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The accuracy of the ear gives to blind persons a LINES ADDRESSED TO A FRIEND ON HIS BIRTH-DAY, very great advantage in music; they depend entirely
[FROM AN ARABIAN Poet.] upon it; and hence they harmonize so well together, The beautiful thought, contained in this poem, has been well exand keep such perfect accord in time, that Paganini, pressed in the translations of two eminent Oriental scholars, Sir after listening to some pieces performed by pupils Cambridge. The reader may compare them, and judge.
William Jones, and Mr. Carlyle, formerly Professor of Arabic at of the Institution for the Blind in Paris, declared that he never before had an adequate notion of what
Mr. CARLYLE's. harmony was.
When born, in tears we saw thee drowned,
Whilst thine assembled friends around The touch is capable of being equally perfected,
With smiles their joy confest: and many remarkable instances are given of this. So live, that at thy parting hour Saunderson *, the blind Professor of Mathematics in They may the flood of sorrow pour the University of Cambridge, became such a con
And thou in smiles be drest. noisseur of ancient coins, that he could detect the
SIR WILLIAM JONES's. modern counterfeits, even when good eyes were On parent's lap, a naked, new-born child, puzzled about them. There lived a few years ago a Weeping thou sat'st, while all around thee smiled: blind man in Austria, who executed very good busts So live, that sinking into death's last sleep, by feeling the faces of persons, and imitating them;
Calm thou may'st smile, while all around thee weep. and there is now a bust of the late Emperor, executed by this blind man, and preserved in the The modest deportment of really wise men, when con. Museum in Vienna, which is considered a very good may be compared to the different appearance of wheat,
trasted with the assuming air of the young and ignorant, likeness. Persons who have witnessed exhibitions which, while its ear is empty, holds up its head proudly, at the Institutions for the blind, have been sur
but as soon as it is filled with grain, bends modestly down, prised at the ease with which they can read books and withdraws from observation. printed in raised letters, by passing the fingers rapidly over them: this, however, is by no means so
Whoso him bethought, extraordinary as many other instances which are
Inwardly and oft, notorious, though not well understood. A blind
How sore it were, to flit man, for instance, when walking in a perfect calm,
From life into the pit, can ascertain the proximity of objects by the feeling
From pit into pain
Which ne'er shall cease again, of the atmosphere upon his face; it would seem at
He would not do one sin, first that the echo given back, were it only from his
All the world to win.--Old Epitaph. breathing, might be sensible to his ear; but we have ascertained by experiment, that a blind man with his Of all sights which can soften and humanize the heart of ears stopped, could tell when any large object was
man, there is none that ought so surely to reach it as that close to his face, even when it was approached so of innocent children, enjoying the happiness which is their slowly as not to cause any sensible current of air. proper and natural portion.-SOUTHEY.
It is a common supposition that the blind can distinguish colours, but after much research we are To live holily is the way to die safely, happily. . If death convinced that this is impossible; all the blind, whom be terrible, yet innocence is bold, and will neither fear we have consulted on the subject, have replied that itself nor let us fear; where, contrariwise, wickedness is they had no such power, and they did not believe cowardly, and cannot abide any glimpse of light, or show
of danger. - Bishop Hall. that any blind person ever had it. Indeed, what tangible quality can there be in a substance so ethereal, that it passes unobstructed through dense lot of man. It is only to be found in another, and a better
UNINTERRUPTED happiness is not, nor never will be, the glass? There was an instance of a girl in England, world, and therefore it is that pain, mental as well as bodily, who was generally believed to have this power; and is, if not constantly, at least very generally, the companion the trials and tests which she successfully underwent of our journey through this life. Pain is often, in fact, the somewhat puzzled us, until an explanation of the medium through which we become purified, and prepared difficulty offered itself in the chemical properties of the for an infinitely higher state of being, of whose faculties,
and powers of enjoyment, we can form now bụt a very indifferent coloured rays of light. She could ascertain
adequate idea. the colours of different pieces of cloth by applying them to her lips in succession; and she must have Can any man be faithful in much, that is faithless in a learned that some colours radiate heat more rapidly little ? - JEREMY TAYLOR. than others, so that she could tell white from black by the different degree of warmth which it imparted Where there is the most love of God, there will be there to her lips. This is, perhaps, one of the most extra- the truest and most enlarged philanthropy.-SOUTHEY. ordinary instances of nicety of touch which can be quoted. The same girl used to astonish incredulous Let us not so much solicit God for any temporal advantage, visiters by reading the large letters of the maker's as for a heart that may fit us for it, and that He would be name, written in their hats, while they held them the chooser as well as the giver of our portion in this world, behind her back.
for he is alone able to suit and sanctify our condition to us, [North American Review.]
and us to our condition.-SOUTH. * Nicholas Saunderson was born in 1682, and died in 1739. He lost his sight by the small-pox when only a year old. Having shown
Who is the honest man? considerable talent as a boy, he was sent to Cambridge, where He that doth still and strongly good pursue, he pursued his studies with such advantage, that he became a lec
To God, his neighbour, and himself most true; turer, and was afterwards chosen Professor of Mathematics in that University.
Whom neither force nor fawning can
Unpin or wrench from giving all their due. LIFE consists not of a series of illustrious aetions, the
Whom none can work nor woo, greater part of our time passes in compliance with neces
To use in any thing a trick or sleight, sities, in the performance of daily duties, in the removal
For above all things he abhors deceit: of small inconveniences, in the procurement of petty
His words and works and fashion too, pleasures, and we are well or ill at ease, as the main stream
All of a piece, and all are clear and straight. of life glides on smoothly, or is ruffled bv small, or frequent
THE PAPYRUS PLANT.
The ancients extracted sugar from this plant, and made cordage and canvass of its fibres. It served as a medicine for the sick, as an article of food, and also for fuel. The monopoly of this useful plant by the government of Egypt, alluded to by Strabo, probably occasioned its scarcity. M. de Sacy, quoting from an Arabic writer, whose MS. is in the Imperial Library, states that the Egyptians wrote on the paper of Egypt, and that it was made from a reed called berdi. Joseph is said to have been the first fabricator of this paper. The Greeks wrote upon silk, parchment, and other substances, and also on the paper of Egypt. Pliny gives a very full description of the mode of preparing the paper from the Papyrus plant. He says, the stem of the plant is divided with a kind of needle into thin plates, or slender pellicles, each of them as large as the plant will admit. These form the elements of which the sheets of paper are composed. The pellicles in the centre are the best, and they diminish in value as they depart from it. As they were separated from the reed, they were extended on a table, and laid across each other at right angles. In this state they were moistened by the water of the Nile, and while wet were put under a press, and afterwards exposed to the rays of the sun. The water of the Nile was said to have a gummy quality, sufficient to make the layers of the plant adhere to each other ; but Mr. Bruce has shown, that the plant itself is adequate to this, from the quantity of saccharine matter it contains, and that the water of the Nile does not, in any degree, possess this property. Sometimes, however, perhaps when the plant did not contain a sufficient portion of sugar, a kind of paste made of wheatflour was used for this purpose. The size of the paper seldom exceeded two feet, and it was frequently much less. Mr. Bruce made paper of the plant,
which he saw growing in Egypt and Abyssinia. The The Papyrus Plant, the Cyperus Papyrus, according plant must formerly have been very abundant, for to Champollion, has ceased' to grow in Egypt; [but Cassiodorus speaks of it as forming a forest on the in this he is evidently mistaken.] The ancient
banks of the Nile. There,” says he,“ rises to the Arabs called it berd; it grew principally in marshy view this forest without branches, this thicket withplaces, and its culture was source of riches out leaves, this harvest of the waters, this ornament for the inhabitants of the borders of the ancient of the marshes.” Prosper Alpinus and Guilandin, lakes of Bourlos, and of Menzaleh, or Termis. The both saw it about two centuries since, and the latter Baroness Minutoli says that it is to be met with in remarks, that the inferior and succulent part of it the environs of Damietta, and on the banks of the
was eaten by the common people. lake Menzaleh. It is, however, exceedingly scarce.
The Egyptian paper was manufactured principally M. Savary states, that it is only to be met with about at Alexandria, but also at Memphis and other EgypDamietta and the lake Menzaleh, and observes that tian cities. At the close of the third century, the all travellers who have not visited this part of Egypt, traffic in paper was very flourishing, and it continued make no mention of the plant. This author quotes until the fifth century, for St. Jerome says it was from Strabo, who calls it biblos, and says that it is much in use during his time, although a very high indigenous to Lower Egypt; he describes it very impost was put upon it. This impost was abolished clearly, and alludes to a restriction of its growth to by Theodoric, King of Italy, in the sixth century, particular places. It grows abundantly in Syracuse, upon which Cassiodorus wrote a letter, in which he and Captain Smyth has figured it, and described it congratulates the whole world on the removal of the with great precision. It floats as it grows ; the prin- impost from an article of traffic so essential to the cipal root runs horizontally near the surface of the convenience and improvement of mankind, and to water, and throws out long filaments, which descend the cultivation and prosperity of the arts, science, perpendicularly downwards, whilst numerous trian- and commerce. gular green stems shoot upwards, eight or ten feet,
[PETTIGREW's History of Mummies] and bear, on the crown, a fibrous tuft of fine fila- If men have been termed pilgrims, and life a journey, ments, which, near their extremities, are again sub- then we may add, that the Christian pilgrimage far surdivided into others, leaving small seedy flowerets. passes all others, in the following important particulars : This plant is supposed to have been sent from Egypt in the goodness of the road, in the beauty of the prospects, by Ptolemy Philadelphus, as a present to Hiero.
in the excellence of the company, and in the vasť supePaper is supposed to have been made of the yellow riority of the accommodation provided for the Christian pellicle that surrounds the stem near the root; but traveller, when he has finished his course.-C. Captain Smyth was more successful, by following the
LONDON: directions of Pliny, with the cellular substance of JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. the whole stem cut thin, and the slices laid over each PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY Parts, other transversely at right angles, and well pressed.
PRICE SIXPENCE, AND
THE CYPERUS FAPYRUS.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEI)GE.
SOME ACCOUNT OF WESTMINSTER ABBEY.
HISTORY OF THE ABBEY.
Laurentius assumed the mitre, the special sign of power To none of our national monuments belongs a higher and rank granted to the heads of the large and wealthy degree of interest and veneration than to Westminster monasteries, which were so rapidly multiplied in all parts of Abbey. Wonderful for the splendour of its architectural Christendom. Henry the Third, in 1220, laid the foundbeauties, it makes a far stronger appeal to our feelings, as ations of extensive additions to the church; and soon after the mausoleum of many of England's noblest sons, and as it was decided, that the monastery was not to be rethe sacred repository of those memorials of former ages, garded as under Episcopal jurisdiction. The repair, or on which the mind rests with the deepest and most lasting rather the rebuilding of the edifice, was carried on for delight.
several years, and Henry continued to make new grants in The origin of this magnificent edifice is traced to a favour of the monks, till the citizens of London, finding very remote period. According to several learned anti- their own privileges invaded thereby, began formally to quaries, and the general voice of tradition, it was founded resist his designs. But in October, 1269, the new buildings by Sebert, king of the East Saxons: but this opinion has were opened for public worship, and the remains of Edward been controverted, and the middle of the eighth century is the Confessor were removed with the most splendid cereassigned as the more probable date of its origin. Under monies from the side of the choir where they had been the celebrated Dunstan, however, the originally humble deposited, to the magnificent shrine prepared for them at monastery, whenever founded, rose into importance, and the back of the high altar. received from the crown many and valuable grants, both of At this period, the Abbey was regarded as a safe money and land. Edward the Confessor afforded it a still sanctuary from the violence of the powerful, and to injure more splendid patronage; which he was induced to exercise any one who had fled to its altars for security, was to bring at the instigation of the Roman Pontiff, and in order to upon the offender's head the heaviest anathemas of the free himself from the perilous vow he had taken to perform church, and the worst punishment that the law could a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. But the monkish historians, inflict. It was hither that the unfortunate queen of add, that he was induced to fix on the Abbey as the Edward the Fourth fled, when Richard the Third, then object of his bounty, at the express command of Saint Duke of Gloucester, was making preparations for seizing Peter, who, it is said, appeared to him in person, and on the crown of his youthful nephew. The agonized declaring that he had anciently consecrated it by miracles, mother entered the sanctuary with her five daughters, and directed it to be now. so richly adorned and endowed, that the young Duke of York; her other son, the king, being its appellation might properly be the House of God, and the already in the hands of Richard and his party. In the Gate of Heaven.
course of the night she was visited by the Archbishop of It was in the reign of Edward that ecclesiastical archi- York and the Chancellor; but her fears were not to be tecture in this country made its first great advance towards calmed by the false hopes of safety which they rainly improvement. The churches of this period are described endeavoured to create. • The queen," says Sir Thomas as built sometimes in the form of a cross, at others in that More, in his history of these events, “sate low on the of a circle ; and as having a high altar, so constructed, as rushes, all desolate and dismayed, whom the Archbishop to represent the four quarters of the world, and fitted with comforted in the best manner he could, showing her that an aperture, afterwards carefully closed up, through which he trusted the matter was nothing so sore as she took it were deposited the relics of some famous martyr or con- for, and that he was in good hope, and out of fear, by a fessor. On this altar was placed the Pix, or box containing message sent him by the Lord Chamberlain Hastings. the Host; and projecting over it was a rich canopy of Ah woe worth him,' quoth she, ‘for he is one of them carved work, which jutted out from the screen behind, and that laboureth to destroy me and my blood.' 'Madam, usually exhibited the best efforts of cotemporary art. At quoth he,“ be ye of good cheer, for I assure you, if they the entrance of the chancel, or stretching across the nave,
crown any other king than your son, whom they now have were galleries called woodlofts, which were set apart for with them, we shall on the morrow crown his brother, the use of the minstrels, and displayed in their construction whom you have here with you. And here is the great a profusion of paintings, gilded ornaments, and images. seal, which, in likewise as that noble prince your husband The choir was furnished with sparkling chandeliers, and delivered it unto me, so here I deliver it unto you, to the cardelabra in the shape of trees: while on the occasion of use and behoof of your son.' And therewith he betook any solemn festival, the walls were decorated with beau- her the great seal, and departed home again, yet in the tifully embroidered tapestry, and whatever else could add dawning of the day: by which time, he might in his to the magnificence and effect of the ceremony. As the chamber window see all the Thames full of boats, of the wealth thus gathered together in these highly-adorned Duke of Gloucester's servants, watching that no man should buildings was often immense, it was deemed necessary to go to sanctuary.” appoint persons to keep watch against the attempts of The profound reverence which was entertained for the violence and dishonesty, which even in those days of Abbey as a sanctuary, is strikingly shown by what Sir deyotion did not always fear to commit the crime of sacrilege. Thomas More records of the debates which took place The men appointed to this office were called searchers, and respecting the removal of the young Duke of York. “It were allowed an apartment in the church, and meat and would be a thing that would turn to the great grudge of drink, which they received in a chamber named the all men," said the dignified ecclesiastics present in the wooden-room, whither they retired for their evening meal, Council Chamber, "and to the high displeasure of God, after the tolling of the great bell, and just before they if the privilege of that holy place should now be broken, commenced the search for the night. Already, also, had which had so many years been kept; which both kings and the practice become common of adding several little chapels popes had granted, so many had confirmed, and which to the main building, which, though dedicated to different holy ground was, more than five hundred years ago, so saints, had all of them the general name of Lady Chapels. specially hallowed and dedicated to God, that from that They were not without their use. If any one found himself time hitherward, was there never so undevout a king too late for the service of the day, they were open to him, that durst that sacred place violate, or so holy a bishop and he might there join in the general devotions, without that durst it presume to consecrate. And therefore, quoth having ventured to disturb the decorum of the congregation. the archbishop, God forbid, that any man should for There also the sick might take their part in the service any thing earthly, enterprise to break the immunity and without fatigue; and the stranger who arrived from afar, liberty of the sacred sanctuary, that hath been the safeand wished not to appear before his brethren in the worn guard of so many a good man's life." and dusty garment of the traveller.
In the month of January, 1502, Henry the Seventh laid Edward nobly fulfilled the conditions of the compromise, the first stone of the superb chapel, called after his name, by which he escaped the danger of leaving his kingdom, and the Abbey received from the same monarch grants of to take a long journey into the remote countries of the numerous estates in different parts of the country, which East. A tenth part of his wealth was employed in the increased its wealth in proportion to the increase of its building of the new edifice, and its grandeur and extent magnificence. But a very important change was on the are described as proportionable to the sum expended in point of taking place in the state and constitution of this its erection. It continued to increase in magnificence superb monastic establishment. Henry the Eighth, after through several sueceering reigns; and in 1162, the Abbot having shaken off the last remnant of Papał domination,
came to the resolution of dissolving the numerous convents, On the triumph gained by the Puritans over the unforand other religious institutions of that kind which existed tunate Charles the First, the usual services of the Church in all parts of the kingdom, and were the great fortresses were discontinued, and seven preachers were appointed, of Roman superstition. On the 16th of January, 1539, who were allowed a certain stipend out of the revenues of this determination was carried into effect with respect to the Abbey, and the houses of the Prebends for their resiWestminster Abbey, and the Abbot, William Boston, with dence. But, at the Restoration, means were immediately twenty-four of the monks, signed an instrument, by which taken to put the establishment on its original footing, and they formally resigned it, with all its rights, revenues, and it has since suffered no reverses of fortune from political possessions, into the hands of the monarch. It had then existed for more than nine hundred years, and in a state of At the beginning of the eighteenth century, a grant for greater independence than most other religious establish- its repair was made by the House of Commons, and Sir ments. Its revenues, which, at the time of its dissolution, Christopher Wren received the charge of conducting the amounted to near four thousand pounds per annum, had meditated improvements. They were extensive and imbeen the gift of the most pious and renowned men of the portant; but, in 1803, the whole structure was endangered kingdom; and many of the most ardent advocates for by the breaking out of a fire, which originating in the roof Protestant reform were, doubtlessly, little inclined to see so of the lantern, through the carelessness of the plumbers noble a sanctuary stripped of its rightful possessions by who were repairing the leads, threatened every instant to the rude hand of power. King Henry felt that this must seize upon the timbers which form the four great roofs of be the case; and the Abbey of Westminster was con the building; but the conflagration was happily got under verted into an Episcopal See, governed by a bishop, a dean, before so fatal an injury could take place. The Dean and twelve prebendaries. The new diocese thus formed, con- and Chapter immediately supplied the sum (£3500) necessisted of the whole county of Middlesex, with the exception sary for the complete restoration of the edifice to its of the parish of Fulham. The Abbey church was called a former beauty. Soon after the repairs of the main body of cathedral, and the abbot's house became a palace for the the building were completed, Parliament made a grant for bishop. But this arrangement was of brief duration. the repair of Henry the Seventh's Chapel; and to the
In March, 1550, the See was dissolved by order of the skill and laborious attention employed in these works, crown, and the diocese again became part of that of London. England may ascribe the still existing splendour of this The Abbey, however, was allowed to retain the rank of a ancient and magnificent structure. cathedral, and the dean and chapter were left in peaceable possession of the privileges and revenues which belonged
DESCRIPTION OF THE ABBEY. to them as a body independent of the dissolved diocese.
Queen Mary restored it to its ancient condition, and the A LATIN Cross, the favourite form in early times, marks Abbot of Westminster sat in the first Parliament of Eliza the general outline of this wonderful structure; but the beth ; but that princess once more dissolved the monastery, Cloisters, and numerous Chapels added to the main buildand established the church under a rule similar to that ing, take greatly from the original simplicity of the plan. instituted by Henry the Eighth. Soon after this an attempt The west front is formed of the entrance-porch, stretching was made to deprive it of the privileges which it possessed far inward, and vaulted, and two square towers, 225 feet as a sanctuary; the attempt, however, did not succeed, and high. Shields, and other sculptural ornaments, a magniit continued for some time longer to retain this last vestigeficent central window, and the windows of the towers, of its original grandeur.
throw an air of splendour over this front; but architects In the year 1620, when Dr. Williams was promoted to discover in it faults which can be defended by no rule of the Deanery, the church is said to have been in such a their art; and Sir Christopher Wren, to whom the charge state of decay, that all that passed by, and loved the of conducting its repair was intrusted by the Government, honour of God's house, shook their heads at the stones that is accused of having greatly erred, by attempting to blend dropped down from the pinnacles.' Bishop Hacket, who with the Gothic the dissimilar style of Grecian architecture. thus speaks of the dilapidated condition of the structure, The north side of the church presents a long line of turfurther adds, in the figurative language of his age and retted buttresses, noble pointed arched windows, ornamented profession;—" Therefore, that the ruins of it might be no with all the minute elegance of early art, and some statues, more a reproach, this godly Jehoiada took care for the tem- which are said to be those of the venerable Abbot Islip, ple of the Lord to repair it, to set it in state, and to of James the First, Edward the Confessor, and Henry the strengthen it. He began at the south-east part, which Third. Of the north transept, the historians of the Abbey looked the more deformed with decay, because it was speak with sentiments of the highest interest. It was, coupled with a later building, the chapel of King Henry according to general opinion, for several hundred years, the Seventh, which was light and fresh. The north-west the chief entrance, and beneath its solemn shadows, therepart, also, which looks to the great sanctuary, was far gone fore, passed the most magnificent displays of ecclesiastical in dilapidations; the great buttresses, which were almost pomp. An anonymous writer, whose work appeared about crumbled to dust with the injuries of the weather, he 120 years back, thus describes the appearance of the front re-edified with durable materials, and beautified with ele- elevation of this transept in his time. gant statues, so that £4500 were expended in a trice upon
“On the north side," says he, “this noble and lofty fabric the workmanship. All this was at his own cost ; neither is much deformed and defaced, partly by the many close would he unpatronize his name to the credit of that work adjacent buildings, but much more by the north winds, which should be raised up by other men's liberality." which, driving the corroding and piercing smoke of the sea
By the munificence of this venerable patron, the Abbey coals from the city that way, have so impaired and changed was not only repaired, but was provided with every thing her former beauties, that the remnants thereof are scarce necessary to give efficacy to the services performed under sufficient to convince you of her excellency in former ages; its roof.
“That God might be praised with a cheerful were it not that that admirable Portico, which is on this noise in this sanctuary, he procured," says Bishop Hacket, side, did give you some undeniable idea of her ancient " the sweetest music, both for the organ and for the voices greatness. This portico has a most noble door, or portal, of all parts that ever was heard in an English quire. In which leads you into the cross of the church, with two those days, that Abbey and Jerusalem Chamber, where he lesser porches on each side, one of which serves for the gave entertainment to his friends, were the votaries of the conveniency of entering therein. Its remnants, or ruins, choicest singers that the land had bred. The greatest sufficiently speak what a curious piece this portico has masters of that delightful faculty frequented him above all been in former times; for here were the statues of the others, and were never nice to serve him; and some of twelve apostles at full length, with a vast number of other the most famous yet living will confess, he was never nice saints and martyrs, intermixed with intaglios, devices, and to reward them : 'a lover could not court his mistress with abundance of fret-work, to add to the beauty thereof, but more prodigal effusion of gifts." A still more valuable all much defaced and worn out by time, and the corroding mark of the Dean's liberality was shown in the formation vapours of the sea-coals; and it is, doubtless, owing to of a library, which, says his biographer," he modelled into its excellency, that some, in former ages, have bestowed decent shape, furnished it with desks and chairs, accoutred upon it the title of Solomon's Porch; judging that a piece it with all utensils, and stored it with a vast number of of work, far surpassing any thing of that kind in those learned volumes.” He also added to the number of days, might very well challenge an uncommon name. The scholars in the school, which owed its foundation to Queen very remnants which are obvious to our sight, even to this Elizabeth, and ordered that his should wear violet- day, may soon convince us of its ancient beauty and mag coloured gowns, to distinguish them from the rest. nificence; for this portico still retains entire, below, two of