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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
notion of this temple, by observing the north-west Many of our readers must have heard of Tivoli, corner of the Bank of England, where its columns the Tibur of the ancients,—so famed for the love and entablature have been closely imitated, and a liness of its scenery,—for its beautiful groves, and portion of its circular form also adopted. its crumbling ruins,-its dark frowning caverns,
Not far from this ancient edifice, are the remains and the wild cascades, which, dashing down its rocky of a little square building, which is supposed, by steeps, rush, with frightful speed and deafening roar, those who regard its neighbour as that of Vesta, to be into deep black yawning gulfs beneath. Its pic- the real temple of the Sibyl. The back of the temple, turesque charms attract the attention of all travel with a portion of one flank, and some Ionic halflers who visit Rome; and the stranger's pilgrimage columns, much decayed, are all that now exist. By to the “ Eternal City” would be incomplete indeed, its side, a winding pathway leads down the chasm into without an “excursion to Tivoli.”
which the great cascade pours its rapid waters, and This enchanting spot stands to the north-eastward conducts to the grotto of Neptune,-a dark cavern, of Rome, at a distance of about nineteen miles. It from which another fall, half-subterranean, rushes is a bold eminence, rising out of the tract of forth, and joins its foaming stream to that which country called the Campagna, and forming the rolls from above. The united mass dashes with termination of a projecting spur from the great frightful impetuosity into the deep and dark abyss chain of the Apennines, with which it is more below, and after tumbling a little
the rocks, immediately connected by the Sabine hills. The is lost in a second cavern, called the grotto of the abruptness of its elevation produces a succession Siren. Crossing the stream on the top of this of rocky heights, which break the waters of the cavern, which forms the natural bridge of the Ponte Teverone, into those splendid cascades, that con di Lupo, the traveller descends on the opposite side, tribute so largely to the beauty of the surrounding and entering its mouth, looks down into the channel landscape. This river, the Anio of antiquity, has through which the river rushes to its bed below. its source among the Apennines, in a cluster of When he has reached the lower part of the stream, lakes; early in its course, it suffers frequent inter- the view above him is enchanting.
“Looking upruptions, but thence continues flowing placidly along wards,” says Mr. Woods, "you see the temple, the between shady hills, until at Tivoli, where the high city, the rocks, the falls, combined in the most ground terminates, it falls headlong down into the magical manner. It is a scene, however, which it is plain below. Above, stands the town, its site occu
difficult to characterize. It might be called sublime, pying both banks of the river; beyond it, on the if the objects of beauty were not so numerous; and North and East, rise, afar off, the mountains of the if its sublimity and beauty were less impressive, Sabine country; to the South, appear the heights of you would pronounce it the most picturesque view Frascati, bounding the plain into which the hill of that was ever beheld.” Tivoli on that side slopes in steep declivities; while
But the charms in which nature has decked this to the West, the view is open, and extends along the fairy scene are not its only attractions ; it is linked winding stream of the Teverone, as far as the great with many classic recollections, and rich in pleasing city itself, whose loftier buildings rear their high associations to all who love to contemplate the bright heads, conspicuous in the distance.
days of old Rome, and look with interest on every meThe road leading from Rome to Tivoli, passes morial of her greatness. Its proximity to the capital, through one of the most dreary and desolate por- the beauty of its situation, the salubrity of its air, tions of the extensive wilderness, which encompasses and the fertility of its adjacent fields, all conspired to the “ imperial city" on all sides, and renders its aprender it agreeable to the Romans, as a retreat from proach so melancholy and so sublime. After cross the anxious cares and occupations of their city; and ing and re-crossing the Teverone, by Roman the number and extent of the ruins which still adorn bridges, the traveller arrives .within three miles of the neighbourhood of Tivoli, amply attest the estimaTivoli, at a spot where the circular monument of the tion in which it was held. Tradition yet marks the Plautian family, much distinguished in the later days spot, where is said to have once stood the splendid of the Republic, presents a fine and interesting ob- palace of the famed Mæcenas, the wise counsellor of ject. To the right, a narrow by-way branches off Augustus, and the liberal patron of genius and to the remains of the villa of Hadrian, while the learning. Ruined villas (or rather the fragments of main road continues towards the town, ascending the them,) are still pointed out, to which are attached steep hills on which it stands, through the extensive the names of Brutus and Cassius, and the Pisos, olive-groves that clothe their southern declivities. and Varus, and Lepidus, and others, under the The first object that engages his attention on his questionable belief that they once belonged to arrival, is the ruin of a beautiful little circular those noble Romans. The Emperor Hadrian here temple, which crowns the summit of the rocky had his celebrated villa, and the ruins which yet precipice, suspended, as it were, above the great exist are numerous. * The extent,” says Mr. Woods, cascade. This exquisite remain, which is by some
“ is immense; we walked for above a mile among assigned to the goddess Vesta, by others to the arches, great semi-domed recesses, long walls and Sibyl, who reigned in the neighbouring groves, corridors, and spacious courts; through an immense stands in a yard at the back of the “Sibilla Inn;" number of small apartments and large halls.” it consists of ten Corinthian columns, above which “Baths, academies, porticoes, a library, a palestra*, a rises the entablature, originally supported by eighteen. hippodromet, a menagerief, a naumachias, an aqueductil, Its appearance is extremely picturesque, and har-theatres, both Greek and Latin, temples for different monizes well with the scenery around. Some years rites, every appurtenance suitable to an imperial since, its beauty attracted the notice of an English seat,” says Mr. Forsyth, opened before me; but nobleman, who purchased it of the inn-keeper, with its magnificence is gone; it has passed to the Vatican, the intention of transporting it to England, and reerecting it in his park. The owner was just pre
* A place for athletic exercises.
+ A place appropriated to equestrian exercises. paring to pull it down, when an order from the Papal i The Romans expressed the signification of this word by virarium. government annulled the sale, and stayed all further It meant, as with us, a place where live animals were kept.
6 A place for the exhibition of sea-fights. proceedings. Our readers may obtain a correet conduit for the conveyance of water, supported on arches.
it is scattered over Italy; it may be traced in France. I angel to consecrate herself to heaven. A young Any where but at Tivoli may you look for the statues patrician, however, to whom she had been betrothed, and caryatides*, the columns, the oriental marbles, and opposed her desire of obeying what she regarded as the mosaics, with which the villa was once adorned, the Divine command; and on her persisting in her or supported, or wainscoted, or floored.” The causes determination, she was sent to Tivoli, and there of this ruin are other than the attacks of time. confined until she should abandon her design. At “ Hadrian's invidious successors neglected or unfur- that time, a poisonous dragon infested the neighnished it ; the Goths sacked it; the masons of the bourhood of the town, and was a terror to its inhadark ages pounded its marbles into cement; and anti- bitants. Victoria promised that she would subdue quarian popes and cardinals dug into its concealing the dreaded foe, on the condition that the Tiburtines continents, only to plunder it."
would consent, in return, to become Christians. The modern town of Tivoli is dirty and disagreeable She succeeded, and they adopted her religion; and in the extreme; and the meanness of its appearance among the converts, who are said to have yielded to but ill accords with the grandeur of the scenery in the influence of this miracle, Baronius places Zewhich it is embosomed. Its streets are filthy, and nobia, the captive queen of Palmyra, who had graced the houses small; although occasionally are to be the triumph of the Emperor Aurelian, and to whom seen some large mansions. The population is said a residence near Tibur had been assigned. to amount to 10,000 inhabitants; but the town has greatly declined from its ancient importance.
THE OFFICER, HIS WIFE, AND THE The engraving prefixed to this article, contains a view of the Piazza Publica, or Market-Place. The following anecdote is taken from A Visit to Flanders and exhibits a curious picture indeed. The centre and will give some idea of the kind of scenes that were of attraction seems to be some very interesting passing during the memorable battle of Waterloo. exhibition, which engrosses the attention of “ I had the good fortune," says the intelligent writer, motley crowd of loiterers. The ever-active Punch,“ to travel from Brussels to Paris with a young Irish officer or Pulcinello, as he is called, is of course present, and and his wife, an Antwerp lady of only sixteen, of great contributing to their amusement. This curious beauty and innocence. The husband was at the battle of personage is purely an Italian character, and bears Quatre-Bras as well as that of Waterloo. The unexpected
advance of the French called him off at a moment's notice no resemblance to the grotesque show which usurps to Quatre-Bras ; but he left with his wife, his servant, one the name with us. He seems to be a caricature of horse, and the family baggage, which was packed upon the Apulian peasant, and is introduced in almost
Retreat at the time was not anticipated, but every farce in the Italian Theatre, playing a part being suddenly ordered, he contrived to get a message to similar to that usually assigned to the Vice, or Fool, his wife, to make the best of her way, attended by the in our old English moralities. He is naturally a Nea
servant and baggage, to Brussels. The servant, a foreigner, politan, and among his countrymen is, as Mr. Forsyth both master and mistress, and make off with the horse,
had availed himself of the opportunity to take leave of observes, a person of real power; he dresses up leaving the helpless young lady alone with the baggage-ass. and retails all the drolleries of the day; he is the With a firmness becoming the wife of a British officer, channel, and sometimes the source of the passing she boldly commenced, on foot, her retreat of twentyopinions ; he can inflict ridicule, he could gain a mob, five miles, leading the ass by the bridle, and carefully or keep the whole kingdom in good humour."
preserving the baggage. No violence was dared by any The dress of Pulcinello, is a very ample shirt, assist her. She was soon in the midst of the retreating
one to so innocent a pilgrim, but no one could venture to hanging down on every side, but particularly in front, British army, and much retarded and endangered by the over a pair of white trowsers. The design of this artillery; her fatigue was great; it rained in torrents, and costume, Mr. Galiffe suggests, is to show the capacity the thunder and lightning were dreadful in the extreme. he could fill, if he had but enough to eat of his She continued to advance, and got upon the great road favourite maccaroni. “He wears (like harlequin) from Charleroi to Brussels, at Waterloo, in the evening, on the upper part of his face, a black half-mask, of when the army were taking up their line for the awful
In so extensive a field, among 80,000 men, which,” says that gentleman, “I could never guess it was in vain to seek her husband; she knew that the the origin. His character is a strange mixture of sight of her there would embarrass and distress him, the deepest ignorance and natural wit; malice and she kept slowly advancing to Brussels all night, the simplicity; keen repartees ; cunning and stupidity. road choaked with all sorts of conveyances, waggons, He is always a thief and a pickpocket; but at and horses; multitudes of fugitives on the road, and the same time, is himself the easiest of dupes; a flying into the great road, and many of the wounded
walking their painful way, dropping at every step, and great braggadocio, but a complete coward. When. breathing their last ; here and there lay a corpse or a limb, ever questions are put to him, to which he cannot particularly, as she said, several hands. Many persons reply without danger, he affects downright idiocy, were actually killed by others, if they by chance stood in and pretends not to understand a word. He does the way of their endeavours to help themselves; and to not bear ill-will to others, but he has a particular fond add to the horrors, the rain continued unabated, and the ness for himself; and he has an enormous appetite, thunder and lightning still raged as if the heavens were
torn to pieces. without the means of feeding it. In short, he is like
Full twelve miles further, during the night, this young Caliban in some things, like Sancho in others, like
woman marched, up to her knees in mud, her boots Falstaff in many, but yet different from them all.”
worn entirely off, so that she was bare-footed, but still, Tivoli possesses a cathedral and several churches, unhurt, she led her ass; and, although thousands lost many of which probably occupy the sites of ancient their baggage, and many their lives, she calmly entered temples. The inhabitants embraced the Christian Brussels on the morning in safety, self, ass, bag, and religion at an early period; and the annalist, Baro- baggage, without the loss of an article. In a few"hours
after her arrival commenced the cannons' roar of the nius, preserves a traditionary legend, which ascribes tremendous battle of Waterloo, exposed to which, for ten their conversion to a curious event, quite in accord - hours, she knew her husband to be; she was rewarded, ance with the romantic character of the region in amply rewarded, by finding herself in her husband's arms, which its occurrence is placed. It appears, that, in he unhurt, and she nothing the worse, on the following the reign of the Emperor Decius, a young lady of day. The officer told the tale himself with tears in his eyes.
With a slight Irish accent, he called her his dear little noble extraction, named Victoria, was warned by an
woman, and said she became more valuable to him every * Female statues, used in architecture as the substitutes of day of his life. columns.
ON SOME OF THE BENEFITS RESULTING FROM OUR LADY'S WELL, AT HALYSTONE. POETRY.
PAULINUS, the famous Missionary among the Saxons It is related of some good man, (I forget who,) that, upon of Northumberland, according to Bede, in the year of his death-bed, he recommended his son to employ himselt our Lord 627, visited Bernicia, which comprised the in cultivating a garden, and in composing verses, thinking country between the Tyne and the Frith of Forth, these to be at once the happiest and the most harmless of and baptized great multitudes of the inhabitants in all pursuits. Poetry may be, and too often has been, the River Glen, near the royal residence of Adyefrir, wickedly perverted to evil purposes,—what indeed is there that may not, when Religion itself is not safe from such now called Yevering in Glendale, which is a secluded abuses ! But the good which it does, inestimably exceeds and beautiful vale in Northumberland. Tradition the evil. It is no trifling good to provide means of inno- also consecrates the Wells of Waltown, the birthcent and intellectual enjoyment for so many thousands, in place of Bishop Ridley, and of Halystone, as places a state like ours; an enjoyment, heightened, as in every
where the same distinguished Missionary of the see of instance it is within some little circle, by personal conside
Rome initiated great numbers of the neighbouring rations, raising it to a degree which may deserve to be called happiness. It is no trifling good to win the ear of people into the doctrines of the Christian faith; children with verses which foster in them the seeds of and Leland says, that “ some hold the opinion, that at humanity, and tenderness, and piety; awaken their fancy, Halystane, on the River Coquet, Paulinus in one day and exercise, pleasurably and wholesomely, their imagi. | christened 3000 people.” The name of Halystone, native and meditative powers. It is no trifling benefit to indeed, very clearly points it out as a place where provide a ready mirror for the young, in which they may see their own best feelings reflected, and wherein “ what
some cross or pillar had, in ancient times, been soever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, what- erected to commemorate some important event, consoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely," are nected with the rites or history of the church of presented to them in the most attractive form. It is no Christ. trifling benefit to send abroad strains which may assist in preparing the heart for its trials, and in supporting it under them. But there is a greater good than this,-a further benefit. Although it is in verse that the most consummate skill in composition is to be looked for, and all the artifice of language displayed, yet it is in verse only that we throw off the yoke of the world, and aro, as it were, privileged to utter our deepest and holiest feelings. Poetry, in this respect, may be called the salt of the earth; we express in it, and receive in it sentiments, for which, were it not for this permitted medium, the usages of the world would neither allow utterance nor acceptance. And who can tell, in our heart-chilling and heart-hardening society, how much more selfish, how much more debased, how much worse we should have been, in all moral and intellectual respects, had it not been for the unnoticed and unsuspected influence of this preservative ? Even much of that poetry, which is in its composition worthless, or absolutely bad, contributes to this good. Even those poets who contribute to the mere amusement of their readers, while that amusement is harmless, are to be regarded with complacency, if not respect. They are the butterflies of literature, who, during the short season of their summer, enliven the garden and the field. It were pity to touch them even with a tender hand, lest we should brush the down from their wings.-SOUTHEY.
STATUE IN OUR LADY'S WELL, AT HALYSTONE.
The high antiquity of the place may also be
inferred, from a Roman paved road running past it, Can he exclaim, in cold ennui,
from the great station of Bremenium in Redesdale, This world presents no charms for me?
to Badle Bay, opposite to Lindisfarne, or Holy Ungrateful, thus, for blessings given,
Island; and it seems highly probable, that the Impeach the generous will of heaven!
Bishop and Monks of the Cathedral there, when they The night, the morn, the fervid noon,
fled before the arms of the Danes with the body of The solar beams, the silver moon, The gentle shower, the purling rill,
St. Cuthbert, in 875, travelled upon this road, and set The smiling vale, the rising hill,
up here, as in many other places where they rested, The health-inspiring gale that blows,
some memorial of the spot having been consecrated Each sweetly-blooming flower that grows, by the presence of the remains of an aged Bishop, The fertile land, the curling sea,
which the credulity of the times deified, and conTre given, ungrateful man, to thee! Then let Contentment's sterling worth,
verted into the local god of the kingdom and diocese Give thee a splendid heaven on earth.
of Bernicia. Mr. Raine, in his exceedingly curious and
interesting account of the “ Opening of the Tomb of The greater part of mankind, employ their first years to Saint Cuthbert in the Cathedral of Durham in 1827,” make their last miserable.---- DE LA BRUYERE.
has started the opinion, that the flight of the Monks
was by this route ; and, besides the churches of numerous passages in the Old Testament and in Elsdon, Haydon Bridge, and Beltingham, which are profane history, it is evident that the greatest imdedicated to St. Cuthbert, as he supposes, from their portance was attached to this ceremony, and that its sites being resting-places of the remains of that deprivation was supposed to be accompanied with Saint, a large pedestal of a cross, still remaining by disgrace. The Greeks and Romans thought that the side of Headshope Barn, on the way between the soul never enjoyed rest or happiness unless the Halystone and Elsdon, and the church of Cross-au- body was burnt or interred. Tobit went about set, three miles to the south of Elsdon, may be burying the dead bodies of his murdered countrymen pointed out as probable memorials of events occur at the hazard of his life; more than one of the ring during the same flight from the See of Lindis- early Greek tragedies (particularly the Antigone of farne.
Sophocles) derive their whole interest from a contest This Well is now called Our Lady's Well, no for the right of burial; and the Athenians, at the doubt from the little convent of Halystone being most flourishing period of their civilization, made dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. No custom or the neglect to bury the bodies of their fellow-citizens tradition lingering in the neighbourbood, however, who had fallen in a naval battle, a pretence to execute points it out as being resorted to at the Feasts of the all the chief commanders present on the occasion; Nativity, and of St. John the Baptist, at the summer and David highly commended those who rescued the solstice, or at any other season, as a place of religious body of their king from the hands of their enemies, festivity ; but it is still holden in great veneration by and paid it the last honours. (2 Sam. ii. 5.) the people of the neighbourhood : and Mr. Farquhar, The practice of burning dead bodies is of very the proprietor of the place, in 1780, built a wall of remote antiquity, though not so ancient as that of ashlar-work around the brim of the fountain, and burying. It is difficult satisfactorily to account for made a walk round its margin, which he sheltered the origin of this custom. Possibly it was with a plantation of forest-trees, and then defended nected with that of burnt offerings; and those who the whole with a quickset-hedge. The statue in its first practised it, may have thought that they were centre was brought by the same gentleman from disposing of the dead in the way most acceptable to Alnwick, where it was carved by the artist employed that Being, who they knew had commanded them to by the Duke of Northumberland to make the figures burn the bodies of animals in his honour. The body on the battlements of the castle there, and among of Saul was burnt, and his bones buried; and it is the ruins of Huln Abbey. The water of this Well is to be observed, that this, the first instance of the exceedingly copious, and so bright and clear, that rite being practised among the Jews, did not occur every grain of the green and white sand which forms until they had, as we know, imbibed many of the its bottom, may be distinctly seen. The nunnery habits and manners, and not a few of the religious here, portions of which still appear in the Millhouse, superstitions, of the neighbouring idolaters. Burning and in other buildings of the village of Halystone, is still practised throughout India, in Japan, Tartary, was founded by one of the great family of Umfre. Siam, and in other parts of the East, and, formerly, ville ; and was the only monastical institution which prevailerl in the northern countries of Europe. It that race of warriors established in their principality existed very early amongst the Greeks and Romans, of Redesdale, within which the ville of IIalystone was but by no means excluded simple burial. Some situated.
J. H. barbarous nations exposed the bodies of their dead Kirkwhelpington.
without burial or burning. This was the case amongst the ancient Scythians, who attached them
to trees; and, at this day, the Otaheiteans, and other ON THE MODE OF BURIAL IN DIFFERENT
islanders of the Pacific Ocean, expose their dead AGES AND COUNTRIES.
under small open sheds, or on low stages, to the Of the various modes of burial which have prevailed action of the atmosphere. This singular custom is in the world, inhumation, or placing the body under by no means attributable to neglect; the most conthe surface of the ground, seems to be the most an stant attention is paid to the mouldering remains, cient. "It probably suggested itself naturally, as the but the fineness of the climate, joined to a natural most simple and readiest method of disposing of the reluctance to shut out for ever from their view the dead as soon as decomposition began to take place. forms they had loved, revered, or admired, probably The custom of burying families in the same place led the survivors to this expedient. It is believed to seems also to have been a natural result of the be now confined to these islands, where the progress feelings of attachment to our parents and relatives of Christianity will soon cause its entire abolition. implanted by Providence, and of the obscure and Having thus briefly noticed the different modes of indefinite ideas entertained in remote ages of the disposing of bodies after death, we will proceed to nature of the soul, a resurrection, and a future state. consider the places of burial and burning, and con
It is to be remarked, that as early as the time of clude with a short account of the various ceremonies Abraham, the custom of family burial-places was performed in honour of the dead, in different already well established, as appears by Gen. xxiii. 6. countries and at different times. “ Thou art a mighty prince among us: in the choice In ancient times, it does not appear that any thing of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall was determined, particularly, with regard to the place withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou of burying the dead. There were graves in the town mayest bury thy dead." And the simple and affecting and country, upon the highways, in gardens, and on words of Jacob, many years later, are sufficiently mountains. The tombs of the Kings of Judah were explanatory of the motives which have ever since in Jerusalem, and in the royal gardens. The sepulchre influenced mankind, and which will probably continue which Joseph of Arimathea had provided for himto preserve this ancient custom, at least, to a certain self, and wherein he placed our Saviour's body, was extent, for ages to come. Bury me with my fathers, in his garden ; that of Rachel was upon the highway in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite. from Jerusalem to Bethlehem; the Kings of Israel
There they buried Abraham and had their burying-places in Samaria ; Samuel and Sarah his wife, there they buried Isaac and Rebekah | Joab were interred in their own houses; Moses, his wife, and there I buried Leah." Gen. xlix. From | Aaron, Eleazar, and Joshua, in mountains; Deborah