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THE AMERICAN STEAM-VESSEL, THE CARROLL OF CARROLTON. and quarters to the rudder. The fire is maintained round, and where there is any unoccupied panel with billets of wood, which produces a speedier and work, as at the ends, a good landscape in oil, or a more extensive flame than coals-pine is preferred, mirror fills up the space. At the fore-part of the but bass or hickory does very well; they are both cabin is placed the bar, where wines, spirits, liqueurs, more cheap and plentiful.

cigars, and snuff are sold, and joining to which On deck are also placed the captain's office for there is a fair library, of popular and entertaining receiving fares and transacting other business. There histories, biographies, and novels, which are lent out are also, a post-office, hair-dressers' shops, where to the passengers, during a voyage, for a trifling sum. perfumery and various articles for the toilet are sold, The ladies' cabin is abaft, having a staircase up to with hot chauffers for curling-irons always in readi- another one on deck; both are most splendidly fitted ness, and chairs for hair-cutting—not to forget an out in crimson silk damask, gilt and bronzed furnioffice for cleaning shoes and brushing clothes, all ture, large mirrors, a piano-forte, loo table, and attended by friseurs and boots, neatly dressed, and many of the elegancies of the drawing room. wearing aprons, more or less white. Luggage-cabins The meals of breakfast, dinner, and tea, are at and offices occupy the remainder of the deck accom- stated hours, to which the guests are summoned by modation. There is generally an awning-deck, sup- the ringing of the great bell in the little belfry on ported on pillars, below which, the passengers may deck; and the price of cach meal is generally colwalk secure from rain or the heat of the sun, and lected from the guests, either before they sit down, on the top of which they may again enjoy the open or while at table. breeze, and the prospects of the voyage. Seats and On the whole, these steam-vessels may be consichairs are placed in every direction. The number of dered as floating hotels, and their fare and accommopassengers on the Hudson or Delaware will often, dation are preferred, by many travellers, to what the in the height of the travelling-season, amount in one hotels on shore afford, in every respect, except the trip to seven or eight hundred.

single one of there being few or no enclosed rooms But the cabins display a still higher and more for retirement and sleeping. splendid richness and accommodation; there being no machinery below, the whole extent of the body of SUPPOSE us to have much spare time, and to want the vessel is left open, for the arrangement of the

business, so that we are to seek for divertisement, and cabin, sleeping-berths, steward's rooms, bar, library, must for relief fly to curiosity; yet it is not advisable to &c. The main or gentlemen's cabin, in the Carroll of meddle with the affairs of other men; there are divers Carrolton, is 120 feet long, intersected nearly in the other ways, more advantageous, to divert ourselves, and middle, by two large folding-doors, on brass rails satisfy curiosity. and runners.

The whole floor is covered with the Nature offereth herself, and her inexhaustible store of gayest Brussels carpetting, having couchrs, ottomans, harm, and with much delight, survey her rich varieties,

appearances, to our contemplation ; we may, without any and chairs placed around; all made of elegant examine her proceedings, pierce into her secrets. Every cabinet-work, bronzed or gilt, and covered with kind of animals, of plants, of minerals, of meteors, preshowy moreen, or having cane bottoms. Two tiers senteth matter, wherewith innocently, pleasantly, and of sleeping-berths, surround the sides of the cabin, profitably, to entertain our minds. There are many noble furnished with good linen, blankets, and quilts, and sciences, by applying our minds to the study whereof, we hung with yellow damask, and heavy silk-bob fringe. may not only divert them, but improve and cultivate them.

-BARROW. The ceiling white, with gilded heads and panels; tables of mahogany, and easily separated into convenient and clegant sections, or arranged ensuite, to

LONDON: form the immense dinner-table when wanted. Be JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. tween the sleeping-berths are pillars of maple or

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMPERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALY PARTS

PRICE SIXPENCE, AND satin-wood, supporting a gilded cornice running all Sold by all Bookacllers and Newsvenders in the Kingdor.

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TERATUREL EDUCATION

Saturday

Magazine

NO 126.

JUNE

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PRICE ONE PENNY.

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE ISLAND OF GUERNSEY

tion of the old fortifications, and the precipitous nature of Ar a distance of about twenty-six miles from Cape La the coast, the island was rendered almost impregnable, and Hogue, in that part of the English Channel called Mount the anticipated calamity averted. St. Michael's Bay, on the coasts of Normandy and Britany, The form of the island is nearly triangular, and its lies the Island of Guernsey; which, with Jersey, Alderney, coast is indented with small bays and coves, some of Sark, and their dependencies, compose a group designated which are of great beauty. In parts, the cliff's rise boldly by the name of the Channel Islands.

from the beach to a height of 300 feet. It is neither so Until a recent period, comparatively little was known in well wooded nor so productive as Jersey; nor in the England, of the real condition of these remarkable Islands; general attractions of its natural scenery, can it at all " and this" (as Mr. Inglis, in his valuable work*, well be compared with that island; taste and money, howremarks) "is the more extraordinary, when we consider, ever, have effected much. Houses of a superior, and that there are certain points of interest attached to them, often elegant description, surrounded with wood, are almost peculiarly their own; and which essentially distinguish every where to be met with; and the farm-houses, and them from the other colonies and dependencies of Great even cottages, have an unusually comfortable appearance. Britain. Among these may be enumerated, their con There is, however, a considerable portion of waste land; and nexion with the Norman Conquest, and long dependence one part of the island bears a different aspect from the other, upon the British crown; their separate and independent for while the east, south, and central parts, present all the constitution, and the peculiar laws by which they are characteristics of fruitfulness and industry, large tracts in governed; their singular privileges; their native civilized the northern and western parts are but imperfectly reinhabitants; their vicinity to the coast of France; and the claimed; and present a very uninviting and sterile appeargeneral use of the French language." As one object, ance: much of the latter has, indeed, been but recently however, in this paper, is to give our readers some account recovered from the sea. The position of Guernsey, exposed of Guernsey, the second island in extent and importance, as it is to the force of the channel-stream, renders the we shall, for the present, only further premise, that the navigation along its shores, extremely difficult, from the group altogether comprehends a population exceeding strength and impetuosity of the currents; the only good 65,000, nearly two-thirds of whom belong to Jersey. and safe anchorage, is on the southern side, where there is

The island of Guernsey, which lies considerably nearer a sandy bottom about a mile and a half from the coast. to England than the sister isle, extends in extreme length, Vegetables of almost every description abound, and are about eight miles from N.E. to S.W.; its breadth from of the finest quality; but the trees, with the exception of N.W. to S.E. is nearly six, and its circumference exceeds the elm, are seldom either lofty or luxuriant. Most kinds thirty miles. Little is known of its early history. It of European fruit grow in profusion, and so genial is the appears to have been desolate and uninhabited, when first climate, that many rare and beautiful plants, which revisited by the Romans, about seventeen years before the quire artificial heat, even in the south of England, tlourish Christian era. In the Itinerary of the Emperor Antoninus, in Guernsey in the open air. Orange-trees grow well out it is called Garnia, before which period, a governor was

of doors, even in winter, with a little occasional shelter. appointed over it. The religion of the Druids must have The climate has been described by a competent medical subsequently flourished here, as is evinced by the discovery authority, (Mr. S. E. Hoskins,) to be “milder than the of Ave Druidical temples; from which it may also be

test of France in the winter, and considerably warmer assumed that there must have been a considerable popu

than the southern coast of Devonshire, at all seasons, lation. The Christian religion was first introduced about without being more humid. The temperature is subject the year 520, by Sampson, Bishop of Dol, in Britany, who to frequent, but not extensive variations; the thermometer is said to have founded a chapel. As Christianity ad- seldom rises above 80 degrees of Fahrenheit, and seldom vanced, chapels were built in different parts of the island falls as low as 37 degrees; the heat of summer is tempered near, the sea-shore, and the inhabitants, at that period, by a gentle sea-breeze; and frosts are neither severe nor subsisting entirely by fishing; the priests, who officiated, I durable; indeed, whole winters often pass away without a were allowed the tithe of all the fish that were caught, a single fall of snow."

The island is, “on the whole, custom which has been continued ever since.

healthy, and rarely affected with epidemic diseases +." About the middle of the tenth century, an abbey Most of the English song-birds frequent Guernsey; but was founded, dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel; the sportsman will only find woodcocks and snipes in the whose inmates became so famed for piety, that Guernsey list of game. Mackerel, turbots, multets, soles, sea-pike, acquired the name of Holy Island, an appellation which it whitings; plaice, bream, pollocks, and rock-fish, abound off long retained. The inhabitants of the island, who shortly its shores; conger-eels are sometimes taken of the weight after this period, from the persuasion of the monks, had of forty pounds; nor are shell-fish less plentiful; crabs of taken in hand the plough, as well as the oar, suffered the endrinous size of three feet in circumference have greatly from the piratical incursions of the Danes, to repel occasionally been captured; there is also a variety called whom, a strong-hold or castle was commenced, which was the spitler-crab; from the resemblance of its form to that subsequently completed in a style of great magnificence, by insect, which is also peculiar to this coast, and in high the orders of Robert Duke of Normandy, who, in the year repute amongst gourmands ; lobsters; prawns, and shrimps, 1030, had been preserved from shipwreck here, by the exer- are exceedingly abundant. “ Shrimping" is described to tionis of the Guernsey fishermen. Little more than the shell be quite a passion amongst persons of all ranks; and so of this structure, consisting of the outer walls, and the ilank- various are tastes in matters of recreation, that a writer in ing towers of the old portal, now exists; barracks have; a recent periodical remarks, that he has seen individuals however, been erected within, for a few soldiers. The who found quite as much pleasure in wading knee-deep Normans afterwards, erected two other very strong for- for half a day among the rocks, to make capture of some tresses, one of which has now wholly disappeared; the handfuls of shrimps, as has ever been afforded to others in shattered ruins of the other, from its walls being mantled the pursuit of the deer or the fox! with ivy, are known by the name of Ivy Castle.

Although the snake, the mole, and the toad, abound in The French, in the reign of Edward the Third, twice Jersey, it is a remarkable fact that they are unknown in held possession of Guernsey. The island remained loyal this island. to the crown during the Civil War, at which period it Agriculture in Guernsey is still in a rude and comwas twice besieged by the forces of the Parliament; paratively primitive condition. This arises from the almost but the inbabitants, after à protracted defence; were infinite subdivision of the land, few “estates" in the island ultimately obliged to surrender on honourable terms. exceeding twelve English acres, whilst many are not more During the Revolution in 1688, the inland fortification; than five, and this evil, from the state of the law, is called Castle Cornet, which had been garrisoned with continually increasing ; each son is entitled to an equal Roman Catholic soldiers by James the Second, was taken division of his father's landed property, the only advantage by a well concerted stratagem on the part of the officers of enjoyed by the elulest, being, that he may retain possession the Protestant soldiery, and the magistrates of St. Peter's. of the dwelling-house, and twenty perches of land around.

During the late war with France, Guernsey was fre- The cultivators of the ground, therefore, possess little or quently under serious apprehensions from threatened in no capital, and can with difliculty raise sufficient for their vasions; but from the active exertions which were made, subsistence and the payment of their rents, which are the erection of the new fortress of St. George, the repara-extremely high.

• The Channel Islands; to which work, and Lewis's Topogra + In Mr. Inglis's work will be found a full examination of the ad phical Dictionary, we have to confess our obligations.

vantages offered by the Channel Islands to the invalid.

The soil of Guernsey is in many parts well suited for , sovereign, in the year 1563, as a “ Grammar School, in the production of grain: wheat has of late years been which the youth of the island may be better instructed in the most extensively sown; the barley is of the first good learning and virtue." Certain lands were assigned quality, and is much used for malting. A remarkable for its maintenance, but for more than two centuries after custom, of high antiquity, prevails in harvesting this grain : its foundation, it existed in little more than its name, instead of being cut, it is pulled up by the roots; women sometimes not a single boy being on the institution. and boys, as well as men, are engaged in this employment, In 1824, however, the public feeling was at last and the usual mode is to strike the root of the stalk awakened, and after various plans had been suggested, it against the shoes, to free it from the mould, before it is was determined that a new college should be erected and laid down in rows for the binder. The peasantry assert maintained at the expense of the states. The present that the clover-crop is much benefited by this practice, in noble structure was first publicly opened in 1829, and has consequence of the loosening of the earth; and a greater since prospered exceedingly. Guernsey also possesses an bulk of straw is certainly obtained. One of the chief institution improperly named an “ hospital," which has sources of profit to the Guernsey farmer is the dairy, the met with high praise from travellers, by whom it has been island possessing a very valuable breed of cattle.

designated a “poor-house; a refuge for the destitute; a The pleasing custom of giving mutual assistance in workhouse; and, for the young, a seminary for instruction." tillage, is generally resorted to; for, as few individuals keep The environs of St. Peter's Port are picturesque and more than perhaps a single horse and an ox, he would find attractive; villas, generally in good taste, rise on every it difficult to plough his land sufficiently deep for the side; the sea-views are extensive and varied; whilst the growth of parsneps and potatoes. Each farmer fixes a beauty of the inland scene is greatly enhanced by the day for what is termed his “grand plough,” when his numerous gardens, “and the passion for flowers, which neighbours and friends cheerfully assemble, at an early is every where prevalent amongst all classes” in the island. hour, with their cattle, and generally accomplish all that is Amongst the upper classes in Guernsey, civilization has to be done in the course of the day, their fare being the attained a high standard ; and whether in dress, manners, only recompense which is looked for.

appointments, or language," the best society is, we are St. Peter's Port, or Port St. Pierre, of the High Street told, on a level with a similar rank in England. The lower of which we give an engraving*, is situated on the shore of crders still preserve, as we have already slightly illustrated, a bay on the eastern side of the island, possessing a good many of their primitive customs; a visible change has, road for shipping. When viewed from seaward, it rises however, taken place in the manners, as well as in the from the foot to the summit of a hill, with an effect at dress of the younger portion, since the commencement o once picturesque and imposing, which is heightened by the the present century. massive proportions of Elizabeth College, the Church of On the industrious and frugal habits of the people, and St. James, and Castle Carey, standing boldly out on the on their morality, most writers indeed are fully agreed. upper part of the elevation. Mr. Inglis, however, says, We have previously alluded to the comfortable exterior of that all the apparent attractions of the town disappear on the farm-houses generally, and we may add, that the stepping on shore: and he proceeds to designate the interior, from the neatness of the arrangements, fully “ narrow, steep, and crooked streets, flanked by substantial, realizes the expectations thus excited. Mr. Inglis says, but old-looking dusky houses," as execrable.'

“even in entering a cottage, where there is only a 'but This remark may be extended to most sea-port towns; and ben,' I have seen as clean floors, and as neat a display 'but the environs of St. Peter's, it appears, are so delightful, of cookery and kitchen utensils, as one could find in any of as to make ample amends to the disappointed visitant. the more comfortable English cottages." It may not be Considerable improvements, we learn, however, from other uninteresting to add, that sea-weed is much used by the sources, have of late years been made in the town, par- poor for fuel, and by the farmer for manure. ticularly the removal of most of the old houses in High

The trade of Guernsey, although from various causes, Street, which has been considerably widened.

particularly the introduction of the bonding system into St. Peter's Church, partially seen in our view, is of England, not so extensive as formerly, is considerable. Its considerable antiquity, having been erected in 1312. This trade in wine and spirits, has always been the most imstructure, which is of greater architectural pretension than portant: and in 1833, there were also exported 116,832 galany other in the island, consists of a nave, two aisles, and lons of cider, of which, also, there is a very extensive a chancel, with a tower in the centre, surmounted by a low home-consumption in the island; aml 19,568 gallons of spire. Divine service is performed both in the English | potato spirits, besides 49,837 bushels of that vegetable, and and French languages, at different periods. St. James's a small quantity of wheat, flour, biscuit, and apples, all of Church, previously alluded to, was built by subscription, the growth or make of the island. A large quantity of expressly for the performance of the service of the Church granite of the finest quality, besides bricks and cement, of England in English. There are two chapels of ease, are also annually exported. The export of cows, heifers, and several places of worship for dissenters in the town. and calves, amounted to 553. The imports are not exten

St. Peter's Port is, in most parts, well paved, and some sive. The manufactures of Guernsey consist of cordage; of the streets are provided with foot-ways. Gas has also paper, cement, bricks, soap, and candles, but none of these been introduced; and the town possesses a public library, trades are carried on to any extent. The principal part of assembly rooms, and five newspapers. But the most im- the commerce with England is conducted through the port portant public building in St. Peter's Port, is the Fish- of Southampton, which possesses some peculiar privileges market, a structure which, in its way, is perhaps unrivalled, with respect to the island, Government steam-vessels, both for its convenience and the abundance of its supplies. carrying the mails, sail regularly every Wednesday and

The harbour of St. Peter's Port was first commenced in Saturday from Weymouth, to Guernsey and Jersey: but the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the south pier, at the preferable port of embarkation, in consequence of its present existing, was constructed; it extends 757 feet, being nearer to the metropolis, is Southampton, from curving inwards at its extremity to within about 80 feet whence steamers also sail twice weekly. of the northern pier, which was built in the reign of Queen The people, both of Guernsey and Jersey, have always Anne. It has recently been proposed to construct a new been celebrated in privateering annals; when the freeharbour, accessible from the depth of water at all states of trade, which from time immemorial had been enjoyed by the tide; but it is generally thought, that the undertaking the islands, both in war and in peace, between England would not pay the cost. About half a mile to seaward and France, was abolished by William the Third, in 1689, situated on a rocky islet, which it completely covers, is the inhabitants carried on this somewhat hazardous purCastle Cornet, a venerable pile of very high antiquity. It suit so successfully, as to capture no less than 1500 vessels, in is an important defence to the harbour, and has therefore about twenty years. During the late war, the islands again sustained several sieges; some parts of the structure are extensively engaged in privateering, as well as in smugconsidered of Roman origin.

gling; and strange stories have been told respecting them. The most interesting institution in Guernsey is Elizabeth The states, or legislative body of the island, is composed College, which, as already mentioned, forms a very striking of the bailiff, named by the crown; the rectors of parishes, feature in the scenery of St. Peter's Port. This college, the constables, representatives of parishes, and the jurats which was originally called the “ School of Queen Eliza- Trial by jury is unknown, all judicial power residing in the beth," was founded under the Letters Patent of that bailiff and jurats. The public expenditure, of almost every

description, is defrayed by a general property-lax. The From one of a beautiful series of lithographs, published at Guernsey, highly creditable to the enterprise of Mr. Moss, a book

island contains ten parishes, and is within the diocese of seller of that island,

Winchester,

KNOTS.

Hitches are an extremely useful description of knots, It is always worth while, even in the simplest acts of by means of which the end of a rope is fastened our lives, to endeavour to be as nearly perfect as

round any object, so that it may be easily cast off possible. A well-tied knot is often a matter of con

again. siderable moment, and may ensure the safety of lives and property, while many a serious accident has happened, both on sea and shore, from the want of skill or care in this apparently easy operation. At first sight, few things would seem to be more easy than the tying of a knot; but to perform this simple operation well, that is, so as to produce the effect required with the least labour and the greatest degree of neatness, is the result of considerable practice, and of some judgment.

The following are a few of the principles necessary to be attended to in making good knots. In the first place, the knot should be so made as to prevent the cords with which it is formed crossing each other at right angles, for in such case there would be more chance of the rope breaking, than if the strain was in an oblique direction ; this may be illustrated by the two following diagrams, which represent two methods of tying the ends of a cord together. In the first case, which is Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

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A BLACKWALL-HITOEL

A TIXBBR-HITCH.

A ROLLING-HITCH.

A CAT'S-PAW

B

B

A SHEEPSHANK, BEFORE IT IS DRAWN TIGHT.

A Sheepshank is a species of knot made in the the common method, if the cords A B and ca are

middle of a rope, for the purpose of shortening it. pulled in opposite directions, the strain will act at right angles at AA, and the friction at those points will be so great as to risk the breaking, or rather the cutting, of the string at those places. But if we look at the Weaver's Knot, fig. 2, we shall see that, when drawn tight, the strain which occurs at a

To fasten off the end of a rope, and B, is in an oblique direction. There is, also, and prevent its unravelling, is at another advantage attending this knot, namely, the times very necessary; and to effect greater compactness of its form, and from its allow this many plans are resorted to. ing, when drawn tight, both the ends to be cut off The simplest is the annexed. nearly close. In many cases, however, knots, particu

SPLICES, or the methods of larly those formed by fishermen and sailors, must pos-joining neatly and intimately the sess other properties besides that of security; they ends of two ropes, are very numermust be quickly tied and as quickly undone, and, in

ous and ingenious, but it would be these instances, the thickness of the ropes must be difficult to make even the simplest also taken into consideration.

intelligible, in an engraving. On ship-board, it is frequently necessary to form

There is a knot made by seamen, known by the a loop at the end of a rope, for the purpose of

name of the True-lover's Knot, and it is difficult, obtaining a better hold or purchase; to effect this the two following methods are adopted :

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A SINGLE WALL-KNOT,
BEFORE IT IS DRAWX

TIGHT.

..

A BOWLINE KXOT.

A BOWLINE-KNOT IN THE

BIGHT OY A ROPE,

THE TRUE-LOVER'S KNOT.

The next two Engravings are examples of different plied, to understand in what manner it could have

without inquiring into the uses to which it is apmethods of fastening together the ends of two ropes; obtained this romantic name. On board ship, it this is called bending :

is frequently necessary to raise water by means of a bucket or other vessel, and if this vessel should happen to be without a handle, it would require some ingenuity to find out the means of lowering it into the water : to gain this point, the seamen have invented the knot represented in the engraving.

A RIET-KNOT, OR DEND, BEFORE

IT V DRAWN TIGHT,

A CARRICK-KNOT, OR BEND, BEFORE

IT IS DRAWN TIGIIS,

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