Obrazy na stronie

these admirable statues, besides three others quite defaced, | formed of oak, and are surmounted with canopies, pinand two more over the eastern part of the portico, and as nacles, and other ornaments. The sides of the choir are many more over the western door, pretty entire, and all lined throughout with oak, and the general arrangement of ündeniable witnesses of their former excellency."

the stalls and the seats for the Westminster scholars, of Many alterations have been made in the appearance of the pulpit, and their several ornaments, is excellently this part of the church since the above account was written; adapted to give full effect to the building. One of the but the imposing, effect of its four grand buttresses, chief objects of curiosity in this part of the edifice, is a euriously and richly ornamented; and of the great porch, most beautiful piece of Mosaic pavement, the gift of Abbot stretching far inward, and displaying on each side the most Ware, who brought it from the continent in the reign of exquisite specimens of sculptural ingenuity, still claims Henry the Third. The pavement of the choir itself for it the admiration of all who have the good taste to is composed of black and white marble, and was laid at examine its magnificent details. The western porch ex the expense of the celebrated Dr. Busby. The modern hibits a similar variety or ornament; while the great Rose marble altar-piece, which was designed for the chapel at Window, as it is termed, of the third compartment, forms Whitehall, was taken down at the coronation of George the å feature of this side of the edifice equally striking and Fourth, and the original altar-piece restored, as nearly as appropriate. Divided into several smaller circles, each pos- possible to its ancient design. The Screen which separates sessing its proper decorations, this beautiful window pre- the choir from the nave is very

beautiful*. sents a noble mass of brilliant colour, and delicate fret

EDWARD THE CONFESSOR'S CHAPEL. work of stone, the painter and the sculptor having each DIRECTLY behind the choir is the chapel of St. Edward endeavoured to fill it with the choicest specimens of his art. We cannot follow the architect or the antiquary through other royal personages. The screen which ornaments this

the Confessor, containing the tomb of that monarch, and their laboured descriptions of this wonderful building, so extensive, and so complicated in its plan. The south side, structure, though sadly dilapidated, is regarded as one of the however, is worthy of particular attention: the original most interesting remains of ancient art, and is decorated with builders were obliged to employ all the resources of their

a frieze, representing, in elaborate sculpture, the traditionary art to overcome the difficulties occasioned by the nearness

events of the Confessor's life. It is divided into fourteen of the cloisters, and to secure a sufficient space between the compartments; and some of the representations are so abutments and the superstructure, while the walls were not amply repaid by tracing the events they display. The first

remarkable, that the curious in historical traditions will be left without a fitting support. Sir Christopher Wren accuses the architect of having attempted this object with Edward alarmed by the appearance of the devil dancing

three are merely historical, the fourth represents King little success; but his opinion is strongly controverted, and * is shown by those well qualified to decide on the subject, in the next, we have Edward the Confessor's generous

upon the money collected for the payment of Dane-gelt; that, considering the nature of the site on which the work was to be performed, it could scarcely have been executed This subject is thus described by the laborious Mr. Brayley,

admonition to the thief who was purloining his treasure. in a more skilful manner.

On entering the building by the western porch, the from Ailred's account of the life and morals of King spectator is immediately struck with the surpassing beauty of the long-drawn aisles, extending before him in solemn

“ Whilst Edward was one day lying musing on his bed, a repose, and presenting a succession of noble columns, har- youthful domestic entered his chamber, and thinking the monious arches, and fretted vaults, that blend together monarch had been asleep, he went up to a coffer, (which with the ease and agreement, which make it appear that open,) and taking out a great quantity of money, deposited

Hugoline, the king's chamberlain, had negligently left each necessarily springs from the other. The rich lights it in his bosom, and quitted the apartment. Having of the painted windows, and the majestic marble monuments, quickly divide his attention with the architectural placed the stolen treasure in security, he returned a second graces of the edifice; and when he enters the nave, he time, and did the like; and not being yet contented with finds himself filled with new wonder and delight, at the con

his booty, he came a third time, and was again kneeling af tinued richness of every portion of the scene around him.

the chest, when the king, who knew his coamberlain to Not less magnificent is the north transept, which, with the

be at hand, but wished the thief to make his escape, western and eastern aisles, affords an almost unbroken exclaimed, "You are too covetous, youth; take what you mass of curious sculpture and noble monumental marbles.

have and fly; for if Hugoline come, he will not leave you In the south transept, known by the appellation of the being pursued. Shortly afterwards Hugoline came back,

a single doit.

The pilferer immediately fled without Poet's Corner, we meet with one of the most inspiring and perceiving how considerable a sum had been stolen spectacles that an English eye can behold. It is here that through his negligence, he turned pale and trembled, the choicest genius of the land has received from admiring sighing vehemently at the same time. The king hearing ages the acknowledgment of its worth. Milton, Dryden, Shakspeare, Thomson, and others but I him, rose from his bed, and affecting to be ignorant of little inferior to them, seem to be still looking upon the

what had happened, inquired the cause of his perturbation; jorld, which they delighted and improved by their

which Hugoline relating, 'Be at peace,' replied Edward, and he would scarcely deserve to share in the good diffused perhaps he that has taken it has more need of it than uy the elevated strains of these mighty men, who could ourselves : let him have it, what remains is sufficient for stand in the midst of this chamber of soul-breathing bed, and the thief kneeling at the money chest."

us.' In the sculpture, the king appears reclining in his imagery, without a deep and generous emotion of thankfulness that such men have been given to his country.

The tomb of the monarch occupies the centre of the The CHAPEL of St. Blaize is interesting from its having chapel, and the translation of his remains to this superb been, as is supposed, the treasury of the Abbey, and as

shrine, was, for near three hundred years, commemorated exhibiting all those singular marks of strength and secu

by the church as a grand festival. Offerings of the richest rity which seem to confirm the tradition respecting its early kind, gold and jewels, were presented at the altar; and the employment. But in the Choir the spectator again finds

shrine itself, constructed of the most precious materials, himself irresistibly held captive by the graceful delicacies

is said to have presented, before it was despoiled at the of architectural and sculptural art. A slight variation in Reformation, a specimen of the most sumptuous art. The style distinctly points out the two portions of this beautiful

coffin which contains the ashes of the saint was, by order structure, built in the time of Henry the Third and his

of James the Second, enclosed within another, made of son Edward.

“In the work of Edward's reign,” says Mr. planks two inches thick, and bound together with iron; and Brayley, the elegant historian of the Abbey, “ the shafts

this coffin may be seen from the parapet of Henry the which surround the larger columns, are not encircled by

Fifth's Chapel. rows of illets, like those of Henry's reign, but every alter- fessor are the tombs of Edward the First, Henry the

Surrounding this magnificent mausoleum of the Connate one has had a metal cap introduced instead, at the same height as the fillets; the moulding, also, both of the Third, Queen Eleanor, Henry the Fifth, Queen Philippa, greater and lesser arches are different, and other minute

Edward the Third, Richard the Second, and Queen Anne, variations may be traced in divers places. Henry's build- his consort. Each of these shrines presents some proof of ing includes the whole eastern part of the church to the the luxurious taste which prevailed in the periods when first column west from the transept; from thence Edward they were raised, and of the pious reverence with which extended it to the second column of the nave." The stalls, the remains of the great and good were regarded by their of which there are thirty-two, besides those for the dean followers; but on none does the eye rest with more pleasure and sub-dean, which are covered with purple cloth, are

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 97.

than on that dedicated to Queen Eleanor, consort of the had intended to give to stone the character of embroidery, adventurous Edward the First. In all the dangers of that and enclose his walls within the meshes of lace-work. monarch's long and valorous career, she was ever at his with the exception of the plinth, every part is covered by side; and tradition reports, that when in the Holy Land sculptural decorations; the buttress-towers are crested by he lav almost in the agonies of death, she saved him by ornamental domes, and enriched by niches and elegant sucking away the poison which had been infused by the tracery; the cross-springers are perforated into airy forms; dagger of the Saracen.

and the very cornices and parapets are charged, even to The chapel containing the remains of Henry the Fifth, profusion, with armorial cognizances and knotted foliage. occupies the whole of the east end of the Confessor's, “ This building consists of a nave, two side aisles, and and is supposed to have been erected early in the reign five small chapels, including the east end. There is no of Henry the Sixth. Several relics of the monarch's entrance but from the interior of the Abbey Church, to warlike achievements are preserved in this shrine, and which it is attached, except by a small door-way in the the very helmet which, it is conjectured, he wore in his south-east staircase-tower, which opens into the south boldest encounters with the enemies of England. On the aisle, and would seem to have been principally intended south side of the chapel stands the tomb of Queen Phi- for the conveniency of workmen. The vaulting and roof lippa, wife of Edward the Third. It is constructed of black are supported by fourteen octagonal buttress-towers, viz. marble, surmounted by a rich alabaster canopy, which over six on each side, and two eastward; between which are hangs a figure of the queen, sculptured out of the same thirteen lofty windows, those of the aisles being embowed, material. To the west of this stands the tomb of Edward and those of the chapels projecting in three angles, the the Third himself, formed of grey Petworth marble, but central angle forming an acute point. now much decayed ; and to the west of this is that of “Immediately above the base, which rises to the height Richard the Second and his Queen, Anne of Bohemia, of eight or ten feet, according to the inequality of the which is also constructed of Petworth marble, and as is the ground, the exterior is surrounded by a double row of case with siunilar parts of Edward's monuinent, the figures square panels, between mouldings and water-tables, and the canopy are of metal. The grave of the unfortunate crowned by a battlement. In each of the lower panels, Thomas of Woodstock, who was put to death by the angry on the middle of a quatrefoil, within a diagonal square, is favourite of Richard, is near this tomb; and at the northern either a portcullis chained, a rose, barbed and seeded, or a most door of the screen is that of John de Waltham, who fleur-de-lis, boldly sculptured, and ranged in alternate enjoyed, with the Bishopric of Salisbury, the great political order. All the upper panels are ornamented with radiated offices of Master of the Rolls and Lord High Treasurer. quatrefoils, enclosing plain shields, which are alternately of

Besides the monuments this chapel contains some other the common form, and of that used in tournaments in the objects of curiosity. The principal of these is the ancient fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The bases of the chair used at the coronation of the kings from the time of buttress-towers are included in this description, and in Edward the First, and which contains within its seat the both the upper and the lower division there are two panels, Prophetic or Fatal Stone*, so called from the belief of the ornamented as above in every part. In the hollow of the Scots, to whom it originally belonged, that whenever it was contiguous battlement-cornice, or that over the shields, are lost, the power of the nation would decline. In the year a variety of small oblong-shaped basso-relievos, including 1296 was fought that dreadful battle between Edward the oak and vine branches, conjoined leaves, dragons, lions, First and John Baliol, which decided the fate of the latter, grotesque human heads, demi-angels, animals with two and this celebrated stone was then removed, with the regal bodies uniting in one head, animal heads swallowing leaves, jewels, to London, where it has ever since remained. The and demi-musicians playing the violin. painted windows are also highly worthy of attention, both " The horizontal bands which go round the towers, are on account of their great age, and their curiosity as works ranged in conformity with the transoms of the windows. of art. The glass of which they are made is said to be The lowermost band is coinposed of quatrefoils, charged not less than the eighth of an inch thick, while the figures, with portcullises, and having small fleurs-de-lis over them, which are near seven feet high, are formed out of an in- and small ornamented circles, with foliage underneath. numerable variety of small pieces, cut so as to compose, The next principal band is ornamented on each face with a with proper shades of colour, the form and drapery of the large portcullis, a triplicated rose, or a fleur-de-lis, having characters described. In the legend of Edward the Con- at the sides small quatrefoils and foliage. All the headfessor and the Pilgrim, the deep and brilliant colours of bands are enriched with minute tracery, involving roses of the glass, the beautiful arrangement of the drapery, and different kinds, expanded flowers, leaves, &c. the noble expression given to the countenances of the “ The closely-wrought panelling of the next division, is figures, well deserve the admiration with which they are crowned by a boldly-projecting cornice, charged in an viewed.

unique manner, with the badges and supporters of the HENRY THE SEVENTH'S CHAPEL

royal founder, in complete relief, and deeply under-cut.

Here round the towers, the portcullis, the rose, and the Has been called “ The Wonder of the World;" and it fleur-de-lis, are ranged in alternate succession, with the may be fairly said, that never did the genius of art, lion, the dragon, and the greyhound; which are represented combined with the power and resources of wealth, produce as creeping across the cornice both upward and downward. a nobler specimen of architectural skill. It was com In the panels of the surmounting parapet, is a continued menced in 1502, the first stone having been laid in the range of portcullises placed within diagonal squares, and presence of this monarch, and was completed in about surmounted by handsome tracery. The buttress-towers ten years. Sir Reginald Bray is said to have been the extend to a considerable height above the parapet, and are chief author of the design after which the edifice was each crowned by an octagonal dome, of a graceful contour; erected; but it is also reported that he shared the labour having crockets springing up every angle, and terminating with Alcocke, Bishop of Ely, who, like himself, was cele- in a richly-crusted finial. An embattled cornice surrounds brated for his love of, and exquisite skill in, architecture. each dome, and at the angles are one or other of the King Henry lived to see the building nearly completed, animals just mentioned, in a descending attitude. Below and was buried in the sumptuous tomb which his own these, in front of each side-tower, are three canopied niches pride, as well as the piety of his successor, prepared for the with pedestals for statues; and on each pedestal is a label reception of his remains. The splendour of the building, inscribed in black letters, with the name of some prophet, when its gates were first opened to crowds of devout wor- apostle, or saint: varied tracery adorns the soffites, and the shippers, forms a favourite theme with the antiquary, canopies are gracefully formed; the drops are enriched with whose imagination may well be moved at the pictures foliage. The six easternmost towers have each four niches, drawn of the altars covered with gold, of the cross of the &c., similarly decorated. same metal, the beauteous marble pillars, and the image “ The flying-buttresses, or cross-springers, which extend of the Virgin bedight with sparkling jewels. Mr. Brayley over the side aisles and east-end, from the base of the has given a minute architectural description of this struc- turrets, are most ingeniously contrived, not only to resist ture, in his general history of the Abbey, and from his immense pressure of the vaulting roof, but likevery valuable work we borrow the following.

wise to connect the parts of the building, and associate by “There is no other edifice in the kingdom, the external their lightness and ornaments with the general mass. ornaments of which have been spread over its surface with They are each pierced into circles, &c., including quatresuch exuberant luxuriance as those of Henry the Seventh's foils and other forms; and the lion, the dragon, and the Chapel. It would seem, indeed, as though the architect greyhound, are sculptured in full relief, as creeping down

Called, also, in days of vulgar superstition, Jacob's Pillow. the weatherings.

“ The clerestory windows, which are large and very these being small, hardly sufficient light is admitted to finely proportioned, occupy a considerable part of the space show its ornaments. Upon the summit of the small between the piers against which the cross-springers abut; pillars at the entrance to the porch, are Henry's supporters, the side walls being enriched with panelling. Each viz., the lion, the dragon, and the greyhound; in the window is divided into three tiers, by embattled transoms; spandrils of the middle arch are his arms; and in those and further subdivided at the apex, by handsome tracery of the small arches his badges. Still higher is a range of spreading from the mullions. Amidst the great number panelled arches, terminating in pinnacles; and a frieze of rosettes, with which the cusps are adorned, scarcely decorated with roses, &c., the whole design being completed any two can be found which are exactly alike. In the by a battlement. On the eastern side are similar enrichspandrils within radiated quatrefoils, are roses and port- ments; and within the frame-work of the doorways, opening cullises of a large size, and in the hollows of the sur to the chapel, there are, also, various compartments of mounting cornice, are various sculptures of a longitudinal elegant panelling." form, in bold relief, including demi-angels with foliage, The architecture of tae nave is equally beautiful and oak branches with cups and acorns, and grotesque heads rich in ornament. A long range of statues give grace devouring foliage. From hence the walls are covered and animation to the rest of the decorations. The side by rich panelling to the upper cornice; the frieze of which chapels are beautified in a similar manner, while the noble exhibits a continued range of elaborately-wrought foliage; arch, which extends its magnificent span over the nave composed of oak and vine-branches with clustered fruit. from north to south, forms in itself a splendid object for On the other members are studded, in full relief, the king's the eye to contemplate. “In the design and construction badges and supporters, as before; but here all the animals of the main vaulting of the chapel," says Mr. Brayley, appear to be descending: in each division, the lion is a profound geometrical knowledge is combined with the placed in the middle, between either a rose and a port- utmost practical science; and the result has been truly cullis, or a fleur-de-lis and a portcullis; the dragon and the termed a prodigy of art.' It is not alone the untutored greyhound are at the sides.

mind that contemplates with astonishment the vastness of • The design for the present parapet, or embattlement, its extent, and the fearful altitude of its pendent decoraas it is improperly called, was furnished by Mr. J. Wyatt; i tions; but even the intelligent architect wonders at the inyet there is strong reason to believe that it bears very little genuity and daring hardihood that could arrange, and resemblance to the original battlement; which had been securely poise in air, such ponderous masses of stone, and entirely destroyed long before the commencement of the counteract the power of gravity by professional skill. The late repairs. It consists, principally, of a row of diagonal stalls on each side the nave are formed of oak, and are squares; pierced into quatrefoils, and in the angles between surmounted by richly-carved canopies, while the sub-sellæ them, half diagonals, pierced with trefoils. The whole is are as curious for their grotesqueness as the rest of the terminated by fourteen elevated pinnacles, the crockets and decorations are for their beauty." These stalls are now finials of which were partly designed from some remnants appropiated to the Knights of the Bath, whose names and of the ancient ones found among the rubbish; but as they arms are fixed at the back on plates of gilt copper; the now stand, without any merlons between them, they are names and arms of their esquires being placed in a similar decidedly too high. On each angle below the springing manner on the seats below. The canopies are ornamented of the crockets, is a lion, a dragon, and a greyhound, with the swords, crests, and helmets, of the knights; and, in alternate arrangement.

At the west end, rising at the grand installation which took place in 1812, silken above the upper stair-case turrets, are ornamental domes, banners were hung round the chapel, bearing the arms of similar to those of the other towers; these were erected the distinguished men who then belonged to the Order. in conformity to the original ones, which being in a The principal object of admiration here, both for its state of ruin, were taken down by the Abbey mason in antiquity and its workmanship, is the Tomb of Henry the July, 1803.

Seventh and Elizabeth his queen* “The internal architecture of this superb structure, is In the north aisle of this chapel are the monuments of not exceeded, nor perhaps paralleled by that of any Queen Elizabeth; the murdered Princes, Edward the building in Europe: and although, on a slight examination, Fifth and his brother Richard ; Sophia and Maria, infant it may appear that its ornamental character has diverged daughters of James the First; Charles Montague, first into overcharged exuberancy, yet, when the mind has Earl of Halifax: and George Saville, Marquis of Halifax, had leisure to separate the masses, and to reflect on the Here likewise is preserved the armour of General Monk. consummate science displayed in the details and arrange In the south aisle are the monuments of Mary, Queen of ment, the judgment recoils from its own inference, and Scots; Catherine, Lady Walpole; Margaret Beaufort, willingly submits to be controlled by the more powerful Countess of Richmond and Derby, the mother of Henry emotions of unmixed admiration. How magical must the Seventh; George Monk, the first Duke of Albemarle, have been the scene, when, 'in th' olden time, the sun's and Christopher his son, the second Duke. Here also is a rays, beaming through the oryent colours and imagery monument, on which lies a lady finely robed, the effigy of of its painted windows, tinged the aerial perspective with Margaret Douglas, daughter of Margaret, Queen of Scots, all the gorgeous hues of the prism and the rainbow !

by the Earl of Angus. This lady, who was very beautiful, This edifice is entered from the Abbey by a flight of twelve was privately married, in 1537, to Thomas Howard, son of steps, which leads through the porch to the brazen gates of the Duke of Norfolk, upon which account both of them the chapel itself. The porch, which is twenty-eight feet four were committed to the Tower by Henry the Eighth, her inches in width, opens from the church, by one large and uncle, for affiancing without his consent, and he died in two smaller lateral arches of equal height: these rest on prison; but this Margaret, being released, was soon after piers, which contribute also to the support of the chantry, married to Matthew, Earl of Lennox, by whom she had chapel, and screen, belonging to the monument of King Lord Darnley, father of James the First, whose effigy is Henry the Fifth. An elegant arch, or rather vault, of foremost on the tomb, in a kneeling posture, with the crown stone, about seventeen feet in its span, forms an embowed over his head, having been married some time to Mary roof to the porch, the entire soffite of which is beautifully Queen of Scots, but, in the twenty-first year of his age, wrought into panelling; including radiated quatrefoils murdered, not without some suspicion of foul practices in and other figures, ornamented with roses, fleurs-de-lis, &c. the queen. There are seven children besides round the The side walls, also, are adorned with uniform tiers of tomb of Margaret, of whom only three are mentiored in panelling, disposed thus : at the lower part is a range of history, the rest dying young. This great lady died March small quatrefoils within circles, surmounted by projecting 10, 1577. At the end is the royal vault, as it is called, in mouldings; these form the base of a row of seven arches, which the remains of Charles the Second, William the enriched with tracery, and crowned by an embattled Third and Mary his consort, Queen Anne, and Prince cornice, which is continued over the door-ways to the George, are all deposited. Over them, in a wainscot press, north and south aisles. The space above the cornice is

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 88. divided into four principal compartments, within which are + This lady, as the English inscription expresses, had to her greatintervening mullions, spreading into a profusion of a grandfather, Edward the Fourth; to her grandfather, Henry the handsome tracery; an embattled transom, similarly adorned, Seventh; to her uncle, Henry the Eighth; to her cousin-german, crosses the whole; and in the upper spandrils, are circles,

Edward the Sixth; to her brother, James the Fifth of Scotland; quatrefoils, and other figures. The two middle divisions

to her grandson, James the Sixth; having to her great-grandmother are rather flattened; the others are regularly pointed; the

and grandmother two queens, both named Elizabeth; to her mother,

Margaret, queen of Scots; to her aunt, Mary, the French queen; to upper compartments of the easternmost division are,

her cousins-german, Mary and Elizabeth, queens of England; to her on each side of the porch, pierced into a window; but niece and daughter-in-law, Mary, queen of Scots.

..... 36


In them may

is the effigy of Charles the Second in wax-work, dressed in THE CHAPEL OF ST. JOHN AND ST. MICHAEL the robes be wore at Windsor, at the installation of the is adorned with the monument of Lady Nightingale, Knights of the Garter.

executed by Roubiliac, and remarkable for the beauty of In a fine vault under Henry the Seventh's Chapel is its workmanship; the lady is represented as protected by the burying-place of the Royal Family, erected by George her husband, whilst a fine figure of Death is seen coming the Second.

out of a tomb to hurl his dart. Here, also, are the tombs The Dimensions of Henry the Seventh's Chapel are, of Admirals Kempenfelt and Pococke. Length 115 feet. Length of Nave ...... 104 feet.


80 Breadth of Nave.. Height of Towers...... 71 Height of Nave 61 was formerly called the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, Height of Roof.... 86 Breadth of each Aisle.. 17 and was dedicated to that saint. The name of Westminster Height of West Turrets : 102

was given to it with reference to its situation in the western For the present beautiful appearance of this splendid part of London, and from its having been, as already building, the nation is indebted to the extensive repairs noticed, the Minster or church of a monastery. commenced at the suggestion of Dr. Vincent. Three cen

The ESTABLISHMENT turies had elapsed since its foundation, and little or nothing of the Abbey is a College, founded by Queen Elizabeth in had been done during that period to preserve it against the 1560 consisting of a dean, and twelve secular canons, or rayages of time. Such, consequently, was its state of decay, prebendaries, to which the Queen also attached a school for that it was evident the whole would shortly be a mass of forty scholars, called the Queen's scholars, to be educated ruins, if speedy measures were not taken for its repair. A in the liberal sciences, preparatory to their removal to the memorial was accordingly presented to Parliament, and Universities. Private scholars are also admitted, and some £2000 being granted, the general repairs were begun in of the most illustrious persons have been educated here. 1809. Further grants were successively made, to the To the establishment also belong choristers, singing-men, amount of £42,000; and, on the Christmas eve of 1822,

an organist, and twelve almsmen. the scaffolding was taken away, and the magnificent edi

DIMENSIONS OF THE ABBEY. fice was again seen in all the beauty which it exhibited

Length, exclusive of Henry Breadth of Nave... 39 feet, three hundred years before.

the Seventh's Chapel. 416 feet. Height of Nave ...102 ST. ANDREW'S CHAPEL, which is next to the north Height of West Towers 225 Breadth of each Aisle.. 17 cross, and the others which surround the choir, are crowded Length

383 Length of Choir with monuments of noble personages, worthy of the atten

Breadth at the Transept 203 Breadth of Choir 28 tion of the curious.

Length of Nave

166 St. Benedict's CHAPEL contains the tomb and effigies

Besides the church, many of the ancient appendages of of Archbishop Langham, and at the corner is an iron gate

the Abbey remain. opening into the south cross aisle.


are entire, and filled with monuments. THE POET'S CORNER

still be traced the signs of monastic life. The door-ways Is so called from the number of monuments erected there are pointed out by which the monks proceeded to the to celebrate English poets, though we find here a monu

refectory, and other portions of the building set apart for ment to the memory of John, Duke of Argyle; and others

their retreat; and a serious, and not unprofitable, delight, to Camden, the antiquary ; Dr. Isaac Barrow, the divine; may be found in bringing to recollection the customs and Thomas Parr, who died at the age of 152 years.

which prevailed, the modes of worship, the habits and Amongst the most interesting monuments in Poet's

opinions which existed when the venerable walls of these Corner is that to the memory of Shakespeare. His atti

cloisters bore no signs of decay. They are built in a tude, dress, shape, and air, are so delicately expressed by quadrangular form, with piazzas towards the court, in the sculptor, that they cannot be too much admired, and which several of the prebendaries have houses. the beautiful lines that appear upon the scroll are very

The entrance into happily chosen from the poet's works. On the pedestal

THE CHAPTER-HOUSE are represented the heads of Henry the Fifth, Richard the (built in 1250) is on one side of the cloisters, through a Third, and Queen Elizabeth.

Gothic portal, the mouldings of which are exquisitely Here likewise may be seen the names of Ben Jonson, carved. By consent of the abbot, in 1377, the Commons Spenser, Chaucer, Butler, Milton, Mason, Gray, Prior, of Great Britain first held their parliaments in this place; Granville Sharp, Thomson, Mrs. Rowe, Gay, Goldsmith, the Crown undertaking the repairs. Here they sat till 1547, Handel, Chambers, Addison, Dr. Hales, Sir J. Pringle,

when Edward VI. granted them the Chapel of St. Stephen. Sir R. Taylor, Wyatt, Grabius, Casaubon, Garrick, Dryden, It is at present filled with the public records, among Cowley, Davenant, Gifford, &c. &c.

which the original Doomsday Book, now above 700

years old. Beneath the chapter-house is a singular crypt, The monuments in the other parts of the Abbey are too the roof of which is supported by massy plain ribs, divergnumerous to be minutely detailed. In the south aisle are ing from the top of a short round pillar, quite hollow. The those of Dr. South, Dr. Vincent, Sir Cloudesley Shovel,

walls are not less than eighteen feet thick. Dr. Watts, General Paoli, Dr. Burney, Thomas Thynne,

THE JERUSALEM-CHAMBER whose murder in his own carriage is here represented, &c. In the west aisle are those of Major André, whose remains built by Littlington, formed a part of the Abbot's lodgings. were brought from America, and interred here in 1821;

It is noted for having been the place where Henry IV. Sir J. Chardin, Lord Howe, Admiral Tyrell, Congreve, breathed his last : he had been seized with a swoon while Sir Thomas Hardy, Sir Godfrey Kneller, Banks the sculp- praying before the shrine of St. Edward; and being tor, Dr. Mead, Sir Isaac Newton, Lord Stanhope, by carried into this room, asked, on recovering, where he was? Rysbach, &c. In the north aisle those of Lord Ligonier, Being informed, he answered, to use the words of General Wolfe, Pulteney Earl of Bath, Dr. Arnold, Dr. Shakspeare, founded on history, Croft, Dr. Burney, Mr. Perceval, two Knights Templars,

Laud be to God !--even here my life must end. &c. The monument of Mr. Pitt, (who is represented

It hath been prophesied to me many years

I should not die but in Jerusalem, speaking in his robes, as Chancellor of the Exchequer,)

Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land! is over the west door.

Not far from the Abbey stood
In the north transept were buried near to each other,
Pitt, Earl of Chatham; those celebrated rivals, Pitt and

THE ELEEMOSYNARY, OR ALMONRY, Fox; Grattan the Irish orator, Lord Londonderry, Mr. where the alms of the Abbey were distributed. But Canning, and Mr. Wilberforce. Here likewise are the it is still more remarkable for having been the place where monuments of Lord Mansfield, by Flaxman; the Earl of the first printing-press ever known in England was Chatham, by Bacon ; Admiral Warren, by Roubiliac; Sir erected. It was in 1474, when William Caxton, encouraged Eyre Coote, Jonas Hanway, Mr. Horner, by Chantrey; by " the Great," and probably by the learned Thomas and C. J. Fox, by Westmacott.

Milling, then Abbot, produced “ the Game and Play of

the Chesse," the first book ever printed in these kingdoms. St. ERASMUS'S CHAPEL

There is a slight difference about the place in which it was contains the tombs of Lord Hunsdon and Lord Exeter, printed, but all agree that it was within the precincts of in the time of Elizabeth; and wax figures of Queen this religious house. Elizabeth, William and Mary, Lord Chatham, Queen The Abbey is open every day for divine service at ten in Anne, and Lord Nelson.

the morning and at three in the afternoon.

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The tutored mind here justly learns

More than the morning vapour vain, Stop, stranger, whosoe'er thou art, How human hopes to prize, Which melts away in air !

And to thyself be just; As round these trophied walls she turns Unless to wisdom he attain,

These mouldering tombs address thine heart Her meditating eyes.

And virtue be his care.

Catch wisdom from the dust.
The sculptured urn, the mimic bust,

Extinguished now is wit's bright fire ! Religion only forms man's soul,
The grave in pomp arrayed,
Lost its enlivening themes!

Calmly to view his end;
Serve but to teach us man is dust!

Mute and unstrung the poet's lyre ! Can his vain passions best control;
His life a fleeting shade!
Closed fancy's rapt'rous dreams!

In life, in death, a friend.
A day will come, in Time's long reign,

Then shall Creation's mighty Lord
(Such hope hath Heaven revealed,)

Bid every slumberer rise;
When graves shall render up again

And angels' tongues this truth record,
Those whom they once concealed.

The virtuous were the wise.—KEATE's Westminster Abbey.

LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.

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