Obrazy na stronie

IMPORTANCE OF BRITISH INDIA TO THE | natives should be encouraged to introduce European MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS arts, sciences, and literature. The natural tendency OF GREAT BRITAIN.

of those measures would be to render the people The British Empire in India extends from latitude capable of enjoying such of the rights and privileges 5° to 32° North, and from long. 70° to 92° East; of British subjects, and such of the free institutions it has above five thousand miles of sca-coast, and of the British constitution, as might be found appli

cable to the state of their manners, and the situation millions of people. Although distant from us by sea of their country. The following is the substance of more than sixteen thousand miles, the whole of this Sir Alexander's Evidence: immense empire is completely subject to British During the period of ten years that I was Chief Justice authority; it is now freely open to British manufac- and President of His Majesty's Council in the island of tures and British merchandise, and it thus offers a

Ceylon, I devoted my attention to the history of every part boundless and a tempting field for the enterprise Comorin to Madras, for the express purpose of inquiring on

of India, and I made two journeys by land, from Cape of the trader, the capitalist, and the settler.

the spot into the history, religion, laws, and customs of the Heretofore, the trade with this vast empire had Hindoos. been confined to the East India Company, but the

Colonel Mackenzie, with whom I was intimately acchange of policy which has taken place on the expi- quainted, was a native of the island of Lewis. When ration of their Charter, has rendered the whole country of his mathematical knowledge, by Lord Seaforth, and my

a very young man, he was much patronized, on account accessible to British subjects, from every part of the late grandfather Francis, the fifth Lord Napier of MerUnited Kingdom. Our merchants and manufacturers chistoun. He was for some time employed by the latter, are thus about to acquire new interests in India; to then about to write a life of his ancestor, John Napier of be brought into direct communication with native Merchistoun, the inventor of logarithms, to collect for tribes, of various castes and of different religions, him, with a view to that life, from works relating to India, habits, and manners; and of these people, their wants,

an account of the knowledge which the Hindoos possessed their desires, and their acquirements, comparatively the death of Lord Napier, being desirons of prosecuting

of mathematics and of logarithms. Mr. Mackenzie, after little is known in this country. We therefore pro- his oriental researches in India, Lord Seaforth got him pose to furnish, from time to time, really useful and appointed to the engineers at Madras, and gave him practical information on this important subject, and letters of introduction to the late Lord Macartney, then our readers may rely upon whatever appears relative , governor of that presidency, and to my father, who held thereto in the Saturday Magazine, being drawn from a high situation under his lordship at Madura, (described proper sources, and given upon indisputable authority. India,) anciently the capital of the Hindoo kingdom and

by Ptolemy as the Regio Pandionis of the South of We cannot, perhaps, better convey the preparatory the seat of a Hindoo college, celebrated, from the fifth knowledge calculated to ensure a due appreciation of to the tenth century, for the knowledge which its memthe subject, than by quoting the Evidence of the bers had acquired in astronomy, and in mathematics. Right Honourable SIRALEXANDER JOHNSTON, before My mother, who was the daughter of Mr. Mackenzie's a Committee of the House of Commons, relative to a

friend and early patron, Lord Napier, and who, in consecollection of writings, drawings, sculptured records, write the life of the inventor of the logarithms, resided at

quence of her father's death, had determined, herself, to and other works of art and antiquity, collected in the that time with my father at Madura, and employed the East, by the late COLONEL MACKENZIE. This talented most distinguished Brahmins in the neighbourhood in and public-spirited officer was Surveyor-General of collecting information relative to the knowledge of the India, and devoted thirty-four years of his valuable life Hindoos in mathematics and astronomy. Knowing that to making this collection, the object of which was to Mr. Mackenzie had been employed by her father in enable the British Government and the British public and wishing to have his assistance, my father invited him

inquiries similar to those in which she was then engaged, to become thoroughly acquainted with the native to Madura, and there introduced him to the Brahmins and population, their history, manners, and usages. other literary natives.

Our engraving, taken from an original drawing Mr. Mackenzie soon discovered that the most valuable presented by Sir Alexander Johnston to the Royal materials for an account of India, might be collected in Asiatic Society, contains portraits of Colonel Mac- different parts of the peninsula, and during his residence kenzie, and of three distinguished Brahmins of the at Madura, first formed the plan of making his collection. three leading sects in the South of India *. Through for thirty-eight years, and now forms the most extensive

This afterwards became the favourite object of his pursuit the assistance of these intelligent natives, the Colonel and the most valuable collection of historical documents procured the valuable information contained in his relative to India ever made. collection, and to this source, and its continuation, It was Colonel Mackenzie's wish, if he had survived till we now look for a knowledge of the history, religion, he had completed his collection, to return to England, and philosophy, laws, manners, usages, agriculture, manu

to arrange it. In 1817, being myself about to return to factures, arts and sciences, of the people of their England from Ceylon, I went to Madras to take leave of

him. He, in consequence of the long friendship which respective sects,

had subsisted between us, and his belief that we should Sir Alexander Johnston, knowing that the natives not meet again, addressed to me a letter, giving a detailed are anxious for the British Government to be accu account of his labours, and requesting me, in case of his rately informed relative to their wants, their interests, death, to publish it. On my arrival in England, I explained and their usages, and that Parliament, in legislating to Mr. Grant, then Chairman of the Court of Directors, for them, must be equally desirous to act upon the to England, to arrange his valuable materials. Mr. Grant

the desirableness of allowing Colonel Mackenzie to come best information which can be obtained, called atten- liberally agreed to propose to the Court of Directors that tion to the subject two years ago. He recommended the Colonel should come to England, upon full pay and that the House of Commons should take measures allowances for three years; but in the mean time I received for completing the Mackenzie Collection, through the intelligence of the Colonel's death in Bengal. natives themselves, in order that the British public and also wrote to the Marquis of Hastings, the Governor

Soon after, according to his desire, I published his letter, might be guided by correct information, in their mercantile transactions with the East, and that the Mackenzie Collection, adding, what I knew to be the

General of India, calling his attention to the value of the In the back-ground, is represented the celebrated colossal fact, that the colonel had laid out upwards of 15,0007. of his figure of Buddha, in a temple on a hill in the South of India; own money, in making it. His lordship, a short time is a great object of worship amongst the sect of Jains, respecting afterwards, purchased the whole collection for the East India whose history Colonel Mackenzie has collected much curious Company from Colonel Mackenzie's widow, for 10,0001. information.


There is a catalogue of the Collection in two octavo a letter, recommending him to take measures for atvolumes, which Mr. Wilson, Professor of Sanscrit, at Oxford, formed some years ago, partly from the colonel's letter, and

taining the literary and scientific objects which had partly from a list which his Brahmins had drawn up pre

been suggested. Immediately on receipt of this letter, vious to his death. It contains, in addition to the materials

with a copy of the Evidence, this enlightened Indian, connected with the general history of India, very exten

with some of the ablest of his countrymen, formed sive information relative to the state of the drama, and at Madras a Literary Society, consisting of two that of painting and sculpture, in different ages, among hundred of the most zealous and the best-informed the Hindoos. It is known to those who have attended to natives of the place. Their principal object is to the subject, that dramatic compositions, and pictorial and sculptural representations, had been used from time imme

complete the Mackenzie Collection; to introduce morial, by the Hindoo Governments, as the most efficient

amongst their countrymen the most useful branches medium through which they could circulate amongst the

of European arts, sciences, and literature; and to people, historical, moral, and political knowledge, and a collect for the Royal Asiatic Society in England such feeling in favour of the state of society which they were de- local information, relative to the domestic habits, sirous of supporting.

usages, and wants of the people, as will enable traders In 1806, I sent to Mr. Fox a plan for introducing a system

and manufacturers in this country to know what of government throughout British India, more in conformity than the one which prevailed, with the principles of description of articles are most suitable to the Indian the British Constitution; and it occurred to me, that agree

market. ably to the ancient custom of the country, dramas, pictures,

Following up the valuable suggestions given in and works of sculpture, might be used as the means of his Evidence, Sir Alexander, as Chairman of their circulating the requisite knowledge among the people. I Committee of Correspondence, lately recommended therefore requested Colonel Mackenzie to make for me such a collection of works of this nature, as would enable the frequent publication of those important communi

to the Council of the Royal Asiatic Society, the British Government to ascertain what had been done by such means, and what measures ought to be taken, for

cations which the Society receives from official and inculcating among the people, by similar means, such other persons connected with the East, both in this knowledge as might be applicable to the system they country and abroad. This suggestion has been might wish to introduce, and the state of society which adopted, and, under the immediate direction of that they might wish to form. I am of opinion, that Government ought now to employ in which information of the highest importance, of

powerful and influential body, a journal is to appear, the Royal Asiatic Society, to report on the particular undoubted authenticity, and such as could be obdescriptions of knowledge which have hitherto been circu lated by the Hindoo Governments amongst the population, tained through no other channel, will be periodically by means of paintings and other works of art, and also, of conveyed to the public. what ought now to be circulated by similar means. I am also of opinion, that able writers and artists, in this country, should be employed to execute works, for the purpose of It is a false and indolent humility, which makes people sit being sent out to India, at the public expense, and exhi- still and do nothing, because they will not believe they are bited in every part of the British territories. Such capable of doing much, for every body can do something. measures would have the effect of raising the moral and Every body can set a good example, be it to many or to political character of the natives, of furnishing specimens few; every body can in some degree, encourage virtue and of art for their imitation, and of encouraging writers and religion, and discountenance vice and folly; every body artists in Great Britain, profitably to devote their talents

has some one whom they can advise and instruct, or in to the improvement of millions of their fellow-subjects. some way help to guide through life.—Miss TALBOT.

I think also, that considering the importance of the object, Parliament ought to authorize the necessary expenditure, ASSURE yourself, that employment is one of the best to complete the Mackenzie Collection. This would show

remedies for the disappointments of life. Let even your the people of India, that Parliament is anxious to obtain calamity have the liberal effect of occupying you in some a thorough knowledge of the Indian Empire, for whose

active virtue, so shall you in a manner remember others, interest it is constantly called upon to legislate, and convince the people, that it has not only the desire, but also

till you forget yourself. --PRATT. the means, of becoming acquainted with their institutions, and of adapting the measures which they may introduce Every day is a little life, and our whole life but a day into India, to the peculiar circumstances of the country, repeated; whence it is that old Jacob numbered his life by and to the manners and feelings of the people.

days; and Moses desires to be taught this holy arithmetic, The Brahmin who, in Colonel Mackenzie's life-time, to number not his years but his days. Those, therefore, had the superintendence of all the learned natives em that dare lose a day, are dangerously prodigal; those that ployed by him, and is thoroughly acquainted with the plan dare mispend it, desperate.—Bishop HALL. upon which the colonel intended to have carried on his researches, is still alive; and Captain Harkness, of the

The sacred duty of an adviser (one of the most inviolable Madras Army, who has devoted his attention for many

that exists,) would lead me, towards a real enemy, to act years to the same pursuits as Colonel Mackenzie, is thoroughly acquainted with India, and also well qualified to


best friend were the party concerned.-BURKE. continue the researches in which the colonel was engaged ; this gentleman is now in England, and is willing to THERE are few conditions which do not entangle us with afford" his assistance. I therefore propose, that Govern- earthly hopes and fears, from which it is necessary to be ment should authorize the Royal Asiatic Society to take at intervals disencumbered, that we may place ourselves in such steps, in communication with the Brahmin, and with His presence, who views effects in their causes, and actions Captain Harkness, as they may deem necessary to com in their motives; that we may, as Chillingworth expresses plete the Mackenzie Collection; and that the Governor it, consider things, as if there were no other beings in the General of India, and the Governors of Bombay and world but God and ourselves; or, to use language yet more Madras, be authorized to give them assistance in every awful, “may commune with our own hearts, and be still." part of the British territories in India.

Death, says Seneca, falls heavy upon him who is too Kavelli Venkata Lakshmiyah, the only survivor much known to others, and too little to himself; and of the three Brahmins before mentioned, is still literature, thought the study of our own hearts of so much

Pontanus, a man celebrated among the early restorers of living at Madras*, and to him Sir Alexander addressed importance, that he has recommended it from his tomb. He is President of the Literary Society of Hindoos in commu

“I am Pontanus, beloved by the powers of literature, nication with the Royal Asiatic Society of London. The figure at admired by men of worth, and dignified by the monarchs the right hand of the print, holding a telescope, is a portrait of him, of the world. Thou knowest now who I am, or more and was much like him at the time it was taken. At the recent properly, who I was.

For thee, stranger, I who am in Brahmin was given by Sir A. Johnston, and drank with a great darkness cannot know thee, but I entreat thee to know

thyself, JOHNSON


as if


NOTES FROM A TRAVELLER'S SCRAP-BOOK. Dr. Ebel tells a story of this animal, wnich at once No. II.

illustrates its bold daring, and exhibits an instance of the TRAVELLING IN SWITZERLAND. LAKE OF ZURICH. Rocky cool intrepidity of those men who pursue the perilous SCENERY. Swiss LAKES. VULTURE's Nest. WALLEN- occupation of the chase, in these wild regions. A young

The Via MALA. SAGACITY OF THE MULE. hunter, having discovered the nest of a Lämmergeyer, on SPLUGEN.

the southern shore of the lake of Wallenstadt, killed the

male, and then taking off his shoes, crept along a narrow During my stay at Zürich, I became acquainted with Dr. shelf of rock, till he came just under the hole where the Ebel, who is so well known to all travellers and tourists in four little ones were deposited. While in the very act of Switzerland, by his minute and accurate descriptions of raising his left arm to take them out of the nest, the every part of that interesting land. It was at the sugges- mother pounced fiercly down upon him from above, and tion of this gentleman that we determined to undertake a stuck her talons in the uplifted arm, and her beak in his journey to the Splügen Pass, which is the most frequented side. The hunter's position was perilous; for the least route of communication in the large frontier canton of the struggle with his powerful antagonist, might have sent him Grisons, between Germany and Italy. This passage is very headlong down the precipice. But his presence of mind lofty, being more than 6000 feet above the level of the did not forsake him. He remained quite still and motionocean; and there is no part of the Alps which presents more less for some minutes; then slowly resting the stock of his grand and awful scenery.

gun against his feet, turned the muzzle upon the poor Through the kindness of the Doctor we were provided bird, and pulling the trigger with his toe, shot her dead. with an excellent guide, and furnished with all the in- The same author observes, also, that a Lämmergeyer has formation requisite to enable us to perform the journey with been seen to carry off a dog before his master's eyes, to some interest and comfort.

neighbouring rocks, and there enjoy a comfortable repast, Upon quitting the town of Zürich, we embarked upon in quiet security. the beautiful lake of that name, in one of the boats which We soon reached the small town of Wallenstadt, at the serve as the ordinary means of communication between eastern extremity of the lake, and there we breakfasted; the different places on its banks. As we sailed along, we we then hired cars, such as are generally used for the purhad full leisure to enjoy the delightful scenery which on poses of conveyance in this part of the country, and proevery side met the eye. The country around, which is ceeded to Sargans, along a fine valley in a high state of fertile and well-cultivated, presented a rich and varied cultivation, with magnificent mountains on either side of picture, exhibiting a constant succession of smiling and us. Quitting Sargans we approached the Rhine, and picturesque landscapes; for nowhere, indeed, does nature continued our route along the almost ruined valley of that appear in a more pleasing and graceful form, than on the desolating river to Coire, the capital of the canton of the banks of this lake. We landed near Utznach; and pro- Grisons. Here we were compelled to quit our carriages, ceeded at once to Wesen, where we supped and slept. and betake ourselves to the backs of mules, for the road on This little town is situated at the western end of the lake which our journey lay would not allow the passage of any of Wallenstadt; and its appearance is not very prepossess- description of wheeled vehicle, not even of a wheel-barrow. ing. In 1799 and 1800, it experienced largely the horrors Our intention was to proceed to Tusis, and there pass the of warfare; as it lay, unfortunately, in the track of the night; and, considering the circumstance that ladies were armies passing to and from Italy. The Austrians and of the party, the distance was amply sufficient. Russians, and French, alternately occupied it; and all There was an effect which these mountain journeyings alike plundered the poor inhabitants. The rapacity of the never failed to produce,—to furnish us with remarkably soldiers left nothing untouched; the very cattle upon the keen appetites; it will, therefore, be readily believed, that tops of the mountains were not even spared.

we expected, with no small anxiety, the period of our In the morning, we commenced our course upon the lake arrival at Tusis, where we anticipated the enjoyment of a of Wallenstadt, using the ordinary mode of conveyance. good supper, and the luxury of repose after the toils of the The scenery which now opened upon our view was of a day. At length we reached the long-wished-for inn; and wholly different character from that which we had enjoyed heartily glad were we all to alight from our mules, and to so much the day before; but it possessed charms equally set the whole house in commotion, to prepare us a repast great. Rocks of a rugged form, rising precipitately out of wherewith to satisfy our hunger. But before many minutes the deep waters, and shooting up to a towering height, en had elapsed, circumstances had occurred which rendered closed us on either side; and here and there were to be it advisable for us to quit Tusis immediately, and resume seen wild torrents, dashing swiftly over the mountain our journey. This was a sad disappointment, not less to heights, and, pouring themselves into the lake beneath, the mules than to ourselves; the poor beasts were ordered with a loud roar. The savage sublimity of the scene ren back to the door; and the baggage having been fixed, and dered it one of the most impressive which I had ever wit- the ladies mounted, we set out again, intending to reach nessed; and it is still powerfully riveted on my memory: Andeer, or if possible, the village of Splügen itself. But

The navigation of this lake has the reputation of being our vexation soon began to dissipate, under the influextremely dangerous; and in this respect the Wallenstadt ence of the sublime scenery which soon broke upon our resembles those other of the Swiss lakes which are enclosed view. as it is by mountains. Although the danger may be We were fast approaching the Via Mala, which is the somewhat exaggerated, it is nevertheless easy for one who name (and a very appropriate one too), given to the road, has looked upon the frightful rocks which bound the waters if such it can be called, which leads across one of the most of the lake to conceive, that a boat overtaken by a sudden remarkable gorges in Switzerland. It extends along a storm would be in a position of very considerable peril; deep ravine, formed by the bases of mountains, rising to and the boats which are in general use are certainly not the height of 6000, and even 8000 feet, above the torrent calculated to bear the slightest rough weather, being, as which separates them. The path, which is cut on the M. Simond calls them, “ mere square boxes, rowing and face of the rock, is from three to four feet in breadth ; sailing equally ill."

it is sometimes on the left, and sometimes on the right The most dangerous wind is that which blows from the side of the gulf, which it crosses by three bridges; north; it strikes against the lofty rocks which line the these are built at a very great height, one of them 480 southern shore of the lake, and then falling vertically upon feet above the river, (which is the Lower Rhine,) because the water, furrows its surface into short irregular waves of there the ravine is generally much narrower; in many a fearful height. The boatmen are subjected to very strict places, indeed, its sides are not 50 feet apart. It repolice-regulations; they are ordered, to keep always, when quires a firm head to look steadily down from this amathe weather is doubtful, close to the southern shore, which zing height, at the struggling torrent below, which is affords more places of shelter than the northern; and they seen dashing along, raging and foaming, and throwing are forbidden to venture out at all, during a storm. Besides, its agitated waters far and wide against the rocky walls they are not allowed to make use of the same boat for more of its contracted prison; and so great is the depth, that than three years.

all its mighty roarings only reach the ear in murmurs. This lake, especially its northern bank, is much haunted The scenery was at times so grand and awful as to bring us by the celebrated Lämmergeyer, or Bearded Vulture; the to a dead stop. Here the path appeared to end abruptly at largest, next to the Condor of the Andes, of all the known the face of a high and perpendicular rock; there it seemed birds of prey. This creature is the scourge of the flocks to terminate at the very edge of a precipice; in some places, which graze in the Alpine valleys; it attacks and carries the path was so narrow as almost to deny a safe footing; off sheep, lambs, kids, calves, and even large dogs. and, as on one side of it, the mountain rose so steep as to

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be totally inaccessible, and on the other, fell so rapidly as fir-trees, any thing like a road is impossible; the animals to be little else than a precipice, firm nerves were required consequently wind their way over the slanting and slippery to induce one to proceed. The road was very bad, even face of the native rocks, where literally, for very many for us who walked, and deliberately chose our footing; how yards together, I have been compelled to walk with as the mules kept theirs I never could discover; nor could I much caution and deliberation, as if treading on the very ever have supposed, that females would have the courage smoothest ice; and, in fact, without the aid of the iron to sit perched on their backs, suspended absolutely over pointed staff, I could not occasionally have kept my footing, precipices nearly 2000 feet deep. It rather appeared, as if but must have shuffled along on hands and knees, or the mules actually desired to terrify them, for they inva- walked without my shoes. Yet these sagacious creatures riably walked as close to the edge of the precipice as they bore their lovely burdens in perfect safety, nor ever once could, consistently with their own safety ; so close, that by stumbled; where the path was very bad, they indeed no possibility could any one have alighted from a mule on seemed to walk as much with their nose as with their that side. But this habit the creatures acquire, to give feet, for it was as close to the ground, but provided they themselves as much room as possible, and to prevent the had the liberty to carry their noses just as they pleased, packages with which they are in general burdened, from and to step as fast or as slow as they thought proper, it striking against the steep banks or projecting rocks, which appeared to be a matter of great indifference to them, would inevitably, when they were treading on the smooth whether the road was good, bad, or indifferent. slippery granite, throw them from their well-poised The defile of the VIA Mala is nearly four miles in balance, and hurl them at once down the gulf to certain length; so that by the time we had reached'its termination, destruction. If, however, the mule is left to his own our minds were strongly impressed with the wildness and sagacity, and to step where he pleases, and feels no check sublimity of its scenery. But we soon experienced an on his mouth, he contrives almost invariably, to steer clear agreeable contrast to its grandeur, in the calm repose and of all obstacles, and to track his way, where few men could security of the valley of Schams; which, though not wish, and where many men would not be able, to walk or possessing much natural beauty, has a peculiar charm for to find a footing.

the traveller who just emerges from the savage gloom of To a stranger, the mode in which they are shod, appears the Via Mala. eminently adapted to ensure their stumbling. A cat's foot When we reached the Andeer, we found that we might stuck with pitch in an oyster-shell, will convey, perhaps, still push on to Splügen; and in due time we arrived at the clearest notion of it; that is, they walk with their feet this latter place, and made the best of our way to its inn. in an iron cap, and that, too, over rounded rocks, as slippery There we had a blazing fire quickly made, and we stood as glass; along the granite tracks, where the thundering much in need of it,) ordering a large supply of the best avalanches yearly sweep all before them, bringing down and driest wood that could be procured, to be brought into mountains of snow, huge masses of rocks, and numbers of the room. Nor did we forget the supper; the fare was not



very sumptuous, but we were not very delicate. We made ourselves tolerably comfortable, and retired to bed as heartily tired, and as reasonably happy, as people in such circumstances could be possibly expected to be.

E. D. B.

CHRISTIANITY has every thing to hope, and nothing to fear, from


the sun,

We can scarcely imagine that any of our readers are SILENT MONITORS,

so insensible to the beautiful arrangements exhibited In every copse and sheltered dell,

in all the works of God, as not occasionally to feel a Unveiled to the observant eye,

desire to investigate, and to thoroughly understand, Are faithful Monitors, who tell How pass the hours and seasons by.

those arrangements. We live in a world of wonders.

Not only is man himself “ fearfully and wonderfully
The green-robed children of the Spring
Will mark the periods as they pass,

made," but every object within the limits of our obserMingle with leaves Time's feathered wing,

vation, above us, beneath us, and around us, preAnd bind with flowers his silent glass.

sents some remarkable properties connected with its Mark where transparent waters glide,

original structure, its gradual developement, its sucSoft flowing o'er their tranquil bed;

cessive changes, or its ultimate design. There, cradled on the dimpling tide,

The light of modern science has revealed to us Nymphæa rests her lovely head;

many important secrets. We say modern science, beBut, conscious of the earliest beam,

cause the time was, when even in this highly-favoured She rises from her humid nest,

land, as well as in other countries, a mysterious veil And sees reflected on the stream

interposed between many of the most simple and The virgin whiteness of her breast

most useful productions, the materials of which they Till the bright day-star to the west

were composed, and the modes of their formation. Declines, in ocean's surge to lave;

It is not necessary for us all to become philoso-
Then, folded in her modest vest,
She slumbers on the rocking wave.

phers, but there is no good reason why people in

general should not make themselves acquainted with See Hieracium's various tribe,

some of those phenomena which are of daily recurOf plumy seed and radiate flowers, The course of time their blooms describe,

rence, which

may be as well understood by the cotAnd wake or sleep appointed hours.

tager and the artisan, as by the merchant and the Broad o'er its imbricated cup

manufacturer, and which are equally interesting, inThe Goatsbeard spreads its golden rays,

structive, and important to men in all the varied But shuts its cautious petals up,

walks of life. Retreating from the noontide blaze.

In the dark days to which we have already alluded, Pale as a pensive cloistered nun,

there were but few books, and these could be obThe Bethlem Star her face unveils,

tained only by persons possessed of wealth, and, When o'er the mountain peers

when obtained, could be understood only by such as But shades it from the vesper gales.

had participated in the scantily-diffused blessings of Among the loose and arid sands

education. In writing books, especially on scientific The humble Arenaria creeps;

subjects, it was then the fashion to employ a language Slowly the purple star expands,

(Latin) which could be read only by a select few; But soon within the calyx sleeps.

and, as if for the purpose of making the subject And those small bells, so lightly rayed

treated of the more difficult and perplexing, the With young Aurora's Are to the noontide sun displayed,

authors employed such absurd illustrations and But shut their plaits against thé dew,

symbols, that fully justified the emphatic inquiry, On upland slopes, the shepherds mark

“ Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words withThe hour, when, as the dial true,

out knowledge ?"-Job. xxxviii. 2. Cichorium to the towering lark

These days have happily passed away. The age Lifts her soft eyes, serenely blue.

in which we live is characterized by views of natural And thou “Wee crimson-tipped flower,"

phenomena, at once rational and consistent with Gatherest thy fringed mantle round

facts, experiments, and observation; whilst the means Thy bosom, at the closing hour,

employed in extensively diffusing the knowledge of When night-drops bathe the turfy ground. such subjects receive the support, and command the Unlike Silene, who declines

approval of the patriot, the philanthropist, and the The garish noontide's blazing light;

But, when the evening crescent shines,

Whatever may be the sphere of our operations,
Gives all her sweetness to the night.

if it be in the field, or on the mountain-top, with the Thus in each flower and simple bell,

Botanist, --in the forest or the menagerie with the
That in our path betrodden lie,
Are sweet remembrances who tell

Zoologist,-in the open plain or in the observatory
How fast their winged moments fly.-C. Smith. with the Astronomer,—in the dark recesses of the

mine; or the cleft of an over-hanging rock, with the

Geologist,-in the museum with the Antiquary,—or in Let not your recreations be lavish spenders of your time; the laboratory with the Chemist,we desire to keep but choose such which are healthful, short, transient, constantly before us the impressive truth, that the recreative, and apt to refresh you; but at no period dwell grand aim of all our labours should be, to glorify upon them, or make them your great employment; for he that spends his time in sports, and calls it recreation, is God in the contemplation of his works. like him whose garment is all made of fringes, and his

To the laboratory of the Chemist we now invite our meat nothing but sauces; they are healthless, chargeable, readers, whilst we lay before them, at intervals, a and useless. And, therefore, avoid such games which series of papers, under the above general title. require much time or long attendance, or which are apt to steal thy affections from more severe employments. For, No. I. INDESTRUCTIBILITY OF MATTER. to whatsoever thou hast given thy affections, thou wilt not grudge to give thy time. Natural necessity teaches us, BEFORE we enter upon those mimute details, that that it is lawful to relax and unbend our bow, but not to illustrate and explain the laws whose operations detersuffer it to be unready or unstrung.-JEREMY TAYLOR. mine the stability, or accelerate, modify, and con

rosy hue,

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