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OATH OF WILLIAM RUFUS. The Rhamnus Lotus of Linnæus, (Pentandria mong. Our English chroniclers represent William Rufus, gynia,) of which the annexed Engraving is a repre. on every occasion on which he used strong language, sentation (though the leaves of the desert shrub are as employing an oath, “ By St. Luke's face." Rapin much smaller), is the Lotus of the ancients, of which and others call it his favourite oath. This is a very it was commonly said, that those who ate of the curious mistake, originating in a mistranslation of fruit of it, forgot their native country, which is, the Latin phrase of some ancient historian, probably perhaps, a poetical allusion to the ease and supposed Eadmer, or William of Malmesbury. “He swore," comfort and happiness of a people, whose country say they, “per vultum de Lucca, by the face of, or produced fruit for them, without the labour of rais- at Lucca, without the shadow of a reference to the

Evangelist.” The inquiry into this curious fact opens This tree or shrub is disseminated over the edge a passage of English history more fully than it is of the Great Desert, from the coast of Cyrene, round usually presented to us. by Tripoli and Africa proper, to the borders of William the Second was a very headstrong and the Atlantic, the Senegal, and the Niger. It bears irreligious man, reckless of Providence, with unsmall farinaceous berries, of a yellow colour, and governable passions, self-willed, blind to danger, delicious taste, called by the negroes Tomberongs. and regardless of duty. On one occasion of his These berries are much esteemed by the natives, who employing the oath in question, these qualities convert them into a sort of bread, by exposing them, showed themselves so prominently, and they so for some days, to the sun, and afterwards pounding clearly develope the character of the man, that I them gently in a wooden mortar, until the farinaceous take leave to insert the narrative more at length part of the berry is separated from the stone. This than the bare explanation of his oath might require. meal is then mixed with a little water, and formed The king was in the full enjoyment of a huntinginto cakes, which, when dried in the sun, resemble, party when a messenger, from beyond sea, brought in colour and flavour, the sweetest ginger-bread. him tidings that town which had lately fallen into The stones are afterwards put into a vessel of water, his hands was besieged by the enemy. Instantly, and shaken about, so as to separate the meal which equipped as he was for the chase, he turned his may adhere to them: this communicates a sweet and horse's head, and made for the sea. On his attendagreeable taste to the water, and, with the addition of ants' suggesting the propriety of waiting till his a little pounded millet, forms a pleasant gruel called forces could be collected and marshalled, he scornFondi, which is the common breakfast in many parts fully replied, I shall see who will follow me. of Sundamar, during the months of February and Think ye I shall not have an army." He arrived at March. The fruit is collected by spreading a cloth the coast almost alone. The wind was contrary, the upon the ground, and beating the branches with a weather stormy, and the sea in dreadful agitation. stick.

Resolved to pass over at the moment, when the mariners remonstrated and implored him to wait for a less foul sea and sky, he exclaimed impetuously, I never yet heard of a king perishing by shipwreck; loose the cables, I say, instantly. You shall see the elements conspire in their obsequiousness to me." William crossed in safety, and the first rumour of his landing scattered the besiegers. A leading man among them, one Helias (the Earl of Flesche, his competitor for the Earldom of Maine), was taken prisoner, and brought before the king, who saluted him with a jeer, “I have you, master."

To this his high-minded captive (whom as the historian remarks, his imminent danger could not teach prudence or humble language,) replied, “ It was by mere chance you took me ; if I could escape, I know what I would do." Upon this William, almost beside himself with rage and fury, clenching his fist at Helias, exclaimed, “You rascal! what would you do? Begone! away! fly!" and "By the face of Lucca (per vultum de Lucca) if you conquer me, I will make no terms with you for this free pardon."

In consequence of different legends of “The Holy As this shrub is found in Tunis, and also in the Face" existing in the Church of Rome, I was for Negro kingdoms, and as it furnishes the natives of

some time under a mistake as to the real origin of the latter with a food resembling bread, and also this oath. “The Face of Lucca," however, by which with a sweet liquor, which is much relished by them, William swore, was undoubtedly a crucifix in that there can be little doubt of its being the Lotus men

town. Butler, in a note on the life of St. Veronica tioned by Pliny, as the food of the Libyan Lotophagi. of Milan, calls it a very ancient miraculous crucifix, An army may very well have been fed with the bread in the Chapel of the Holy Cross in the Cathedral I have tasted, made of the meal of the fruit, as is dedicated to St. Martin. Lord Lyttelton says, said by Pliny to have been done in Libya; and as

“There is at Lucca, in Tuscany, an ancient figure of the taste of the bread is sweet and agreeable, it is Christ brought there miraculously, as they pretend, not likely the soldiers would complain of it.-MUNGO and which they say still continues to work miracles. PARK and RENNELL.

L. C.

They call it Il santo volto di Lucca, and are so proud

of possessing it, that it is stamped on their coin with He that is good, will infallibly become better, and he that this legend, Sanctus vultus de Luca. is bad, will as certainly become worse; for virtue, vice,

An oath very similar to this of William, By and time, are three things that never stand still. -Colton. the Holy Face."—is used to the present day in

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Spain, especially in Valencia. Its origin is found in and fairly succeeded in fastening its thread to the beam one of the most engaging and affecting, but not on which it had so often in vain attempted to reach. Bruce that account less unfounded, legends of the church seeing the success of the spider, resolved to try his own of Rome.

fortune; and as he never before gained a victory, so he Many of the Romish legends sprang, unhappily, I have often met with people of the name of Bruce, so

never afterwards sustained any considerable check or defeat. from less worthy motives than mistaken zeal for the completely persuaded of the truth of this story, that they Gospel, and we can only lament the depravity which would not, on any account, kill a spider, because it was would employ the religion of Jesus as an instrument such an insect which had shown the example of persefor compassing selfish, ambitious, and worldly objects. verance, and given a signal of good luck, to their great Even when we are required in charity, to refer the namesake. —Tales of a Grandfather invention of a legend to a well-intentioned, but misguided, zeal, however the imagination may be ANECDOTE OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTOX. pleased, and our interest excited by the narrative, I will give you a somewhat curious anecdote, on the truth no sooner do we reflect upon it, as an unhallowed of which you may rely. Stimulated by curiosity, I role up auxiliary to the word of the Eternal and Omnipotent to a neighbouring eminence, to observe the motions of our One, than we turn from it in shame, and pain, and

own army, which had already commenced retiring, as well

as those of the enemy, who, from the occasional pushing sorrow. Such is the “ Legend of the Holy Face."

forward of their skirmishers, seemed intent on some further As our blessed Lord, so runs the tale, was bear-operations. On this height were several ofiicers, one of ing his cross towards Calvary, overwhelmed by the whom was seated, while his horse was held by an orleriy weight which pressed his soul, and bent his body to dragoon, and the others standing around him. I had apthe earth, he stumbled three times. In Spain there proached within a few yards of them before I observed that are prints representing this affecting scene, and the principal object in the group was Lord Wellington. In called, “ The three Falls.” On one of these moments and in the act of adding mustard to a slice of meat which

a moment my attention was arrested. He was at luncheon, of anguish, a female from Verona, with an affec- had just been deposited upon his plate, when the following tionate desire to relieve his suffering, wiped his face colloquy took place :with a handkerchief, thrice folded : an exact image “The enemy are moving, my lord," said one of the staffof his countenance was left impressed on each of officers to his commander, already busily engaged in the

Very well," replied his lordship, the three folds. One of these the people in Valencia office of mastication. pretend to be still kept in a cathedral of their own, be about," at the same time continuing his meal with every

“ take the glass, Somerset, and tell me what they seem to exhibiting it on certain holy days with much cere

appearance of nonchalance. The officer did so for about a monial solemnity. And by this "holy face” they minute. swear.--TYLER on Oaths.

" I think t ey are extending to the left, my lord."

“ Are they, indeed!" exclaimed Lord Wellington, spring

ing on his feet; "give me the glass quickly." BRUCE AND THE SPIDER.

He took it, and for a short space continuel observing It was, probably, about this time, that an incident took the motions of the enemy. “Come, I think this will do ai place, which, although it rests only on tradition in the last,” he exclaimed. · Ride off instantly, and tell Clinto. families of the name of Bruce, is rendered probable by the and Leith to return as quickly as possible to their former manners of the times. After receiving the last unpleasing ground.” intelligence from Scotland, Bruce was lying one morning

In a moment all his staff were in motion, Lord Telon his wretched bed, and deliberating with himself, whether lington mounted his horse and I returned to my regiment, he had not better resign all thoughts of again attempting which, as our division was intended to form the rear of the to make good his right to the Scottish crown, and, dis- retreat, had not yet begun to move. Such was the missing his followers, transport himself and his brothers promptitude and rapidity with which a decision affecting to the Holy Land, and spend the rest of his life in fighting the fate of nations was formed by the master mind of our against the Saracens; by which he thought, perhaps, he Great Commander.— Blackwood's Magazine. might deserve the forgiveness of Heaven for the great sin of stabbing Comyn in the church at Dumfries. But then,

MAY-DAY. on the other hand, he thought it would be both criminal and cowardly to give up his attempts to restore freedom to

QUEEN of fresh flowers, Scotland, while there yet remained the least chance of his

Whom vernal stars obey being successful in an undertaking, which, rightly consi

Bring thy warm showers, dered, was much more his duty than to drive the infidels

Bring thy genial ray. out of Palestine, though the superstition of the age might

In nature's greenest livery drest, think otherwise.

Descend on earth's expectant breast, While he was divided betwixt toese reflections, and

To earth and Heaven a welcome guest doubtful of what he should do, Bruce was looking upward

Thou merry month of May! to the roof of the cabin in which he lay, and his eye was

Mark! how we meet thee attracted by a spider, which, hanging at the end of a long

At dawn of dewy day! thread of his own spinning, was endeavouring, as is the

Hark! how we greet thee fashion of that creature, to swing himself from one beam

With our roundelay! in the roof to another, for the purpose of fixing the line on

While all the goodly things that be which he meant to stretch his web. The insect made the

In earth, and air, and ample sea, attempt again and again without success; and at length

Are waking up to welcome thee Bruce counted that it had tried to carry its point six times,

Thou merry month of May!
and been as often unable to do it. It came into his head, that
he had himself fought just six battles against the English

Flocks on the mountains,
And birds upon

their and their allies, and that the poor persevering spider was


Tree, turf, and fountains exactly in the same situation with himself, having made as many trials, and been as often disappointed in what it

All hold holiday; aimed at.

And Love, the life of living things, · Now," thought Bruce, “as I have no means of knowing what is best to be done, I will be guided by

Love waves his torch, and claps his wings, the luck which shall attend this spider. If the insect

And loud and wide thy praises sings,

HEBER. shall make another effort to fix its thread, and shall be

Thou merry month of May! successful, I will venture a seventh time to try my fortune in Scotland; but if the spider shall fail, I will go to the fear is one of the passions of human nature, of which it wars in Palestine, and never return to my native country is impossible to divest-it. When the Emperor Charles the again."

Fifth read upon the tomb-stone of a Spanish nobleman, While Bruce was forming this resolution, the spider “Here lies one who never knew fear," he wittily said, “Then made another exertion with all the force it could muster, he never snuffed a candle with his fingers." -JOHNSON.



As the man of pleasure, by a vain attempt to be more There is a species of Leech which infests, in immense

happy than any man can be, is often more iniserable than numbers, the woods and swampy grounds of Ceylon,

most men are; so the sceptic, in a vain attempt to be wise, particularly in the rainy season, to the great annoyance beyond what is permitted to man, plunges into a darkness of every one who passes through them. The leeches of more deplorable, and a blindness more incurable, than that this species are very small, not much larger than a pin; of the common herd whom he despises, and would fain and are of a dark-red speckled colour. In their motionscious ever will be the abuse of it, as the most powerful

instruct. For the more precious the gift, the more pernithey do not crawl like a worm, or like the leeches we are accustomed to see in Europe; but keep constantly springing, medicines are the most dangerous, if misapplied; and no by first fixing their head on a place, and then bringing error is so remediless as that which arises, not from the their tail up to it with a sudden jerk, while at the same

exclusion of wisdom, but from its perversion. The sceptic, time their head is thrown forwards for another hold. In when he plunges into the depths of infidelity, like the miser this manner they move so exceeding quickly, that before which he bears about him, will only sink him deeper in the

who leaps from the shipwreck, will find that the treasures they are perceived, they contrive to get upon one's clothes, when they immediately endeavour by some aperture to find abyss. —Colton. an entrance to the skin. As soon as they reach it, they begin to draw blood; and as they can effect this even

TenDERNESS, delicacy, and gentleness, are certainly the through the light clothing worn in this climate, it is almost appropriate qualities of a woman; but they are more the impossible to pass through the woods and swamps in rainy means of virtue, than virtues themselves, and if a woman weather without being covered with ood. On our way to satisfies herself with the mere possession of these qualities, Candy, in marching through the narrow paths among the without considering their use, she may suffer them to dewoods, we were terribly annoyed by these vermin; for when generate into faults. For instance, if her tenderness ever any of us sat down, or even halted for a moment, we makes her helpless and useless, if it destroys her fortitude were sure to be immediately attacked by multitudes of them; ¡n bearing evils, and her exertion in repelling them; if and before we could get rid of them, our gloves and boots were her delicacy makes her whimsical, capricious, and proud ; filled with blood. This was attended with no small danger; her gentleness, indolent and selfish, these qualities become for if a soldier were, from drunkenness or fatigue, to fall vices instead of virtues. asleep on the ground, he must have perished by bleeding Her tenderness is the stimulus to all her benevolent and to death. On rising in the morning, I have often found Christian duties; delicacy, her shield against the conmy bed-clothes and skin covered with blood in an alarming taminating blasts of vice and vulgarity; gentleness of

The Dutch, in their marches into the interior at spirit, her guard against anxiety, and imitation in the different times, lost several of their men; and on our setting active routine of her necessary and beneficial employments. out, they told us that we should hardly be able to make Mrs. King. our way for them. But, though we were terribly arnoyed, we all escaped without any serious accident. Other CARISTIANITY forbids no necessary occupations, no reaanimals, as well as man, are subject to the attack of these sonable : indulgences, no innocent relaxations. It allows leeches. Horses in particular, from their excessive us to use the world, provided we do not abuse it. It does plunging and kicking to get rid of these creatures when they not spread before us a delicious banquet, and then come fasten upon them, render it very unsafe for any one to ride with a “touch not, taste not, handle not." All it requires through the woods of the interior. —PERCIVAL's Ceylon. is, that our liberty degenerate not into licentiousness, our

amusements into dissipation, our industry into incessant A LITTLE turn happened lately to a parishioner, which in toil, our carefulness into extreme anxiety and endless former times, when events were viewed under aspects solicitude. So far from forbidding us to engage in business, different from those by which we now regard them, might it expressly commands us not to be slothful in it, and to have occasioned more wonderment and comment than it labour with our hands for the things that be needful; it did. An industrious labouring man had been some time enjoins every one to abide in the calling wherein he was unemployed; and having sought an engagement at all called, and perform all the duties of it. It even stigmatizes those places most likely to have afforded it, but without those that provide not for their own, with telling them that success, sat himself down upon a bank in one of our they are worse than infidels. When it requires us “ to be potato-fields, carelessly twisting a straw, and ruminating temperate in all things," it plainly tells us, that we may what his next resource might be; when casting his eyes to

use all things temperately; when it directs us,“ to make the ground, he discovered, immediately between his feet, a

our moderation known unto all men,” this evidently implies, guinea! a guinea perfect in all its requisites ! The finding that within the bounds of moderation we may enjoy all the of such a coin, at such a time, was no common occurrence;

reasonable conveniences and comforts of the present life. but by what casualty did the money come there? The

Bishop PORTEUS. frequenters of our fields, breakers of stone, and delvers of the soil, inhabiters of the tenement and the cot, have no UNTO them that love him, God causeth all things to work superfluous gold to drop unheeded in their progress, and for the best. So that with Him, by the heavenly light of one should have supposed, that the various operations steadfast faith, they see life even in death; with Him, even which the field had undergone in the potato-culture, would in heaviness and sorrow, they fail not of joy and comfort ; have brought to view any coin of that size and lustre. with Him, even in poverty, affliction, and trouble, they Upon looking at the land, however, much of our perplexity neither perish, nor are forsaken. --Miles COVERDALE, was removed, by observing that the ground had been in part manured by scrapings from our turnpike-road, ren He who saith there is no such thing as an honest man, dering it highly probable, that this golden stranger had you may be sure is himself a knave. - Bishop BERKELEY. been dropped by some traveller, not missed by him, or lost in the mire, this mortar from the road possibly so coating We all live upon the hope of pleasing somebody; and the it about, as to secrete it for a time, some heavy rain dis- pleasure of pleasing ought to be greatest, and, at least, solving the clod, and bringing it to view. This, I am always will be greatest, when our endeavours are exerted in sensible, is an incident little deserving of narration, but

consequence of our duty:-Dr. JOHNSON. has been done from two motives: we village-historians meet with but few important events to detail from the annals of our district : we have no gazettes, few public Chancellor of England, and Sir John, his father, one of the

FiliaL RESPECT.-When Sir Thomas More was Lord records, or official documents, to embellish our pages, if we will write, must be content with such small matters judges of the King's Bench, he would, in Westminsteras present themselves; and to point out, how frequently Hall, beg his blessing of him on his knees.-Fuller. very mysterious circumstances may be elucidated, and appear as consistent events by an unbiassed examination. Take a heretic, a rebel, a person that hath an ill cause to We may not be able always satisfactorily to see why a manage; what he is deficient in the strength of his cause, tile of good fortune should flow at the desire of one, and he makes up with diligence; while he that hath right on ebb from the wishes of another, yet many of the occur his side, is cold, indiligent, lazy, inactive, trusting that the rences of human life, are, perhaps, not so extraordinary as goodness of his cause will not fail to prevail without assistthey are made to appear by the suppression of facts, or our ance. So wrong prevails, while evil persons are zealous, ignorance of circumstances. ---Journal of a Naturalist, and the good remiss. ---JEREMY TAYLOR.

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No I.

merely by a rope attached to the waist, and thus The western extremity of the Isle of Wight was explore, at leisure, every hollow of the rock, much in anciently styled the Isle of Freshwater, from the the manner practised by the inhabitants of the Shetcircumstance of the river, which here crosses the land Isles *. island, rising within a few hundred yards of the The upper part of the bay, where cliffs begin to beach to the south, and flowing out at Yarmouth, on rise in romantic grandeur, is remarkable for the cave, the northern coast, and thus almost forming a sepa- of which we have given an Engraving. This cave, ration between the two portions of the isle. From opening under the cliff, expands into a marine grotto Freshwater Bay to the Needles, which are at the of considerable dimensions, and forms an interesting extreme west, and thence round the coast to Alum and impressive object to the curious traveller. A Bay, the entire range of cliff is of the most sublime slight pier of chalk divides the mouth of the cave description; and, especially when viewed from the into two unequal arches, beyond the smaller of which sea, it presents an uninterrupted succession of that is another of the same size. The principal arch is bold and imposing outline so characteristic of the between twenty and thirty feet in height. The entire British shores.

depth of the cavern is about one hundred and twenty The scenery of Freshwater Bay is one of the most feet, but the height rapidly diminishes till it becomes attractive features of this picturesque and far-famed too low to be explored. The interior of the arches, island. The wild range of perpendicular cliffs, sur

with their dark mantle of moss and sea-weed, forms mounted by the verdure of the downs that appear

a fine contrast to the white chalky cliffs outside; and above them, forming a striking contrast with the the sea view from the upper part of the cave, with snowy surface of the chalk,—the waves gently swell- its wild fore-ground, formed by large fragments of ing to their base, or dashing in wild confusion against the rock which lie scattered at the feet of the spectheir sides,—the sea-fowl issuing from the cavities of tator, is strikingly beautiful. Through the lesser the rock, wheeling aloft and balancing themselves in opening are seen the opposite cliffs of Freshwater mid-air, or plunging in search of their prey beneath Bay; while the main arch displays a wide expanse of the waters,—the boats of the fishermen busied in the ocean, and, in the distance, the noble summit of St. labours of their perilous calling,—the shipping in Catherine's Hill. The floor of the cave is a clear the Channel,-combined with the different appear- pebbly beach, strewn with masses of the rock of ances of the changing seasons and varying weather, every size and shape ; and, being washed by each altogether yield a picture of the most pleasing and returning tide; is always dripping with the briny animating description.

moisture, which, added to the cool crystal drops that These cliffs are peculiarly remarkable for the pro- continually trickle from the roof above, gives a digious numbers of aquatic birds that frequent them, reviving freshness to this retreat, that in the hot more especially during the summer-months, with the months of summer is inexpressibly delightful. purpose of depositing and hatching their eggs among

E, A. I. the crevices of the rocks, which afford them a secure

* See Suturday Magazine, Vol. II., p. 220. asylum from the weather ; though even here they are not beyond the reach of man, their unwearied perse

LONDON: cutor. The inhabitants of the island, for the sake of JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. their down and eggs, descend, at the hazard of their

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUNDERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTULY PARTS, lives, from the brow of the cliff above, suspended Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom,






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That London is the greatest Port in the world, is a fact Such was the progress of this Port, that, A. D. 60, little generally known; but we believe that comparatively few more than a century after the landing of Julius Cæsar, it is of the inhabitants of the metropolis itself are aware of its described by Tacitus as “the chief residence of merchants, real magnitude. Our design in this paper is to supply and the great mart of trade." In the year 211, it is styled this deficiency in popular information, and to make the a “great and wealthy city ; illustrious for the vast number wonders of the Thames more familiar to all. Before of merchants which resort to it, for its widely extended entering, however, upon a description of the Port OF commerce, and for the abundance of every species of LONDON AS IT is, we shall give a rapid sketch of its commodity which it could supply." In the year 359, not history, in connexion with such chronological notices of long before the Romans abandoned Britain, it is said that the rise and progress of commerce in Great Britain, as 800 vessels were engaged in the import and export of corn, may tend to confer additional interest on the subject. In to and from London alone. During the times of the a commercial country like this, few subjects, indeed, have Saxons, by whom it was called Lundenceaster, it suffered a better-founded claim on our attention; yet it has, hitherto, various severe reverses from the aggressions of the Danes been unaccountably neglected; even the facts which we and other foreign enemies; yet it still appears to have have here embodied, are scattered over many works, most progressed in trade, for the venerable Bede terms it, in 604, of which are not generally accessible: in short, the history “a princely mart town.". It was not, however, till the of British mercantile navigation remains to be written. reign of Alfred, in the ninth century, that it was consti

The advantageous position of London for the purposes tuted the capital of all England. of commerce, appears to have been fully appreciated at an It is generally believed, that duties were first levied on early period of the sojourn of the Romans in this island. ships and merchandise by Ethelred the Second, who, in At that time, the wide expanse of low country, from the 979, ordered that all vessels “coming up to Bilynggesgate, mouth of the Thames to the metropolis, must have been then the heart of the port, should, "if a small ship, give one vast estuary at high water; from which it is supposed one halfpenny, if a greater one, one penny, for toll." A to have derived its British name, Lyndin, (the town on the duty of fourpence was also imposed on ships “lying there." lake,) afterwards corrupted into the Latin, Londinium. The attention of the descendants V the Norman con

The Romans, who were pre-eminently distinguished for querors of England was, for a long period, but little the magnitude of their public works, soon perceived the directed to the cultivation of the arts of peace; and the iniportance of confining the flow of the tide within the commerce of London does not seem to have made any course of the Thames, for wbich purpose they raised dykes important progress until the dawn of the Reformation. or banks on either shore. This great undertaking was Commerce, however, in the mean while, was making vast commenced, according to Whitaker, in the neighbourhood strides in other parts of Europe, especially in Italy, which, of St. George's fields, but to what extent they carried it, in the eleventh century, from the concurrence of different along the marshes of Essex and Kent, has not been clearly causes, became the chief scene of its revival. In the ascertained.

twelfth century, the rise of commerce in the north led Vol. IV.


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