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In consequence of the recent abolition of the Company's | the extremity of North Wales, are the property of the commercial privileges, the East India Docks are not now corporation, with the exception of the light-houses at Tyneappropriated to any peculiar class of vessels; but their mouth, Spurn (shore), Winterton and Orford, Harwich, distance from the seat of business (being the furthest from Foreland, Dungeness, Longships, Smalls, Skerries, &c., the city,) must operate to their disadvantage. With a view which are partly public, and partly private property. The of facilitating the conveyance of heavy goods from these Trinity House is also invested, amongst other powers and the West India Docks to the City, a stone tram-way connected with maritime affairs, with those of regulating was laid down along the Commercial-road in 1830, which and licensing pilots for the Port of London; the examihas been attended with very beneficial results.
nation of the mathematical scholars at Christ's Hospital, The St. KATHERINE's Docks are situated between the intended for the navy, and of the Masters of His Majesty's London Docks and the Tower. In clearing the ground ships; of settling the rates of pilotage, and of fining for this great public work, no less than 11,300 persons unqualified persons either commanding or piloting ships ; were obliged to seek accommodation elsewhere. More of The management and emoluments of the Ballast Office, than 1250 houses were pulled down, amongst which was for clearing and deepening the Thames, by taking up a the ancient Hospital of St. Katherine*. The capital certain quantity of ballast, for the supply of all ships that embarked in the undertaking has consequently been very sail out of the river, at fixed rates; and of granting licenses great, and it has been found necessary to augment it to to poor or infirm seamen, not free of the city, to navigate 2,152,8001. The area within the walls is about 24 acres; on the Thames. The revenues from these and other sources .l} of which are water. The warehouses, which are are extremely large; and may be computed to amount to at extensive and commodious, are supported on the side | least 160,0001. per annum. A portion of this sum is devoted fronting the Docks, by massive Doric pillars of cast-iron, to charitable purposes; as independently of the maintenance a mode of construction which has been attended with a of two Hospitals at Deptford, and 28 Alms' Houses; it great saving of time and expense: goods can be hoisted at is said, that nearly 3000 decayed seamen, or the widows one operation from the hold of the vessel into the ware- and orphans of seamen, are annually relieved by the houses ; there have consequently been instances of despatch Corporation. The Old Trinity House was situated in in unloading ships in the St. Katherine's Docks, which Water Lane, near the Custom House, but this being found appear almost marvellous. About 150 ships, independently inconvenient, the present extensive and elegant structure, of craft, can be accommodated here; and in consequence of which we give an engraving, page 165, was erected in of the proximity to the city, the tonnage is progressively 1795, on Great Tower Hill. The elevation is of Portland increasing.
stone, in the purest style of Grecian architecture, and the The St. Katherine's Dock Steam-Packet Wharf was
open and advantageous situation, gives full effect to the the first attempt made on this river to land and embark building, which is one of the finest in the metropolis. passengers, without the risk and inconvenience of boat The dues in the Port of London were extremely heavy, conveyance; a landing-place is now forming on the site until about nine years since; when the monopolies enjoyed of Old London Bridge:--the appropriation of any part of by the Dock Companies having expired, the dock charges this venerable relic of antiquity for the purposes of a steam- have gradually, in consequence of competition, been reduced wharf, might furnish matter for an essay:
to a very low rate. The charges for pilotage and lights, The commodious basin of the Regent's Canal, at Lime- especially the former, are, however, extremely burdensome: house, which was opened in 1820, is also used as a dock. but a Parliamentary inquiry is about to take place with
We have now only to notice the establishments which respect to the latter; and the recent abolition of the dues at have been formed for the accommodation of shipping, on the North and South Foreland light-houses, which belonged the southern side of the Thames. These principally to Greenwich Hospital, has been a considerable relief to the consist of the COMMERCIAL and East COUNTRY Docks, ship-owner. which are chiefly frequented by vessels in the South Sea, A few years since, the charges on an American ship timber, and corn trades. They are very extensive, the of 482 tons burden, inwards and outwards in this Port, area comprised within the walls being 49 acres, 38 of for lights alone, were upwards of £58; and we cannot give which are water. A large number of ships can also be a more forcible illustration of the pernicious effects resulting docked in the spacious basin at the entrance of the Surrey from such charges, in preventing foreign ships from Canal, adjoining the Commercial Docks.
availing themselves of the security of our ports in strong In consequence of the crowded state of the river, in weather, than by giving the substance of an anecdote, in despite of the enormous extent of wet-docks which we have Sir John Hall's work on the Navigation Laws: the case is been describing, plans have been proposed, at various only one amongst many. Some years since, the Dutch times, for the formation of Collier Docks, the most eligible ship Vreede, from the Texel to Batavia, on her arrival off situation for which would certainly be the Isle of Dogs. the Wight, encountered rough weather and contrary winds There is not the smallest probability, however, that this which obliged her to put back. Off Dungeness, the captain project will ever be carried into effect, as these ships prevent laid the vessel to. He was entreated, however, by the the undue accumulation of mud and rubbish in the river.
passengers and officers, to run her into the Downs, where
she might have anchored in safety; but this he refused, THE TRINITY-HOUSE
alleging in excuse, the very heavy charges he should be Exercises so important an influence on the navigation and subject to for light and other dues. In the night, the commerce of the country, especially on that of the metro- vessel was driven on shore near Hythe, in Kent, and only polis, that our account would be incomplete were we not to 12 persons were saved, out of 392 that were on board ! furnish some notice of it. The “ Guilde, or Fraternitie of the most glorious and
STEAM-NAVIGATION. undivided Trinitie" of Deptford Stronde, was originated by Sir Thomas Spert, Comptroller of the Navy, in the reign of The advance of steam-navigation, and its effect in proHenry the Eighth. It appears, however, that a society of moting the prosperity of commerce, is one of the most mariners had existed there at a much earlier period, as the interesting subjects connected with our inquiries. charter granted by Henry the Eighth, in 1515, confirmed In 1807, when Fulton first proposed to propel a vessel by all “ the ancient rights and privileges of the shipmen and steam on the American waters, his project was received mariners of England," with their property at Deptford, to with derision and incredulity ;-little more than twenty the present Corporation. Originally the society was com- years after, the discovery was applied by our enterprising posed of seamen alone, but this was only for a short period; countryman, Captain Ross, in facilitating his progress in and, at the present time, the Marquis Camden is Master, the arctic regionsr; and, in 1833, an iron steamer has and the King, the Duke of Wellington, Earl Grey, and traversed that celebrated river in the interior of Africa, many other persons of rank and influence, are numbered whose very existence was so long deemed little else than a amongst its “ Elder Brethren."
fable. The Trinity House is invested by its charter, (which was But although America first applied this gigantic power extended and confirmed by James the Second, in 1685,) | afloat to practical uses, yet it is to Britain that the with the power of erecting light-houses, and other sea honour of the discovery is exclusively to be attributed. A marks, and of fixing buoys on the coasts of this island ; native of Glasgow, Mr. Henry Bell, was the discoverer of and all the light-houses, floating-lights, &c., except harbour- steam-navigation. He communicated his ideas to Mr. lights, from the Farn Islands off Northumberland, along Fultou, and they finally proceeded to the United States, co the eastern, southern, and western coasts of England, to
+ See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 255. • See Saturday Magasine, Vol. II, p. 132,
# Ibid. Vol. I., p. 198.
endeavour to carry the plan into effect. Mr. Bell returned | tation of grain and meal from Ireland, into Great Britain, to Scotland, when its success had been established, and, has been augmented threefold since 1815. in 1812, constructed the Comet, a small vessel of three According to a Parliamentary return, the number of horse power, for the conveyance of passengers between steam vessels in 1829, was 342, of the aggregate burden of Glasgow and Greenock, on the Clyde. The success of 31,355 register tons; of which number, 241 vessels and this experiment led to the construction of other vessels | 20,611 tons belonged to England; 75 vessels and 5953 tons of larger power; and this leads to a curious steam-remi- to Scotland; and 26 vessels and 4791 tons to Ireland, niscence of the Thames. A Mr. Lawrence, at that period, About 30 steamers have on an average been built annually constructed a steam-boat at Bristol, which he brought to since that period, so that the present number in the United London to ply on the Thames for passengers. The Com- Kingdom, may be computed at nearly 500. pany of Watermen, however, made so strenuous an opposi The number of steamers belonging or trading to the tion to this extraordinary innovation on their “vested Port of London has nearly doubled since 1829, and now rights," that the proprietor was obliged to return with his exceeds 100, the largest of which is the Monarch, a magsteamer to Bristol ; but others soon succeeded, and about nificent ship of 1200 tons burden, recently built for the twenty years subsequently, at the time we are now writing, station between London and the Scottish 'metropolis. A at least 100 steam-boats plough the waters of the Thames. list of the places where the London steamers sail to direct
The progress of steam-navigation, for the first ten or will, perhaps, give the best idea of the present extent of the twelve years after its introduction into this country, was trade, viz. Hamburgh, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Ostend, Calais, extremely slow; most of the vessels then built were very Boulogne, Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Newcastle, Stockdeficient in power, and, indeed, no very material improve- ton, Hull, Yarmouth, Ipswich, Northfleet, Gravesend, ments in their architecture-especially in the Port of Southend, Sheerness, Chatham, Whitstable, Herne Bay, London—were made for several years later. Since 1829, Margate, Ramsgate, Dover, Exeter, Plymouth, Falmouth, the progress made in steam-navigation, both as respects Cork, Dublin, Belfast, and Liverpool. its extension, and in the modelling and construction of the The most striking illustration of the increase of this vessels, has been exceedingly rapid. The benefits which mode of communication is evinced in the instance of it has conferred on the country are most strongly illus- Gravesend, which, for the information of our country trated in reference to Ireland. We learn, that formerly, readers, we should state is a town containing about 10,000 from the time a sailing-vessel was first prepared to start inhabitants, situated on the banks of the Thames, about from Liverpool, to the time of her arrival in Dublin, a 30 miles, by water, below the metropolis. In 1821, the week might be calculated as a fair average of her passage. number of persons that landed at Gravesend from London, The first steamer was established between those two ports was only 27,291; in 1831, upwards of 240,000 persons in 1821; the voyage is now performed in about twelve | landed and embarked there. This year it may fairly be hours, and the Post-office Packet, Dolphin, has made the estimated, from the formation of a landing-pier, and other passage, a distance of 137 miles, in 10 hours and 18 causes, that the number will be increased to 400,000. About minutes ! At the present period, it may fairly be com- thirteen steamers, six of which have been constructed this puted, that a capital of nearly a million is engaged in year, some being of the power of 160 horses, will, in future, steam-communication between the two countries. The ply to Graresend during the season. The passage to Marbenefit to Ireland is of course exceedingly great; her gate, a distance of 84 miles, has been perforined (excluding exports have consequently nearly been doubled; and some stoppages) by the Magnet and Royal William, in five *dea of the extent of the trade may be formed from the hours. On the importance of steam for the purposes of fact, that about 400,000 head of cattle, sheep, and pigs, are towing in a river like the Thames, it is unnecessary to annually imported into Liverpool alone; whilst the impor- comment.
LONDON. Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL.
support been withheld from it. Queen Charlotte THE Engraving on the preceding page, presents a became its Patroness, and at her death, the title of correct view of the handsome, spacious, and com- Patron was accepted by His late Majesty, then Prince modious building, lately begun, and now almost Regent. Soon after the Accession, their present completed, near the north-west corner of Westminster Majesties graciously allowed their names to appear Abbey. Before we describe this edifice, a short as Patron and Patroness, accompanying that permishistorical sketch of the institution to which it sion with liberal contributions. The Duke of Sussex, belongs, may not be uninteresting to our readers, it about ten years ago, became Vice-Patron. having been the first in this kingdom established and One of the most memorable instances of the Royal supported by voluntary contributions:
Patronage towards this hospital, occurred at the From the time of the Reformation to the beginning commemoration of Handel in Westminster Abbey, of the last century, the only public establishments under the sanction of George the Third. It was the for medical and surgical relief to the poor of London original intention of the projectors of those performwere, the royal foundation hospitals of St. Bartholo- ances in 1784, that the profits should be given to the mew and St. Thomas. It was not till the year 1715 Fund for the support of Decayed Musicians. The that a project was set on foot for furnishing them claims of the Westminster Hospital were, however, with this necessary aid, by means of private sub- deemed by His Majesty of sufficient importance to scriptions. This measure, it should be gratefully entitle it to share with the Musical Fund, and accordremembered, was suggested by Mr. Henry Hoare, ingly, it received from the four successive annual then a banker in Fleet Street, whose descendants commemorations, no less a sum than £5500. It are still liberal contributors to the Westminster has, till very recently, been confidently hoped, that Hospital, one of them, Mr. Charles Hoare, having the arrangement for the intended performances at the kindness to act as the joint-treasurer of its funds, the Abbey in June, would include an equally benewith Mr. Hallett, the Chairman of the present ficial provision for the hospital. In fact, long before Building Committee. Mr. Hoare's suggestion was these performances were projected, a suggestion was made at a meeting at St. Dunstan's Coffee House, made for augmenting the hospital building-fund, by on the 14th of January, 1715. A room, as a repo a series of oratorios, at the same place, and on the sitory for medicines, was opened in the Bird-Cage same grand scale. Unfortunately, the difficulties Walk, St. James's Park, and after increased exertions which seemed likely to be opposed to the accomplishhad been made by many active and benevolent per- ment of the plan, added to the responsibility which sons (among whom the names of Mrs. Froud, and the funds of the charity would incur, in the possible, of Sir John Colbatch, an eminent physician, are par- though improbable event of failure, were suffered to ticularly recorded), a house for the accommodation weigh down the practical judgment and experience of thirty persons was opened in Petty France, now of the gentleman by whom the suggestion was offered. called York Street, Westminster. On this building, Should all chance of a participation in the profits of which was not far from the site of that now about to the ensuing concerts be finally frustrated, it may still be exchanged for the one represented in our engraving, be hoped that the liberal feelings of those who may were inscribed the words, “ Publick Infirmary for attend them will be powerfully excited in favour of the Sick and Needy." At the instigation of the this institution, by the opportunity they will have of celebrated and eccentric Sarah, Duchess of Marlbo viewing the noble structure raised for its benevolent rough, who was a liberal subscriber to the charity, a purposes, and of alleviating the disappointment which petition was addressed in 1721 to King George the has been thus occasioned. First, for his royal protection to it, grounded in part It only remains to add a brief statement of the on an apprehension then entertained, that the plague circumstances which have attended the erection of was likely soon to visit his dominions. The Princess the New Hospital. The present house in James Royal became a subscriber, and the gradual increase Street having become much dilapidated, as well as of the funds, to about £700 a year, at length enabled insufficient in size and accommodations, for the the governors to open a house in Chapel Street, for purposes of relieving the daily-increasing objects of sixty patients, on the 10th of June, 1724. Two years the charity, a meeting was held at the Thatched afterwards, the very distinguished anatomist, Che House Tavern in 1819, where a subscription for an selden, became the Lithotomist to the hospital, an enlarged building was commenced, under the munioffice which he retained for fifteen years, receiving ficent auspices of the Duke of Northumberland, the particular thanks of the governors on his retire President of the Institution. The fund thus begun, ment, which was occasioned by his declining health. having increased, in the year 1831, to more than His portrait is in the present Board-Room, and will, 19,0001., the governors, after a careful consideraof course, be transferred to an honourable situation tion and examination of other sites which had in the new one, with those of other eminent pro- been offered to them, felt themselves justified, in fessional men, who have, at different periods, rendered entering into a negotiation with His Majesty's Gothe Hospital their gratuitous and valuable services. vernment, for the purchase of the then vacant
The removal of the establishment to James Street spot of ground near the Abbey, considering its situtook place in 1733, but not till after much controversy ation to combiné every local advantage that could had arisen among the governors, many of whom be desired. This purchase was completed for 60001., preferred the site of Lanesborough House, near paid by the proceeds of a sale of stock, belonging to Hyde Park-corner, and accordingly withdrew their the general funds of the Hospital. The execution of subscriptions, in order to establish St. George's the measure was then confided to a building-comHospital there. Cheselden and the celebrated Dr. mittee, who proceeded to examine the designs of Mead adhered to the parent institution, which, though eight eminent architects, and finally selected one, it found a formidable rival in its more favoured which was offered to them by Messrs. Inwood and offspring, has continued for a century to dispense its Son, under whose superintendence, the present strucbenefits to the rapidly increasing population of a ture has been built by Mr. Barron. It is in the distressed neighbourhood, in a house containing one Tudor style, of white Suffolk brick, with stone bathundred beds, with accommodations also a tlements and enrichments: the centre is seventy-two dispensary for out-patients. Nor has the Royal feet in height; the front extends to about 200 feet,
and the total number of windows is 260. There
THE SEA OF TIBERIAS. are nineteen wards, affording accommodation for This immense lake is almost equal, in the grandeur 202 patients, and the number of beds, including of its appearance, to that of Geneva. Its eastern those for officers, nurses, and servants, will amount shores present a sublime scene of mountains, extendto about 240. The interior arrangements, and the ing towards the north and south, and seeming ventilation, are considered to be excellent.
to close it, in at either extremity; both towards With an anxious desire to prevent a lavish expen- Chorazin, where the Jordan enters; and the Aulon diture on useless decorations, the committee, never
or Campus Magnus, through which it flows to the theless, found themselves under the necessity of Dead Sea. The cultivated plains reaching to its sanctioning such an architectural elevation, as in borders, resembled, by the various hues their different its style and execution, should not disgrace its neigh- produce exhibited, the motley pattern of a vast bourhood. In so doing, with the most rigid and
carpet. To the north appeared snowy summits, minute attention to economy, they have been unable towering, beyond a series of intervening mountains, to complete their contracts for a less sum than with unspeakable greatness. 27,5001., which will be augmented to above 30,0001.,
As we rode towards the Sea of Tiberias, the wind by the interior fittings up and furniture. They have, rendered its surface rough, and called to mind the therefore, exceeded, in their expenditure, the amount situation of our Saviour's disciples, when, in one of of the building-fund, by a very considerable sum, the small vessels which traverse these waters, they even if Government should be disposed to autho
were tossed in a storm, and saw Jesus, in the rise the remission of the 60001., paid to them for fourth watch of the night, walking to them upon the the site--a measure which, it is conceived, the
Often as this subject has been painted, legislature would not deem an unreasonable indul- combining a number of circumstances adapted for gence to a charity so closely connected with the the representation of sublimity, no artist has been two Houses of Parliament. But it is not alone for
aware of the uncommon grandeur of the scenery, the purpose of defraying building-expenses, that a
memorable on account of the transaction. The lake large augmentation of the funds of the Hospital has of Gennesareth is surrounded by objects well calcubecome necessary. It is obvious that a great increase lated to heighten the solemn impression made by of annual expenditure must be occasioned in the such a picture; and, independent of the local feelings support of the establishment, which has more than likely to be excited in its contemplation, affords one doubled its capabilities of being useful. On both of the most striking prospects in the Holy Land. It these grounds, therefore, it is confidently hoped, that
is by comparison alone, that any due conception of an appeal to public benevolence will not be made in the appearance it presents can be conveyed to the vain, for ensuring continued and extended prosperity minds of those who have not seen it; and, speakto an institution which has already administered relief ing of it comparatively, it may be described as to more than 230,000 patients.
longer and finer than any of our Cumberland and
Westmoreland lakes, although, perhaps, it yields in There is an old story, that when tea was first introduced majesty to the stupendous features of Loch Lomond into England, some person, ignorant of its use, boiled it to in Scotland. It does not possess the vastness of the eat as spinach: the fashion, however, never seems to have Lake of Geneva, although it much resembles it in spread, nor do we think that the following manner of particular points of view. The Lake of Locarno in drinking it, and washing the cup, met with by Captain Italy, comes nearest to it in point of picturesque Turner in Bootan, would be much more likely to meet with beauty, although it is destitute of any thing similar imitators. “During our visit, the Raja held out upon the to the islands, by which that majestic piece of water points of the fingers of his right hand, a small, shallow is adorned. It is inferior in magnitude, and, perhaps, lacquered cup, which was filled with tea. Three cups had been set down before us; the Raja directed his servant to in the height of its surrounding mountains, to the fill them also; still holding the cup, he repeated, in a low | Lake Asphaltites, but its broad and extended surface, and hollow tone of voice, a long invocation; and afterwards, covering the bottom of a profound valley, environed dipping the point of his finger three times into the cup, he by lofty and precipitous eminences, added to the threw as many drops upon the floor, and then, began to sip impression of a certain reverential awe, under which his tea. Taking this as a signal we fellowed the example, and partook of the dishes of parched rice, that were served every Christian pilgrim approaches it, give it a up with it. We found this liquor extremely unlike what character of dignity unparalleled by any similar we had been used to drink, under the same name; it was scenery. a compound of water, flour, butter, salt, and bohea tea, Having reached the end of the plain, a long and with some other astringent ingredients, all boiled, beat up, steep declivity of two miles yet remained, to the and intimately blended together. I confess the mixture town of Tiberias, situated upon the borders of the was by no means to my taste, and we had hitherto shunned, lake. We had here a noble view of this place, with as much as possible, these unpalatable 'potations, yet we
Groups of Arabs, now deemed it necessary to submit to some constraint, and its castle and fortifications. having at last, with a tolerable grace, swallowed the tea, gathering in their harvest upon the backs of camels, we yet found ourselves very deficient in the conclusion of were seen in the neighbourhood of the town. Beyond the ceremony. The Raja, with surprising dexterity, turned it appeared, upon the same side of the lake, some the cup, as he held it fast between his fingers, and in an buildings erected over the warm mineral-baths of instant passed his tongue over every part of it; so that it Emmaus, which are much frequented by the people was sufficiently clean to be wrapped up in a piece of scarlet of the country; and still further, the south-eastern silk, which bore evident marks of its having been, for some time, devoted to this service. The native officers, who had extremity of the lake. Turning our view towards entered with us, were not permitted to partake of this repast, its northern shores, we beheld, through a bold and, but for the honour of it, we would willingly have declivity, the situation of Capernaum, upon the declined so flattering a distinction.
boundaries of the two tribes of Zabulon and Naphtali. For the sake of health, medicines are taken by weight remains of those ancient tombs, hewn by the earliest
Along the borders of this lake, may still be seen the and measure ; so ought food to be, or by some similar rule. inhabitants of Galilee, in the rocks which face the -SKELTON.
water. They were deserted in the time of our He is rich who saves a penny a year; and he poor who Saviour, and had become the resort of wretched runs behind a penny in a year.