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CARISBROOKE CASTLE, ISLE OF WIGHT. lution-principles, would be both unjust and absurd; that through which he attempted to escape. Beyond possibly, when the prerogative and powers claimed these are the barracks and governor's house. and exercised by his predecessors are taken into In the N.E. angle of the base-court, on a mount consideration, his tragical end may be thought more raised considerably above the other buildings, stands than an expiation of his errors. With regard to his the donjon, or keep; its figure is an irregular polygon: enemies, although liberty and religion were their the ascent to it is by seventy-two steps at the side pretended motives, power and emolument were their of the mount. This bears marks of very great real incentives; and that tribunal, which doomed antiquity, and was probably a fortress of the Saxons; their sovereign to death for a breach of the law, round which, Fitz-Osborne erected the outer walls. were themselves assembled, and acted, contrary to, Under a small building in the castle-yard is a well and in defiance of those very laws."

more than two hundred feet deep, whence the water The Castle appears, by Domesday-book, to have for the use of the garrison was drawn by means of a been built by William Fitz-Osborne, Earl of Here- | large wheel turned by an ass. ford, and the first lord of the island, soon after the These ruins, as well from their situation as from Norman conquest. It stands on a small hill S.W. the historic scenes with which they are connected, of the town of Newport, and overlooking the village are all worthy the attention of the traveller.-E. A. I. of Carisbrooke. The walls of the original fortress cover about an acre and a half, these are surrounded by a more modern fortification, faced with stone, of

TO CARISBROOK CASTLE. an irregular pentagonal form, defended by five

OFT have I climbed with weary step the brow, bastions; these outworks, which are in circuit about

Of your steep mound, whose time-embrowned walls, three quarters of a mile, and encompassed by a deep And rampires, frown o'er the soft vale below. ditch, include in the whole about twenty acres: they So frownd thy towers, when to thy gloomy halls were added in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and are By rebel bands the martyrd Charles was led, said to have been constructed upon the same plan as

When the rude vulgar mock'd their Sov'reign's woe,

And giant Faction rear'd her guilty head, the fortifications of Antwerp, and by the same engi

'Midst din of arms, and nation's overthrow; neer, Genebella, an Italian.

The royal victim's calm, yet plaining eye, The entrance (represented in the engraving) is on As

up this steep he bent his weary way, the west side between two bastions, through a small Yet more majestic seem'd 'midst stern adversity; stone gateway, on the arch of which is the date, Still 'mid these tottering walls my steps I'll stay, 1598," with the initial letters “ E. R."

Still 'mid these ruins drop a pitying tear, This gate leads to a second (see engraving), of

And muse in sadness over Charles's bier.-W.G.A. much greater antiquity, machicolated and flanked by two large round towers. This was built in the time Our principles are the springs of our actions ; our actions of Edward the Fourth. On entering the area, the the springs of our happiness and misery. Too much care, chapel of St. Nicholas, with its enclosed cemetery, therefore, cannot be employed in forming our principles. is seen on the right hand: the present building was -SKELTON. erected on the ruins of an ancient chapel, endowed when Domesday-book was compiled. Over the door

LONDON: is carved “G. ii. 1738;" showing the date of the

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. present building. On the left hand are the ruins of

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY Pasts, some buildings, said to be those in which Charles the First was confined; and a window is shown for Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom,

FRICE SIXPENCE, AND

T

EDUCA

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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MARTIN LUTHER.

nor could the remonstrance of Cajetan, nor the subTHERE is probably no period more interesting, or sequent present of the Consecrated Rose" to Freimportant, in history, than that which is comprised derick, by the Pope, induce him to withhold that in the biography of this celebrated man. The ex- support, which, both from policy and principle, he actions of the Roman Pontiffs, the lax discipline of had bestowed. the Popish clergy, the distresses of the people, and Luther's doctrines were now rapidly spread, and that spirit of scriptural and general investigation, readily received: many great and learned men which the revival of learning and the invention of assisted and encouraged him; among others, Philip the art of printing had created and confirmed, all Melancthon, Andrew Carolostadius: and even Erastended to aid the progress of that important reli mus secretly admitted the truth of the tenets he had gious Reformation, to effect which, by the will of not the courage to avow. In 1519, Luther had Providence, he was the happy instrument and cause. disputed again with John Eckius, at Leipsic, upon the

Born at Isleben, in Saxony, on November 10th, doctrines of purgatory, indulgences, and the supre1483, of humble and obscure descent, Luther dis-macy of the Pope ; a dispute, which tended but to tinguished himself at a very early period by his confirm each party in their views, and increase the energy and abilities. He studied first at Magdeburg, interest of the controversy. Such was the progress from whence he was removed to Eysenach, a city of he had made, when Charles the Fifth arrived in Thuringia, where he remained four years, and Germany, who, finding it politically expedient to entered, in 1501, the University of Erfurt, going secure the Pope's friendship, determined on the through the usual courses of logic and philosophy. sacrifice of Luther. A safe pass, under the Em

At the age of twenty, he took his Master's Degree, peror's hand, was consequently forwarded to him, with and, in compliance with the wishes of his parents, a summons to appear at the Diet held at Worms, in commenced the study of the Civil Law. His mind, March 1521. With this Luther did not hesitate to very much alive to serious sentiments, was, however, comply: in vain his friends urged the danger ; considerably affected and influenced by the death of reminded him of the fate of John Huss, condemned, a companion by his side, in a violent thunder-storm; under similar circumstances, to death. Superior to and this, together with his naturally ardent and the fears of a similar result, he boldly declared, “I enthusiastic temper, induced him to retire into a am lawfully called to appear in that city, and thither convent of Augustinian friars; nor could the entreaties I will go in the name of the Lord, though as many of his friends divert him from a course, which he devils as there are tiles on the houses were there thought his duty to his Creator compelled him to combined against me.” At his appearance on this adopt. Here he soon acquired great reputation for memorable occasion, princes and personages of the learning, and having also found a copy of the Bible highest rank treated him with every demonstration of in the library of his monastery, he gave up all other respect. He replied with firmness to the charges, pursuits for its constant study.

and refused to retract, even although many of the The great progress which he made, and the name for Diet were willing to proceed to his immediate exesanctity and erudition which he had acquired, induced cution. Frederic, Elector of Saxony, to appoint him Professor A few days after he left the city, Charles issued his of Philosophy and Theology, in the University he had edict, excommunicating him as an heretic, and requijust founded at Wittemberg on the Elbe. In this ring all persons to concur in seizing his person as manner he was employed, when the sale of Popish soon as the term of his safe conduct was expired. Indulgences was published in 1517.

Luther was, however, saved by the Elector, who conPope Leo the Tenth, impoverished by his ex- trived his seizure and detention in the strong castle travagance, had recourse to this method of raising of Wartburg, where he remained in security till the money, to continue the building of St. Peter's at spirit of persecution was in some degree subdued. Rome, which had been commenced by Julius the In this interval, he replied to the University of Paris, Second. Albert, Elector of Metz, and Archbishop and Henry the Eighth of England, who had received of Magdeburg, was commissioned to effect their sale the title of Defender of the Faith, for his answer to in Germany; and he employed for this purpose Luther's work, Of the Captivity of Babylon. After John Tetzel, a Dominican friar of dissolute habits, leaving his retreat in 1522, he completed his translawho boasted he had power to sell pardons, not tion of the Bible in the German tongue, which was only for sins past, but for sins to come.' The read with wonderful avidity by persons of all ranks, warm and impetuous temper of Luther, excited by and, until the year 1524, he continued, by pubthe circumstance, did not suffer him to continue a lications of every description, to undermine the silent spectator of this delusion. From the church power and examine the opinions of the Church of of Wittemberg he denounced it; examined the argu- Rome. ments on which it rested, and pointed out the danger Clement the Seventh, who had now succeeded to of relying for salvation upon any other means than Adrian and Leo in the Papal chair, with a view of those appointed in the revealed word of the Almighty. avoiding the demands of the Germans for a General He was immediately opposed in these opinions by Council to terminate the dispute, instructed Cardinal Tetzel, Eccius, a celebrated divine of Augsburg, and Campeggio, an artful man, to appear as his nuncio at Prierias, a Dominican friar.

the Diet of the empire, assembled at Nuremberg. The tardy attention of Leo the Tenth was now Campeggio, while craftily condemning the vices of attracted to the dispute; he cited Luther to appear the inferior clergy, earnestly exhorted the Diet, in at Rome, but finally granted his request to be heard a long discourse, to execute the former decree which in his defence, against the accusation of heresy, before had been passed relative to Luther; but his opinions Cardinal Cajetan, at Augsburg, in October, 1520. were coldly received, and they separated without enThe result may be imagined. Men rarely admit the joining any additional severities against him or his wisdom of an inferior, or the truth of tenets opposed party. In this year, 1524, he renounced the monastic to selfish interest. Cajetan debated but to condemn, habit, and the year after married Catherine à Boria,and desired Luther to retract the errors he had a nun of noble family, who had abjured the vows preached. Assured of the Elector's protection, and in 1523, and whom he had intended to marry. to confident in his cause, Luther immediately refused; Glacius, a minister of Ortamunden. This step led to

the bitterest opposition, both from his opponents and CHRISTIANITY AND FALSE PHILOSOPHY CONTRASTED supporters ; certain, however, of the correct motives

When man by native wisdom taught, of his conduct, he bore their reproaches with his

Deems this vain world a thing of nought,

And all its pleasure, pomp, and pow'r úsual fortitude.

The fleeting visions of an hour, In 1526, the Reformation lost its first protector,

With scorn he sees the giddy crowd Frederick, Elector of Saxony, but the cause was

Or madly weep, or laugh aloud,

In secret anguish doom'd to drain, now triumphant, and councils were successively

His cup of pleasure or of pain. summoned at Augsburg and Spires, to take into

For him the day no joyaunce brings: consideration the state of Religion, and it was at the

It doth but gild Time's hast’ning wings,

And as in mockery bestow celebrated meeting of the latter, in 1529, that the

Its splendour on a world of woe: Elector of Saxony, the Marquis of Brandenburg, the

For him the night oblivion woos

In vain, since Death her form pursues: Landgrave of Hesse, the Dukes of Lunenberg, the

The image of his last repose, Prince' of Anhalt, together, with the deputies of

Appals him ere his eye-lids close. fourteen free cities, entered a protest against its

To man a foe, he treads awhile decrees, as impious and unjust. On that account

His lonely path, by heav'nly smile

Uncheer'd; self-sated then he flies they were distinguished by the name of Protestants,

To nature's genial sympathies : a name now applied to all dissenters from the Roman

Borne by the fury of his mind, see. But, as it is necessary, as well for the repres

Where rolls the wave or wafts the wind,

Like wand'ring spirit of the air, sion of errors, as the inculcation of truths, that,

He seeks the converse of despair. some certain well-defined principles of religious beliet

Ah! whither, captive, dost thou roam, should be adopted by every sect, the Protestants em

Has life no haven, man no home;

And dost thou think thy tort'rer fell, ployed Melancthon to draw up a confession of their

Who dooms thee to his native hell, faith, in terms as little offensive to the Catholics,

And still thy falt'ring steps doth urge, as a regard for truth would admit. This, which

O'er howling waste and foaming surge,

Shall lead thee to some still retreat, was called the Confession of Augsburg, was at last

For seraphs' high communion meet? amended by Luther, who had now but to contemplate

And wilt thou woo thine in-born guest, with pious gratitude, and hope, the mighty work

And nurse the vulture of thy breast,

With stupor fierce or joy accurst which he had finished, and the remainder of whose

Cling to the chains thou canst not burst, life was spent in exhortations to princes, and prayers

Or fainting sue with penance vain to his Creator, for the progress and stability of that

The phantom-idols of thy brain ?

E'en now beneath thee yawrs the grave,pure system of Religion he had preached. Appear

They fly,—those gods who cannot save. ances of danger, however, daily increased, the terrors

Yet, hark, amid the thunder's sound, and forces of the church, and of the emperor, were

That rolls' athwart the gulf profound,

A still small voice that whispers peace, alike to be directed against the Protestant church;

That bids thy toil, thy warfare cease. but Luther was saved by a seasonable death, from

That tells thee of a beacon-light beholding or feeling its destructive rage.

That mocks the day, dispels the night,

That light within thy bosom glows, Having in 1546, gone to his native city of Isleben,

From thence the living lustre flows. to settle a dissension among the Counts of Mansfelt,

And oh, how chang'd those scenes of late he was seized with inflammation in the stomach,

To thy dim eyes so desolate: which put an end to his life, in the sixty-third year of

How bright those hills once wrapt in gloom,
How fair those vales' renascent bloom;

Those transient forms that mock'd the view,
Such was Martin Luther, whose character alter-

When clad in folly's tinsel hue,

In new and borrow'd splendour shine,nately elevated and depressed by the admiration of

" The hand that made them is Divine." disciples, or the hatred of opponents, stands yet pre

All nature feels the sweet control, eminent for the brightest virtues that give dignity to

In festal pomp the seasons roll,

The star of morning smiles serene, man. Combining zeal for truth, undaunted intrepidity

And day with rapture crowns the scene; in its defence, and abilities equal to his unchang

The eve more calm delight inspires, ing industry in the propagation of its principles, Night wakes devotion's holier fires;

The soul responsive hears their voice, with that purity of manners, and sanctity of feel

And joyous bids the world rejoice. ing, which become the doctrine which he preached,

The lamp of Heav'n shall never die, he has left by his own actions, not by exaggerated

For hands unseen its light supply: praise or evil minded censure, the best criterion for

The passing suns may shade its beam,

But cannot quench the living stream; the regulation of opinions as concerns him, for the

The clouds and midnight damps obscure, present age, and for all time,

It glows yet more intensely pure,

And shall its shatter'd rays renew, The good that he effected it is impossible to esti

Though winds assail, or storms subdue. mate; he found the Bible a scaled book, he left it a

And when in browner twilight fade living letter; it was the exclusive possession of the

Life's waning gleams and lengih'ning shade, rich, he has left it a precious inheritance of the poor;

And Death, enrob'd in pall of night,

Tears the faint landscape from thy sight, and, in the emphatic language of the historian, " By

The star that ruled thy morning's prime him, the lofty fabric of superstition, from the abuse

Shall cheer the eve of parting Time,

In glory deep'ning gloom array, of indulgences to the intercession of the Virgin, has

Nor set, but in immortal day. P.S.Q. R been levelled with the ground. Myriads of both sexes of the monastic profession have been restored

To the natural eye this world is opaque, and shows only its to the liberty and labours of social life, and the

surface; to the eye of faith, it is transparent, and may be imitations of paganism have been succeeded by a

seen through, so as to afford a view of somewhat beyond pure and spiritual worship of prayer and thanks- it.—SKELTON. giving, the most worthy of man, and the fittest offering to the Deity."

The Christian parent ought to be a living exemplification The engraving which illustrates this article, is a of Christianity. His house, his habits, his family, liis view of the interior of the chamber which Luther associates, his pursuits, bis recreations, ought all to be so

regulated, as to evince that religion is, indeed, the parent occupied, in the old Augustine convent at Erfurt,

of order, the inspirer of good sense, the well-spring of good and which still continues to attract the attention of

humour, the teacher of good manners, and the perennial the stranger

S. H.
source of happiness and peace.---Bishop JEBB.

his age.

LEEDS.

of the ancient Cambodunum by Cadwallo, a British This celebrated manufacturing town is situated in prince, and Penda, King of Mercia, over the last of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and contains 123,393 whom, on his subsequent invasion of Northumberinhabitants. It was anciently called Loidis, but from land in 655, Osweo, King of Bernicia, obtained a what source it derived its name has not been ascer- signal victory in the immediate vicinity of the town. tained. It was made a royal vill after the destruction During the reign of William the Conqueror, Ilbert

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THE CORN-EXCHANGE, BRIGGATE, LEEDS,

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de Lacy is supposed to have erected a castle here, are no vestiges of this building. Durmg in Civil which was besieged by King Stephen, on his route War, in the reign of Charles the First, many skirtowards Scotland, and in which Richard the Second, mishes between the contending parties took place in after his deposition, was, for some time, confined, the neighbourhood, and that monarch resided for previously to his removal to Pontefract; but there some time in the town, in a mansion supposed to

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