon as they observe the flame, to hang these rural indulgences as cheap as possible, three or out, if it be in the day, a flag ; if in the night, a lantern; four families sometimes join in renting a small cottage, or towards that quarter of the city in which it rises; and to summer-house and garden. Adjoining the plantation is a accompany this by the blowing of a trumpet. small botanic garden, but it possesses few rare or curious plants,
The country surrounding Amsterdam is low and marshy,
but it consists of good pasturage, and abounds with peat, AMSTERDAM abounds with institutions for the alleviation which is here used for fuel. When the peat is dug out, it
of human misery and distress in all their various shapes. is piled up about a foot or more in height, and when - There are not less than forty, arol many of these are sufficiently dry, is cut into small pieces, and laid up in buildings of considerable size. Amongst them are nine
barns for sale. A great number of horned cattle are fed hospitals and schools, for orphans, a lunatic asylum, and here, and the cows yield a large quantity of excellent a foundling hospital containing nearly three thousand milk. children. In some of these establishments a very bene
In many places, the land is divided into polders. These ficial regulation is made. Not more than two or three
are plots of ground enclosed by a bank of earth, and regular nurses are kept; but the offices of kindness and surrounded by a water-course, furnished with a flood-gate. attention to the sick, are discharged by those who are The water is then pumped out of the enclosure by means recovering. This saves expense, and they who have reaped of wind-mills, and the ground is thus drained. In consethe benefit of the institution, are enabled to repay the debt quence of the marshy nature of the soil, the atmosphere of gratitude in the most pleasing and efficient way. The is heavy, and by no means healthy to those who have been first society for the restoration of drowned persons was accustomed to a dry air. The natives, however, experience formed in this city, in 1767, so that to the Dutch nation no inconvenience from it. the English are indebted for those admirable institutions, by which so many of our countrymen have, at various
BROEK. times, been snatched from death, and restored to their About four or five miles from Amsterdam, is Brock or families.
There are numerous schools in Amsterdam for the in. Broek, one of the most curious, and one of the prettiest struction of the children of the poor, who are admitted, rivulets; the houses and summer-houses, formed of wood,
The streets are divided by little under the direction of a certain number of managers, without distinction of religious sects. About four thou- painted green and white, though whimsical in their apsand children are thus educated.
pearance, are all remarkably neat. They are like so many
mausolea, for the silence of death reigns throughout DRESS OF THE INHABITANTS.
the place. The inhabitants, who have formed a peculiar
association among themselves, scarcely ever admit a The dress of the upper classes in Amsterdam, differs stranger within their doors, and hold but little intercourse but little from that worn by persons of the same rank in with each other. They are generally rich, and so attached other cities of Europe. The ladies imitate the Parisian to their homes, that during an inundation which took place fashions, but the tradesmen's wives and servants seldom a few years ago, and flooded the whole village, none of wear any covering on their head, but a cap, during the them could be induced to leave: they retreated to the
In winter they have long cloaks with hoods, upper floors, and received provisions in boats. The shutwhich they draw on their heads, concealing the greater 'ters of the windows in front, are generally kept closed, and
the principal door is never opened, except at a baptism, a where Peter kept various specimens of boat-building. The marriage, or a death. Almost every house, also, has a sitting-room contains his oak table and three chairs, as family table, which is never used but on one of these oc well as the recess in which he slept. The walls are covered casions. The streets are paved in mosaic work, with with the names of persons who have visited the spot, and various-coloured bricks, pebbles and cockleshells, and are there are several albums also, in which strangers have kept with the greatest care. No carriages are allowed to inserted their signatures. The Emperor Alexander visited pass along them, and it is said, that there was formerly a the hut in 1814, and ordered two tablets 'to be put up in law, which obliged passengers to take off their shoes in the lower room; one bears the words Petro Magno, summer, before they entered them. A man is said to Alexander; the other may be thus translated, “Nothing have been reprimanded for sneezing in the streets, and a is too little for a great man." clergyman, who succeeded a very old predecessor, was
DYKES. treated with great shyness by his flock, because he omitted to take off his shoes when ascending the pulpit. The The road from Amsterdam to Saardam is made along little yards in front of these singular houses, are covered one of those surprising efforts of human industry, termed with sand, laid out in festoons and various devices; and a dyke, by means of which, the Dutch have been enabled the gardens attached to them present some of the most to bar out the encroachments of the ocean. As the grotesque ornaments: deer, dogs, peacocks, chairs, tables traveller passes along it, he sees, on one side, the land many and ladders, being cut out of box, in endless profusion, yards below him, whilst on the other, the sea rises almost whilst wooden swang and ducks, edge the small pieces of to a level with his feet. These dykes are of various water with which the grounds are interspersed.
heights and thickness according to their situation. They
are formed with a slope on each side, and many of them SAARDAM.
are sufficiently wide at the top for two carriages to go ANOTHER remarkable place in the vicinity of Amster- along them. The side of the mound towards the sea, is dam is Saardam, or Zaandam, celebrated as the village ornamented and strengthened by a species of reed, which where Peter the Great worked as a shipwright.
is carefully planted by the Hollanders in spring and distance it appears a city of wind-misls, there being no less autumn. This catching the sand which the tide drives than four hundred saw, paper, tobacco, and corn mills, against the dyke, it rapidly accumulates, and soon affords which add greatly to the wealth and prosperity of the a thick covering for the original mound. There is someplace. There were formerly large magazines of timber, times a second dyke formed behind the first, so that but no large ships are now built here, as the harbour has should the water burst the outer one, the second may save been long choked up with mud. The houses are principally the country from inundation, whilst the hollow between built of wood. The principal street, or road, is about two the two, serves as a canal to carry off the occasional floods. miles long, and is bordered by a narrow canal, over which These dykes are kept in repair by the government, at there are upwards of one hundred small bridges, forming an immense expense ; but their maintenance is absolutely the approaches to the houses, which are situated in small necessary to the preservation of the country, a consigardens on the opposite bank.
derable portion of Holland being below the level of the sea. It was in 1695 that Peter the Great, under the name of
The poet Goldsmith alludes to these extraordinary Peter Michaeloff, presented himself at Saardam in the works of the Hollanders, in the following beautiful lines. dress of a sailor, and entered the employ of one of the
METHINKS her patient sons before me stand, shipwrights. He worked for many weeks without any
Where the broad ocean leans against the land, idea of his rank being entertained by his fellow-labourers ;
And, sedulous to stop the coming tide, but when they discovered that he was the Czar of all the
Lift the tall rampire's artificial pride.
Onward, methinks, and diligently slow, Russias, they wished to pay him suitable respect; this,
The firm-connected bulwark seems to go. however, he refused, and insisted that they should all work
Spreads its long arms against the watery roar, together on the same terms of familiarity as before. The
Scoops out an empire, and usurps the shore ; use which he made of the knowledge he obtained, here and
While the pent ocean, rising o'er the pile,
Sees an amphibious world beneath him smile , at Deptford, is well known.
The slow canal, the yellow-blossom'd vale, The hut in which Peter resided has been carefully pre
The willow-tufted bank, the gliding sail, served in the same state, and, in 1823, was purchased by
The crowded mart, the cultivated plain, the Princess of Orange, the sister of the Emperor Alex
A new creation rescued from his reign.
Thus, while around the wave-subjected soil, ander. By her direction a brick building has been erected
Impels the native to repeated toil'; over it, so as to preserve it from injury. The hut consists
Industrious habits in each bosom reign, of two rooms on the ground floor, above which is a loft
And industry begets a love of gain,
LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.