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This being the pur ON THE USE OF MUMMY AS A DRUG. pose to which the knot In the sixteenth and part of the seventeenth cenis applied, we have now turies, mummy formed one of the ordinary drugs; to discover in what man

it was to be found in the shops of all apothecaries, ner it has acquired its and considerable sums of money were expended in

To do this, let the purchase of it, principally from the Jews in the us suppose our sailor East. No sooner was it credited, that mummy to be on shore, and pay-constituted an article of value in the practice of ing a visit to his rela medicine, than many speculators embarked in the tions; his well-known trade; the tombs were searched, and as many mumskill is, of course, put mies as could be obtained, were broken into pieces in requisition, and all for the purpose of sale. The demand, however, was the pitchers of his fe- not easily supplied; for the government of Egypt male friends which have

was unwilling to permit the transportation of the lost their handles are bodies from their sepulchral habitation; too great brought to him, to be temptation was thus created to the commission of supplied with new ones ; fraud, and all kinds of impositions, were in daily and, as a compliment practice. According to the “ Leçons de Guyon," for his exertions, the

as early as the year 1100, or as others say, 1300,

knot which his inge- an expert Jewish physician, wamed Elmagar, a nuity has formed is called a true-lover's knot.

native of Alexandria, was in the habit of prescribing The remaining illustrations are knots made by mummy, both for the Christians and the Mahufishermen and anglers, and will sufficiently explain metans, then in the East, contending for the posthemselves.

session of Palestine. From that time, following the example thus set, physicians of all nations commonly prescribed it, in cases of bruises and woundsThe asphalt and the bitumen, it was contended, consolidated and healed the broken and lacerated veins, and, its piquancy occasioning sickness, it was said to have the power of throwing off from the stomach, collections of congealed blood. Some Jews entered upon a speculation, to furnish the mummy thus brought into demand, as an article of commerce, and undertook to embalm dead bodies, and to sell them to the Christians. They took all the executed

criminals, and bodies of all descriptions that could Trans

be obtained, filled the head and the inside of the bodies, with simple asphaltum, an article of very small price, made incisions into the muscular parts of the limbs, inserted into them, also, the asphaltum, and then bound them up tightly. This being done, the bodies were exposed to the heat of the sun ; they dried quickly, and resembled in appearance the

truly prepared mummies. These were sold to the He that cometh to seek after knowledge, with a mind to

Christians. scorn and censure, shall be sure to find matter for his humour, but no inatter for his instruction.-Bacon.

Guy De la Fontaine, physician to the King of

Navarre, took a journey into Egypt, and being at He who undertakes an occupation of great toil and great Alexandria, in 1564, he made inquiries as to the danger, for the purpose of serving, defending, and protect-supply of mummy as a drug. He communicated ing his country, is a most valuable and respectable member

the result of his inquiries to his friend, Ambrose of society; and if he conducts himself with valour,

Paré, the celebrated French surgeon, who made fidelity, and humanity, and amidst the horrors of war cultivates the gentle manners of peace, and the virtues known the particulars through the medium of his of a devout and holy life, he most amply deserves, and will

works. It appears, that de la Fontaine sought out assuredly receive, the esteem, the admiration, and the the principal Jew concerned in this traffic, and applause of his grateful country; and, what is of still requested to see his collection of mummies. This greater importance, the approbation of his God.-- BISHOP

was very willingly granted, and several bodies heaped PORTEUS.

on the other, were speedily shown to him. OBSERVE a method in the distribution of your time.

Inquiring as to the place where they had been Every hour will then know its proper employment, and no obtained, and anxious to know, whether that, which time will be lost. Idleness will be shut out at every the ancients had written respecting the treatment of avenue, and with her, that numerous body of vices, that the dead, and their mode of sepulture could be conmake up her train.:-Bishop HORNE.

firmed; the Jew laughed at him, and hesitated not to Be always displeased with what thou art, if thou desirest say, that all the bodies then before them, amounting to attain to what thou art not; for where thou hast pleased to between thirty and forty, had been prepared by thyself, there thou abidest. But if thou sayest I have him, during the last four years, and that they were enough, thou perishest. Always add, always walk, always the bodies of slaves, or other persons indiscriminately proceed. Neither stand still, nor go back, nor deviate. - collected. De la Fontaine thea inquired, as to what ST. AUGUSTINE.

nation they belonged, and whether they had died of

any horrible disease, such as leprosy, small-pox, or There are indeed but very few to whom nature has been the plague, to which the Jew replied, that he cared so unkind, that they are not capable of shining in some science or other. There is a certain bias towards know- not whence they came, whether they were old or ledge in every mind, which may be strengthened and im- young, male or female, or of what disease they had proved by proper application --BUDGELL.

died, so long as he could obtain them, for, that





when embalmed, no one could tell; and added, that | Alexandria, Rosetta, and other cities of Egypt, and he himself marvelled, how Christians, so dainty- the city of Aleppo, delighted with the prospect of mouthed, could eat of the bodies of the dead. The readily obtaining so much money, they exacted a Jew then detailed to De la Fontaine, the mode of ransom from all those Jews who were merchants of embalming adopted by him, which was in agreement mummies. From this time the traffic ceased; the with that just alluded to, by M. Guyon.

Jews, fearful of being subjected to a new oppression, The demand for mummy was greater in France, dared no longer to continue their trade. than in any other country; and François the First, It will thus be seen, that the employment of is stated by Belon, to have been in the habit of mummy in medicine did not cease from any discovery always carrying about with him a little packet, of its inefficacy in the relief or cure of disease; but containing some mummy mixed with pulverised merely from the hazard with which the traffic in the rhubarb, ready to take upon receiving any injury substance must be carried on. The desiccated bodies from falls, or other accidents that might happen to of travellers lost in the desert, and buried beneath him. Armed with this universal remedy, François the the sands, were equally with the mummies employed First thought himself secure against all danger. in medicine; and Roquefort tells us that the bodies

The medicinal use of mummy is alluded to by of young girls were considered more efficacious than Shirley the dramatist :

others, and therefore produced a larger price. Make mummy of my flesh and sell me to the apothecaries. for a medicine. They mix it with butter, and call it

The Arabs to this day make use of mummy powder The Bird in a Cage, 1633.

mantey. It is esteemed a sovereign remedy for That I might tear their flesh in mammocks, raise bruises both external and internal. My losses, from their carcases turn'd mummy. The Honest Lawyer, 1616.

[PETTIGREW's History of Mummies.] Lord Bacon says,

Mummy hath great force in staunching of blood; which, as it may be ascribed to The histories of ages past, or relations concerning foreign the mixture of balmes that are glutinous, so it may countries, wherein the manners of men are described, also partake of a secret propriety, in that the blood and their actions reported, afford us useful pleasure and draweth man's flesh.”

pastime; thereby we may learn as much, and understand

the world as well, as by the most curious inquiry into the Mummy,” says Boyle, “ is one of the useful present actions of men; there we may observe, we may medicines commended and given by our physicians scan, we may tax the proceedings of whom we please, for falls and bruises, and in other cases too.”

without any danger or offence. There are extant numberAmbrose Paré has a chapter expressly upon less books, wherein the wisest and most ingenious of men, “ Mummie.” He speaks of mummy as the means

have laid open their hearts; and exposed their most secret upon which most dependence was placed in his time; cogitations unto us; in pursuing them, we may sufficiently but he states, that neither the physicians who pre- may meddle with ourselves, studying our own dispositions,

busy ourselves, and let our idle hours pass gratefully; we scribe mummy, nor the authors that have written of examining our own principles and purposes, reflecting on it, nor the apothecaries who sell it, know any thing of our thoughts, words and actions, striving thoroughly to certainty respecting it.He condemns its use in the understand ourselves; to do this we have an unquestionfollowing terms :-“This wicked kinde of drugge, able right, and by it we shall obtain vast benefit.—Barrow. doth nothing helpe the diseased, in that case, wherefore and wherein it is administered, as I have tryed It is imagined by many, that whenever they aspire to an hundred times, and as Shovet witnesses, he tryed please, they are required to be merry, and to show the glad: in himselfe when as hee tooke some thereof by the ness of their souls by flights of pleasantry, and bursts of advice of a certaine Jewish physitian in Egypt, from laughter. But though these men may be for a time heard whence it is brought; but it also inferres many We enjoy them a little, and then return to easiness and

with applause and admiration, they seldom delight us long; troublesome symptomes, as the paine of the heart or

good humour; as the eye gazes awhile on an eminence stomache, vomiting, and stinke of the mouth." “I, glittering with the sun, but soon turns aching away to persuaded by these reasons, doe not onely myselfe verdure and to flowers. Johnson. not prescribe any hereof to my patients, but also in consultations, endeavour what I may that it bee not prescribed by others."

EXTRAORDINARY INSTANCE OF PRESER It would be easy to multiply authorities in favour

VATION. and against the use of mummy in medicine ; but it I was bound for Liverpool, says an American Captain, in is time to draw this part of my subject to a close, a fine stout ship, of about four hundred tons burden, with a and I shall do so by relating an anecdote upon the valuable cargo on board, and about uinety thousand dollars authority of Guyon, to account for the suspension of in specie. When we were about to sail, the mate informed the nefarious traffic in mummy. A Jew of Damietta, me that he had shipped two foreigners as seamen, one a who was principally concerned in the manufacture native of Guernsey, and the other a Frenchman from Briof false mummies, had a Christian slave, for the tany. I was pleased, however, with the appearance of the

crew generally, and particularly with the foreigners. They safety of whose soul he appears to have entertained were both stout and able-bodied men, and alert and attenmore concern than for his own; repeatedly urging tive to orders. him to abjure his religion, and embrace that of the The passage commenced auspiciously, and promised to true faith; he at last insisted upon the slave sub- be a speedy one.

To my great sorrow and uneasiness, I mitting to the operation of circumcision as the evidence They became insolent to the mates, appeared to be frequently

soon discovered in the foreigners a change of conduct, of his sincerity: this the slave resisted, and in consequence of his perverseness was very ill treated by an undue influence with the rest of the mer. Their inhis master. The slave represented to the Pacha the temperance soon became intolerable, and as it was evident practices of his master, and denounced him for the that they had brought liquor on board with them, I deterfrauds he was committing in the making of mummies. mined upon searching for it. An order to this effect was The Jew was thrown into prison, from which he given to the mates, and they were directed to go about its obtained his release on condition of the payment of execution mildly and firmly, taking no arms with them, but no less a sum than three hundred sultanins of gold. thorough examination; and bring aft to the cabin any When intelligence of this reached the governors of spirits they might find.


It was not without much anxiety that I sent them for- | and, during his night-watches on deck, never to go for ward upon this duty. I remained upon the quarter-deck ward of the main-mast, but to continue as constantly as myself, ready to go to their aid, should it be necessary. In possible near the cabin companion-way, and call me upon a few moments, a loud and angry dispute was succeeded the slightest occasion. After this, I laid down in my bed, by a sharp scuffle around the forecastle companion-way. ordering that I should be called at four o'clock, for the The steward, at my call, handed my loaded pistols from the morning watch.

cabin, and with them I hastened forward. The French A few minutes only had elapsed before heard three : man had grappled the second mate, who was a mere led or four gentle knocks under the counter of the ship,

by the throat, thrown him across the heel of the bow which is that part of the stern immediately under the cabini sprit, and was apparently determined to strangle him. windows. In a minute or two they were distinctly repeated. The chief mate was calling for assistance from below, I arose-opened the cabin window, and called. The mate where he was struggling with the Guernsey man. The answered l I gave him the end of a rope to assist him rest of the crew were indifferent spectators, but rather en up, and my delighted soul poured forth a flood of gratitude couraging the foreigners than otherwise. I presented a to that Being who bad restored him to me uninjured. His pistol at the head of the Frenchman, and ordered him to story was soon told. He had gone forward upon being release the second mate, which he instantly did. I then ordered by me, after the calling of all hands, and had barely ordered him into the foretop, and the others, who were reached the forecastle, when he was seized by the two near, into the maintop, none to come down under pain of foreigners, and before he could utter more than one cry, death, until ordered. The steward had by this time brought which was drowned in the roaring of the winds and waves, another pair of pistols, with which I 'armed the second was thrown over the bow. He was a powerful man, and an mate, directing him to remain on deck; and went myselt excellent swimmer. The topsails of the ship were clewed below into the forecastle. I found that the chief mate down to reef, and her way, of course, considerably lessened. had been slightly wounded in two places by the knife of In an instant he found the end of a rope, which was accibis antagonist, who, however, ceased to resist as I made dentally towing overboard, within his grasp, and to this he my appearance, and we immediately secured him in irons. clung. By a desperate effort, he caught one of the rudderThe search was now made, and a quantity of liquor found chains, which was very low, and drew himself by it upon and taken to the cabin. The rest of the men were then the step or jog of the rudder, where he had sufficient precalled down from the tops, and the Frenchman was also sence of mind to remain without calling out, until the light put into confinement. I then ex postulated at some length had ceased to shine through the cabin windows, when he with the others upon their improper conduct, and expressed concluded that the search for him was over. He then made hopes that I should have no reason for further complaint the signal to me. during the rest of the voyage. This remonstrance I No being in the ship besides myself was apprized of his thought had effect, as they appeared contrite and promised safety; for the gale had increased and completely drowned amendment. They were then dismissed, and order was the sounds of the knocking, opening the window, &c., restored.

before they could reach the quarter-deck, and there was The next day the foreigners strongly solicited pardon, no one in the cabin but ourselves, the steward having with the most solemn promises of future good conduct, and retired to his berth in the steerage. It was at once resolved as the rest of the crew joined in their request, I ordered that the second mate only should be informed of his existthat their irons should be taken off. For several days the He immediately betook himself to a large vacant duties of the ship were performed to my entire satisfaction; state-room, and, for the remainder of the passage, all his but I could discover in the countenances of the foreigners wants were attended to by me; even the steward was expressions of deep and rancorous animosity to the chief | allowed to enter the cabin as rarely as possible. mate, who was a prompt energetic seaman, requiring at all Nothing of note occurred during the remainder of the times, ready and implicit obedience to his orders.

voyage, which was prosperous. It seemed that the A week perhaps had passed over in this way, when one foreigners had only been actuated by revenge in the night, in the mid-watch, all hands were called to shorten violence they had committed; for nothing further was sail. Ordinarily upon occasions of this kind, the duty was attempted by them. In due season we took a pilot in the conducted by the mate, but I now went upon deck myself Channel, and, in a day or two, entered the port of Liverpool. and gave orders, sending him upon the forecastle. The As soon as the proper arrangements were made, we com night was dark and squally, but the sea was not high, and menced warping the ship into dock, and while engaged the ship was running off about nine knots, with the wind in this operation, the Mate appeared on deck, went forupon the starboard quarter. The weather being very un- | ward, and attended to his duties as usual! A scene now promising, the second reef was taken in the fore and main- occurred which is beyond description: every feature of topsails, the mizen handed, and the fore and mizen top- it is as vivid in my recollection as though it occurred gallant-yards sent down. This done, one watch was but yesterday. The warp dropped from the paralyzed hands permitted to go below, and I prepared to betake myself to of the horror-stricken sailors, and had it not been taken up my berth again, directing that the mate, to whom I wished by some boatmen on board, I should have been compelled to give some orders, should be sent to me. To my utter to anchor again and procure assistance from the shore. Not astonishment and consternation, word was brought me, a word was uttered; but the two guilty wretches staggered after a short time, that he was no where to be found. I to the mainmast, where they remained petrified with horror, hastened upon deck, ordered all hands up again, and ques- until the officer, who had been sent for, approached to take tioned every man in the ship upon the subject, but them into custody. They then seemed in a measure to be they one and all declared that they had not seen the mate recalled to a sense of their appalling predicament, and forward. Lanterns were then brought, and every acces uttered the most piercing expressions of lamentation and sible part of the vessel was unavailingly searched. I then, despair. in the hearing of the whole crew, expressed my fear that They were soon tried, capitally convicted, and executed he had fallen overboard, and repaired to the cabin, in a state of mental agitation impossible to be described. I could not, indeed, but entertain strong suspicions that the

THE IDOLS OF THE SAXONS. unfortunate man had met a violent death.

VII. SEATER. Feeling a deep sense of forlornness and insecurity, I proceeded to load and deposit in my state-room all the We now come to the seventh and last of this strange fire-arms on board, amounting to several muskets and company, but not the least in fame among the Anglo.. four pairs of pistols. The steward was a faithful mu Saxons, latto man, who had sailed with me several voyages. To

When all our fathers worshipped stocks and stones ! him I communicated my suspicions, and directed him to be constantly on the alert: and should any further diffi “The last to make up here the number of seven, wag. culty with the crew occur, to repair immediately to my the idol Seater, fondly of some, supposed to be Saturnus. state - room and arm himself. His usual berth was in He was mistaken for Saturnus, not in regard of any the steerage, but I directed that he should, on the fol- saturnical quality, but because his name sounded somewhat lowing morning, clear out and occupy one in the cabin near it, and his festival-day fell jump with that of Saturn. near my own. The second mate occupied a small state-But I can find no reason to think that any of these were l'oom opening into the passage which led from the steerage intended for such, before it pleased the Romans so to to the cabin. I called him from the deck, gave him a pair | interpret them; and, perhaps, some of the Germans, for of loaded pistols, with orders to keep them in his berth ; | their idols' more honour, were afterwards content to allow


it so. This good., god stood to be adored in such manner, as tempest at sea, as should break and disperse the armada, here his picture doth show him.

which from HERALD, King of Denmark, was coming against him; the which, according to his desire, by the Devil's power, (whose instruments the idols were,) he obtained."

We must remember, that the author, in affirming the success of this horrible piece of idolatry, wrote in the beginning of the reign of James the First; when not only the monarch, but the most learned men of the time, including the incomparable Lord Bacon, implicitly believed in witchcraft, and therefore lent a willing ear to absurd stories of this kind.

“These idols before named, with other the like, the pagan Saxons brought with them, at such times as they came into Britain; and there erected and honoured them, and especially their idol WODEN, as it doth appear by sundry places in England, which of him yet retain their appellation."

In a former paper, as a proof of this, we instanced Woodnesborough, or Woden's borough, in which parish are many names of places evidently derived from the Saxon ; among others, Cold Friday-Street. “This," says Hasted, in his History of Kent, “is certainly derived from the Saxon words Cola and Friga, which latter was the name of a goddess worshipped by the Saxons."

Here, then, we take our leave of the Idols of the Saxons. Of these," to use once more the language of Verstegan," though they had many, yet seven among the rest they especially appropriated unto the seven days of the week, which, according to their course and properties, we have here, to satisfy the curious reader, described, both in portraiture and otherwise."

Not only, however, " to satisfy the curious," but to raise right feelings in the mind of the candid reader, may, it is hoped, be the effect, as it has certainly been the object of these remarks. For, when

we consider that the natives of England were for“First, on a pillar was placed a perch, on the sharp prickback of which stood this idol. He was lean of visage,

merly “Gentiles, carried away to these dumb idols, having long hair, and a long beard, and was bare-headed

even as they were led;" does it seem to us a small and bare-footed. In his left hand he held up a wheel, and

thing to know the God of our Father,” and to be in his right he carried a pail of water, wherein were flowers taught by the light of Divine Revelation how we may and fruits. His 'long coat was girded unto him with a serve Him with a perfect heart and with a willing towel of white linen. His standing on the sharp fins of mind ?" this fish, was to signify that the Saxons, for their serving and error into the clear light; and if any one, born

We have been brought out of darkness him, should pass steadfastly and without harm, in dan in a Christian land, will give due attention to the gerous and difficult places. By the wheel was betokened the knit unity and conjoined concord of the Saxons, and subject which has formed the groundwork of these their concurring together in the running one course. By descriptions ; he will surely acknowledge that he is the girdle, which with the wind streamed from him, was possessed of a high privilege, and bound by a pecusignified the Saxons' freedom. By the pail with flowers liar responsibility, and that it is his duty to be thankand fruits, was declared, that with kindly rain he would ful for the one, and true to the other. We know not nourish the earth, to bring forth such fruit and flowers. how to conclude our series in words more to the point And the day unto which we yet give the name of SATURDAY, did first receive, by being unto him celebrated, the

than those of the ingenious author of a work lately same appellation."

published, entitled Three Weeks in Palestine. Good master Verstegan having been unusually “The meteor flag of Britain had been hoisted in honour precise, as well as fanciful, in his description of this of our arrival*. it toated above me on the breeze, glancing figure, we will say no more of Seater; but we cannot brightly in the moonlight, and carried my thoughts irredeny ourselves the pleasure of quoting a few additional condition at the period of our Saviour's birth, and at the

The contrast between England's passages, quaintly describing other inferior deities, present, came forcibly before me. What was she then? worshipped by our benighted ancestors.

An island, inhabited by naked miserable savages, given up “The Saxons had, beside these, the idol ERMENSEWL in to a sanguinary idolatry. What is she now ? The chosen great reputation, his name being, as much as to say, the of the earth, invested by the Almighty with the privileges pillar, or stay of the poor. This god, (or more truly devil,) of the once-favoured sons of Abraham, the depository of was made armed, standing among flowers, &c. They His oracles, the guardian of His holy faith ; and her flag, ardored, also, the idol Flynt, who had that name for his however glorious in its triumphs under the Lord of Hosts, being set upon a great flint-stone. This idol was made while braving 'the battle and the breeze,' has the still like the image of Death, and naked, save only a sheet higher pre-eminence of being His instrument, to bear the about him. In his right hand he held a torch, or, as they glad tidings of salvation to the uttermost parts of the termed it, a fire-blaze; on his head a lion rested. They earth. May she never be insensible of these lofty prihad also many other idols, which would be too long, and vileges, never forfeit her high estate!" too worthless, here to be described. And such was their

* At Jaffa. great blindness in this gross paganism, that they not only with all divine honour adored these idols, but even sacrificed human creatures unto them, both in Germany,

LONDON: and in the adjoining northern regions. Yea, HERALD,

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. King of Norway, did sacrifice two of his own sons unto his


FRICE SIXPENCE, AND idols, to the end that he might obtain of them such a

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.




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