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ON THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMALS.

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SUPPORT OF THE HEAD OF THE ELEPHANT.

HEAD AND NECK OF THE ELK.

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WIEN we stoop forward, as in reading a book which I in the Zoological Gardens. His food having been lies on the table, we may feel a ligament extending unintentionally scattered on the ground, he was from the projecting part of the spine, between the obliged, in order to reach it, to extend his fore-legs shoulders, to the back part of the head. It suspends laterally; in this position his foot slipped, he dislothe head, and relieves the muscles. But as man cated his shoulder, and died of the accident.generally carries his head erect, this ligament is not Bridgewater Treatise; Sir CHARLES BELL on the Hand. to be compared in strength with the corresponding part in quadrupeds, where, from the horizontal position of the spine, the head always hangs. It is There is no kind of knowledge which, in the hands of the long and strong in the horse; and the admirable exudes from all flowers, the bitter not excepted; and the

diligent and skilful, will not turn to account. Honey thing is, the accurate adjustment of the elasticity of bee knows how to extract it. Bishop Horne. this ligament to the weight and position of the head, which is balanced by it as on a steel-yard. With During the course of my life, I have acquired some knowthis circumstance in our mind, let us observe the ledge of men and manners, in active life, and amidst occupeculiar form of the elephant. One of the grinders pations the most various. From that knowledge, and from of the Elephant weighs seventeen pounds, and of all my experience, I now protest that I never knew a man these there are four; the jaws must be provided to always some disqualifying ingredient mixing with the com

that was bad fit for any service that was good. There was give socketing to such teeth, and must have space pound, and spoiling it. The man seems paralytic on that and strength, to give lodgment and attachment to side : his muscles there have lost their tone and natural muscles suflicient for moving this grinding machine : properties; they cannot move. In short, the accomplishthe animal must have its defence too. Now each of ment of any thing good is a physical impossibility in such a the tusks sometimes weighs as much as one hun- man. He could not if he would, and it is not more cer

tain than that he would not if he could, do a good or a virdred and thirteen pounds. To support this enormous

tuous action.-BURKE. and heavy head, the seven vertebræ of the neck of this animal, (the same number that we find in the He who sacrifices religion to wit, like the people mentioned girasle,) are compressed in so remarkable a manner by Ælian, worships a ily, and offers an ox to it.---BISHOP as to bring the head close upon the body, making it, HORNE. as it were, a part of the body without the interposition of a neck. But the animal must feed; and National happiness must be produced through the influ as its head cannot reach the ground, it must possess

ence of religious laws.---SOUTHEY. an instrument like a hand, to minister to the mouth,

WITH AN ALMANACK ON NEW YEAR'S DAY. to grasp the herbage, and lift it to its lips. This instrument we see in the proboscis, or trunk.

If an Almanack teach us that life wears away, Let us now see how the neck and head are accom

It tells us how short-lived our sorrow; modated for feeding, when there is no proboscis, and

If it register joys that must quickly decay

It but points out far brighter to-morrow when the animal has a short neck. The Elk is a strange uncouth animal, from the setting on of its

For then, when the grave shall conclude the brief year

Of earth-born vexations and pleasures, head. The weight of the horns is enormous; and

To the Christian, uprising aloft from the bier, if the head and horns were extended forwards from

New worlds shall but open new treasures. the body on an elongated neck, they would over

May the lot be my s both portions to know, balance the body. When we observe, also, the That to mortals or seraphs are given; want of relation between the length of the fore-legs On earth, every blessing that earth can bestow, and that of the neck, it becomes an interesting cir With reversion of blessings in heaven.-S.C W. cumstance to find, that the animal feeds off the sides of rocks, and does not browse upon the herb

LONDON: age at its feet. A remarkable proof how unable JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. this animal is to feed in the common way, was

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N° 101.

EDUCATS

SUPPLEMENT,

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF AMSTERDAM. AMSTERDAM, the capital of Holland, and one of the chief and is nine miles and a half in circumference. It covers commercial cities of Europe, is situated at the mouth of the a space of about 900 acres, and is surrounded by a ditch, river Amstel, where it falls into the Y, an arm of the Zuyder about eighty feet wide, bordered by a row of trees. The Zee, or Southern Sea. From this it is separated by a bar, ramparts have been pulled down, but there are still remainthe only passage through which is a channel called the ing twenty-six bastions which formerly defended the walls, Pampus.' The Amstel is formed by the junction of the and these have been converted into mills for grinding corn, Drecht and the Meyert, two rivulets, wzich meet near the and other purposes. There are eight handsome stone gates, village of Uithoorn, a few miles from Amsterdam, and in several of which bear the name of the towns to whicii the its progress towards the city is several feet above the level respective roads lead, namely, the Leyden-Gate, the of the adjacent country, its waters being restrained by Utrecht-Gate, the Haerlem-Gate, &c. The number of strong embankments.

houses amounts to 26,400, and of the inhabitants to 180,000,

about 17,000 of whom are Jews. In 1785 the inhabitants HISTORY.

are said to have amounted to 230,000, and in 1812 to NOTHING certain is known of the history of Amsterdam, 200,000. further back than the thirteenth century, when the Lords The greater part of the inhabitants are engaged in of Amstel possessed a castle at the mouth of the river, trade, and but few in manufactures, except of every-day around which fishermen erected their huts. In course of consumption. Many of the poorer classes live in cellars time the huts increased to a village, which was called under the houses of the rich, and others in apartments Amstels Vesten, or the fort of the Amstel, because a fort erected on the decks of their trading vessels. was erected to defend it. Towards the end of the thirteenth The soil is so marshy, that the whole town is built upon century it was destroyed by fire, and shortly afterwards piles, which are driven into the mud by means of machinery, rebuilt.

and on which are laid strong planks of oak. As each of A new dyke was constructed along both banks of the these piles is thirty or forty feet long, some idea may be Amstel, as far as its mouth; a second along the Y, to the formed of the immense quantity of timber employed in spot now occupied by the Water-Bridge, or Damrak, called the construction of this city. It was in reference to the Paapenbrug, and to this latter was added a sluice-gate, forest foundations of this wonderful place, that the celecalled, in the language of the country, a dam. In a short brated Erasmus sportively observed, when he first visited time, Amstels Vesten assumed the character of a town, it, that he had reached a city, the inhabitants of which, and received the name of Amstelsdam, or Amsterdam. like crows, lived at the tops of trecs.

Until the year 1490, however, it was surrounded merely The Amstel divides the town into two parts; that on by a weak palisado. At this time it was encompassed by the east side called Oude Zyde, the old side, because it a wall of brick, constructed by order of Mary of Burgundy, was the first occupied, and that on the west, called the in order to clefend it from the incursions of the inhabitants Nieuwe Zyde, the new side. Having reached the 'centre of Utrecht, who were frequently quarrelling with the of the town, it takes the name of Rokin, and flows under Hollanders; but it was soon after reduced to ashes. The this name to the Exchange, beneath which it passes. In people of Guelderland besieged it in 1512; but, not sue- | the remainder of its course through the town to the Y, ceeding in their attempts to take it, they set fire to the it is called the Darrak. Besides this stream, Amsterdam ships in the harbour. In 1525 the town-house of Amster- is intersected by an immense number of canals, which dam was attacked by a party of wild enthusiasts, under an branch off from the Amstel, and divide the whole town Anabaptist leader; but they were defeated by the citizens, into small islands, connected together by two hundred and and most of them were cut to pieces. Tumults of a similar ninety bridges of wood or stone, which are, liowever, so kind were renewed by persons of the same description in contrived, as to allow a free passage for vessels of every 1535. The deputies of John of Leyden, who asserted that description. God had made him a present of the Cities of Amsterdam, In a commercial point of view, these canals are very Devinter, and Wesel, assembled twelve of their associates convenient; but the water being stagnant, and large at midnight, five of whom were women, and running, quantities of filth being constantly thrown into them, they madly, at the head of them, into the streets, exclaimed, would soon become a nuisance, were not means taken for “ Woe, woe; the wrath of God; woe to Babylon." This cleansing them. Mills are therefore constructed for the outrage was soon quelled, but was followed by a regular express purpose of giving motion to the water in a few of and deep-laid conspiracy against the magistrates of Am- the principal canals, and drawing up the mud, which is sterdam, with a design to wrest the government of the sold as manure. The stagnant water is discharged into city out of their hands. Van Geelen, the head of these the Y, and fresh supplies are introduced from the Amstel. insurgents, marched his fanatical troop to the town-house, The water of these canals is generally about eight or nine on the day appointed, with drums beati, e and colours feet deep, and the mud at the bottom five or six more. flying, and there fixed his head quarters. lle was attacked The surface usually presents an olive-coloured green, but by the burghers, assisted by regular troops, and headed by seldom emits any disagreeable smell, except when the several of the burgomasters of the city; and, after an vessels are moved from one station to another. The smell obstinate resistance, he was surrounded, with his whole is then very unpleasant, but cannot be so unwholesome as troop, and they were put to death in the severest anıl most some persons have supposed, for few cities can boast more dreadful manner. In 1578 Amsterdam was besieged by robust and healthy inhabitants than Amsterdam. It the Hollanders, and, after a resistance of ten months, is said, however, that no cavalry are kept here, as the capitulated.

horses become ill, it is supposed, from the badness of the During the sixteenth century Amsterdam became a water. place of considerable commerce, particularly with the For the supply of the inhabitants with water for domestic Baltic, and obtained the greater part of the trade of purposes, the article is brought from the river Vegt at Antwerp, after that town had fallen a second time under Wesp, a small town five or six miles distant, and sold the dominion of the Spaniards. In 1585 the western, or in the streets at about a farthing for a pail. In winter, new part of the city, was built, and new accessions were however, the price sometimes increases to sixpence. Rainmade in 1593, 1612, and 1658. In 1622 it contained water is also carefully collected in cisterns. 100,000 inhabitants. During the eighteenth century it acquired so much wealth, that it surpassed every other city

THE PORT. in Europe. It was the great mart for all the productions The port of Amsterdam is a mile and a half in length, of the east and west, and its harbour was always crowded and above a thousand paces in breadth, and is filled with with ships; but, after the change of government in 1795, a multitude of vessels, forming a kind of floating city. and the forced alliance of Holland with France, its trade Towards the Y, the town is defended against the enand wealth continually diminished. The revolution, how- croachments of the water, and the drifting of masses of ever, of 1813, restored the business of Amsterdam, which ice, by a double row of piles driven into the ground, and has increased very considerably since that time.

connected together by horizontal beams, called boomen, or SITUATION AND EXTENT.

barriers. Between these piles are twenty-one openings,

through which the ships pass in and out, and which are AMSTERDAM is built in the form of a crescent, the inward shut every evening at the ringing of a bell, so that no curved line and two horns of which extend along the Y, vessel can arrive at, or depart from the quay. In the

summer the port-bell is rung about ten o'clock, and in of many of the houses are surmounted, not with circular winter at half-past four. There is a sort of basin outside pots, but with square wooden frames, consisting of four the barriers, called the Laag, in which the heavy ships lie. small posts, capped with a horizontal board, and open on The breadth of the Y, between the city and the opposite every side. When built of brick, they are usually formed shore, is about a mile and a half.

in the shape of a Y. Many of the houses, except in the On the quay adjoining the port, is the Herring-Tower, centre of the town, have gardens. The apartments are at which the merchants concerned in the herring-fishery generally ornamented with taste, very much in the French hold their meetings, and keep their accounts. On the style, and the walls are frequently painted with a series of return of the boats from the fishery, it is one of the busiest landscapes in oil-colours, instead of being hung with scenes in Amsterdam. The commencement of the season

paper, or stuccoed. is hailed with every demonstration of joy, and the same All the principal dwellings have a profusion of windows kind of emblems are exhibited as at a general festival in of large plate-glass, but this is more for the sake of ornaEngland. At every house where pickled herrings are ment than light, for the Dutch are so fond of retirement, sold, an ornamented garland is hung over the door, com that the blinds on the inside are seldom drawn up. In posed of box-leaves or branches, intermixed with gilt or order to indulge their love of seclusion, small mirrors are lacquered paper. The fish are cured as soon as they are projected from the side of the window into the street, so as caught, and the first that are brought to market, are sold to command a view of the passengers, and save the obat sixpence, and even a shilling a piece. So important has server, who sits behind a curtain in the room, the trouble this fishery always been considered, that the first draught of rising or looking down to see what is passing. In of' herrings is always presented to the King; and opulent many instances, also, another mirror is fixed, so as to show families have been known, in former times, to give seven who is coming to the doors, and thus give notice of the shillings, and even a guinea, for the first herrings exposed approach of an unwelcome visiter. to sale. The superior manner in which the Dutch pickle The mode of building houses in Holland, is very and preserve herrings, is said to be peculiar to themselves. different from that pursued in this country. Instead of

On the quay also is another tower, called the Scra- beginning at the foundation, they commence at the top, yershoek Toor, or Tower of Mourners, as it stands on the and build downwards. The large beams intended to sup spot where the wives and children of seamen were port the roof and attic, are made to rest in the party-walls accustomed to take leave of their husbands and fathers of the adjoining houses; on these beams, a studded wooden embarking on foreign voyages. It is now an office con frame is erected, to sustain the roof and flooring.' In this nected with the port.

state, the attic is often seen hanging for a considerable The New Canal, extending from Bucksloot, which is time before the other parts of the building are commenced. exactly opposite Amsterdam, to the Helder, is of great One advantage of this method is, that the lower part is advantage to the city, as it obviates the necessity of large kept dry, and the workmen can at all times proceed with vessels unloading before they enter the harbour, and their labours, regardless of the weather. The lower part encountering the passage through the Zuyder Zee, which of the house also consists of stud-work, strongly framed was peculiarly difficult with contrary winds. This canal, together, and contracts in its descent to the foundation, which is fifty miles and a half long, one hundred and which rests upon piles driven into the mud. From this twenty-four feet in breadth at the surface, thirty-six at the circumstance, many of the houses lean towards the street, bottom, and twenty-one feet in depth, was begun in 1019, and some of them are several feet out of the perpendicular, and finished in 1825, at an expense of about £750,000. particularly at the corners of the streets, where they are Like the Dutch canals generally, its level is that of the still more contracted, to allow greater room to the pashigh tides of the sea, from which it receives its supply of sengers. The panels of the frames are filled up with water. The canal is wide enough to admit of one frigate brick-work, but nearly the whole stress is upon the framepassing another. The time occupied in tracking a vessel work. The same method of building is pursued in some from Amsterdam, is eighteen hours.

parts of Belgium.

In order that the foundations of the houses may not be STREETS, &c.

disturbed by the rolling along the streets of wheel-carAMSTERDAM has no noble squares, like those which addriages, these vehicles are, by law, limited to a certain num so much to the splendour of London, nor is there any ber, which is very small compared with the size of the city. bridge worthy of being noticed, except that over the river A carriage called by the Dutch a sley, is used in their Amstel, which is built of brick and stone, is six hundred room; it is the body of a coach fixed upon a sledge, and feet in length, seventy in breadth, and is tolerably hand-drawn by one horse; the driver walks by the side of it,

It is called the Lover's Bridge, and commands a which he holds with one hand to prevent its falling over, good view of the city on one side, and the adjacent and with the other the reins. It holds four persons, and polders on the other. This is the bridge seen in the moves at the rate of about three miles an hour. This back-ground of the view of Amsterdam given in the first mode of conveyance is rendered necessary, by the steep page.

ascent of the draw-bridges over the canals, where it would Many of the streets of Amsterdam are narrow, but be unsafe to use a wheel-carriage, for if it ran back in the others are remarkably spacious, and have a magnificent act of passing over, the whole would fall into the water. appearance; such as the Heeren-Graft, (Lord-Street,) In the winter it is also convenient, as the sley glides over the Keyser's-Graft, (King-Street,) and the Prinssen- the ice and snow, which would obstruct an ordinary car Graft, (Prince's-Street,) which are upwards of a hundred riage. One of these carriages is represented in the view, and forty feet in width, and following the crescent shape crossing the bridge. of the town, are each about two miles in length. All the streets are remarkable for their cleanliness, and are very

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. neatly paved, chiefly with brick, but there is no separate AMONGST the public buildings of Amsterdain, the path for pedestrians. In most of them, a canal runs along Royal Palace, formerly the Town Hall or Stadthouse, the centre, bordered on each side by a row of noble elm, holds the first place. It is unquestionably a wonderful oak, or linden trees. The principal shops are in the edifice, considering that Holland furnishes ng stone, and Kalver's straat, and the Warmoes-straat, which are usually that the foundation of the building, like that of all others thronged with passengers.

in Amsterdam, was boggy; the latter circumstance ren HOUSES, AND MODE OF BUILDING.

dered it necessary to have an artificial foundation of extra

ordinary construction and magnitude, and accordingly, Most of the houses are built of brick, and almost all are it rests upon thirteen thousand six hundred and ninetyapproached by tlights or steps. They are generally lofty, five massy trees or piles, the first of which was driven on and pointed at the top, the gablé-end being towards the the 20th of January, 1648, and the last on the 6th of street. In some parts of the town they are constructed October following, when the first stone, with a suitable with double fronts, one towards the street, and the other inscription, was laid; and, seven years afterwards, the towards a canal. Some of them have stone-fronts, with different colleges of magistrates took formal possession of balconies and columns in the Italian style, but many, of the apartments allotted for their respective offices, but at even the best houses, are disfigured by transforming the this time the roof and dome were not completed; the centre windows of the upper story into doors, through expense of this mighty edifice amounted to two millions which merchandise of every description is drawn by a sterling. The whole of the building, with the exception crane, fixed at the top of the liouse, the inhabitants, however of the ground floor, which is of brick, is of free-stone. wealthy, being always disposed to trade. The chimneys | The principal architect was John Van Kampen, who

some.

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acted under the control of four burgomasters. The area | weighs between six and seven thousand pounds; the in which it stands is spacious, and is called the Dam. carillons in this dome are remarkably sweet. The brass The form of the building is square, its front is two hundred barrel by which the airs are played, is seven feet and a and eighty-two feet, its depth two hundred and fifty-five, half in diameter, and weighs four thousand four hundred and its height one hundred and sixteen, exclusive of the and seventy-four pounds. The clock strikes the full hour tower, which is sixty-seven feet.

at the half-hour, and upon the expiration of the full hour, The front of the Palace has seven small doorways, repeats it upon a bell of a deeper tone. This, indeed, is the which were intended for the representatives of the Seven case with many of the clocks in Holland, and has freUnited Provinces; but the front entrance is now reserved quently led travellers, unacquainted with the circumstance, for the members of the Royal Family, and the back appro- | into error. priated to the ministers, public officers, and visiters. The When Louis Buonaparte was created King of Holland, in want of a grand entrance is a great architectural defect, 1808, he took possession of this building as his palace, which immediately excites the surprise of the traveller, and the civil and municipal authorities, who then occupied but it was so constructed, from the wary precautionary it, were removed to a building in the vicinity, which was foresight of the magistrates, who had the superintendence once a convent, but had been converted at the Reformation of the building, for the purpose of preventing free access into the Prince's Hotel, and afterwards became the to a mob, in case of tumult.

Admiralty. Each front has a projecting portion in the centre, and at The Exchange, which was built between 1608 and 1613, the angles of the building are pavilions surmounted by but enlarged in 1668, is situated at the end of the Rokin, eagles of gilt bronze, and imperial crowns, which were and rests upon five arches, through which the Amstel presented to the city by Maximilian, emperor of Germany. flows into the Damrak. It is a quadrangular building of On the façade, and ranged along the second story, there free-stone, two hundred and fifty feet long, and one hunare thirty pilasters of the composite order, each thirty-six dred and forty wide, consisting of an open square surfeet in height; a second range, of the Corinthian order, rounded by galleries, beneath which the merchants assemble. forms a third story, supporting the entablature, out of which The galleries are supported by marble columns, each rises a pediment, adorned with sculpture; and on the cor- being numbered, and appropriated to some particular class nice are figures of Peace, Prudence, and Justice. The of traders. The upper part of the Exchange is occupied pediment at the back is also sculptured, and on the cornice by the treasury, and the cellars on both sides are inhabited. are figures of Strength, Temperance, and Vigilance. On In one part of the building is an inscription, recording the the top of the building is a cupola and dome, terminated visit of the Emperor Alexander in 1814. Although the by a vane in the form of a ship, the ancient arms of the commerce of Amsterdam is not so extensive as in former town.

times, yet it is still important; and at 3 o'clock every day, The principal hall in the Palace is a splendid apartment, the Exchange presents a bustling, scene, one hundred and fifty-two feet long, sixty broad, and one The Corn Exchange, situated on the Damrak, is a hundred high. The walls are entirely composed of white building of free-stone, erected in 1766. It is a covered marble, and are hung with trophies and standards taken gallery, forming three sides of a square, the fourth, by the Dutch. The bronze gates and railing which form towards the street, being enclosed by an iron railing: the grand entrance are massive, but beautifully executed : The Dock-yard is one of the most remarkable objects in over this entrance is a colonnade of Corinthian pillars of Amsterdam. It is situated on the island of Kattenburg, red and white marble. At one end is a colossal figure of and has the advantage of a large basin communicating Atlas, attended by Vigilance and Wisdom. The roof is with the Y. There are five slips for building ships of the painted with allegorical figures; and upon the floor, the line, four for the largest class of frigates, and twelve for celestial and terrestrial globes are delineated in brass and smaller vessels. various coloured marbles, arranged in three large circles, The Arsenal, adjoining the Dock-yard, is a fine building, twenty-two feet diameter. On the ground-floor of the erected in 1665. It is 22 feet in length, and 200 in breadth, palace were formerly deposited the vast treasures of the and is adorned with sculpture, emblematical of navigation. Bank of Amsterdam, which, at one period of the city's At the top of the building is a reservoir, capable of commercial prosperity, are said to have amounted to holding sixteen hundred tons of water, which, in case of 40,000,0001. sterling of the precious metals. This building fire, may be distributed through all parts of the edifice. also formerly contained prisons, both for criminals and The number of workmen employed here, is about 1500. debtors, but these have been transferred to more suitable The Naval School is near the Arsenal. It enjoys consisituations.

derable funds, by means of which, the children of common The prospect from the tower, or dome, is very extensive, sailors, properly recommended, are educated gratuitously, commanding the whole of the city and its environs, crowded while the sons of officers are admitted on payment of a with windmills, the river Y, filled with ships, the Zuyder small sum monthly. In the yard is a vessel completely Zee, the Amstel, the Haerlem Lake, and the Arsenal. The rigged, on which the boys are exercised. tower contains a vast number of bells, the largest of which! Another large building, situated near the Muyden Gate,

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