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from the British stretched most of the artillerymen Soult, in the mean while, took the road to Amarante, on the ground, and the rest abandoned the guns. which lay along a narrow pass, between the mounThe allies were now in complete possession of the tains on the left, and the Douro on the right; but town, and the enemy fleeing in all directions. when he had advanced some distance on this route,
The French had been quite taken by surprise; the he learnt that, on the approach of Beresford, Loison unprecedented boldness of the attempt went far towards had abandoned the bridge over the Tamega, upon securing its success, for the enemy could scarcely be which he had rested all his hopes of safety. lieve that it would be made until they saw it accom Soult's situation now seemed desperate, and plished. The British general had indeed performed already some of his officers spoke of a capitulation. a feat, which alone would have established for him a But the marshal put forth all his energy; and learning, reputation of the highest order; the enterprise was from a Spanish pedlar, that there was a path leading opposed by difficulties which, to any but one of equal over, the heights, which would conduct him to genius, might have fairly appeared insurmountable : Guimaraeus, he immediately destroyed his artillery, to borrow Colonel Napier's expression, Alexander the abandoned the military chest and baggage, and Great might have shrunk from it without shame! leaving behind every thing that might encumber him,
“Our head-quarters," says the Marquess of boldly followed his guide across the mountains, by a Londonderry, “ being established in the house which wild unbeaten track, and amid torrents of pouring Soult had occupied, we found every preparation for a rain. Crossing the frontier on the 18th, he entered comfortable dinner in progress; for the French Orense on the 19th, without guns, storcs, ammunition, marshal quitted the place so lately as two in the or baggage,-his numbers reduced by six thousand afternoon, long after his sumptuous meal had been soldiers, from what they were when he quitted that ordered; it will be readily imagined that we were town two months before to enter Portugal,-his not backward in doing ample justice to it.”
remaining troops exhausted with fatigue and misery, The joyous feelings which the inhabitants of the the greatest part without shoes, many without accity evinced at this welcome liberation may be casily coutrements, and some even without muskets. conceived: “ Porto," says Mr. Southey, “ presented His men committed great cruelties in their flight, an extraordinary scene that night: cvery house was plundering and murdering the peasants at their illuminated, while the gutters were still red with pleasure. Many of the unhappy inhabitants were blood, and the streets strewn with dead bodies, both found by the English hanging from trees by the of horses and men. There had been three hours' way-side, and the track of the retreating columns fighting in the suburbs, and before night, the French might be traced from afar, by the smoke of the who had fallen were stripped and left naked where burning houses. The revenge of the people was they lay; they had their plunder about them for fearful; every sick soldier or wretched straggler, who removal, and they had provoked, by the most intole- fell into their hands, was tortured and mutilated by rable wrongs, a revengeful people." Sir Arthur the peasantry with the like merciless fury, and some Wellesley, however, secured to the French prisoners of the French were thrown alive into the flames that treatment which humanity dictated, and which which their comrades had kindled. they were entitled to by the laws of war. The remainder of the British army with the bag
LONDON: gage, stores, and artillery, was now brought over to JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. Oporto, from the opposite side of the river, and as PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALT PART soon as practicable the pursuit was commenced.
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to the ancient history of the country; the sanctuary I.
wholly formed of fine red granite ; the high portals, In these days of discovery and research, Egypt and
seen at a distance from the openings of this vast its Antiquities have received no small share of atten- labyrinth of edifices; the various groups of ruins of tion from travellers, and from those who, in the spirit the other temples within sight: these altogether had of quiet and earnest investigation at home, are still such an effect upon my soul, as to separate me in throwing light on what has hitherto been obscure. imagination, from the rest of mortals, exalt me on Though it would be idle to deny the Learning of the high above all, and cause me to forget entirely the Egyptians, it has been very much like a sealed book, trifles and follies of life. , I was• happy for a whole with regard to whose contents conjecture has been day, which escaped like a flash of lightning.” thoughtfully employed. Judging, however, of the
“ It is absolutely impossible," again exclaims the mighty undertakings of that extraordinary people, same indefatigable traveller, in describing his visit to from what we now see of their relics, but left in the another temple, (Luxor,) “to imagine the scene disdark as to the mode in which they executed their played, without seeing it. The most sublime ideas that operations on so grand a scale, we may fairly conclude, can be formed from the most magnificent specimens of that certain inventions and improvements in arts and our present architecture, would give a very incorrect manufactures, which we call modern, were practised picture of these ruins. It appeared to me like by them; and that, on the other hand, many valu- entering a city of giants, who after a long conflict able. attainments familiar to the Egyptians, have
were all destroyed, leaving ruins of their various become, by lapse of years, wholly forgotten, and are temples as the only proof of their former existence." therefore concealed from us.
So far Belzoni: and in this he is borne out by the
learned Frenchman, Champollion, who speaks of ANCIENT THEBES, AND ITS TEMPLES. Thebes in terms of equal admiration. All that I The City of Thebes was, perhaps, the most asto
had seen, all that I had learned on the left bank, nishing work ever performed by the hand of man.
appeared miserable in comparison with the gigantic Its ruins afford the most positive proof of the conceptions by which I was surrounded at Karnac. ancient civilization of Egypt. The origin of this I shall take care not to attempt to describe any famous place is lost in the obscurity of time, it being the thousandth part of what ought to be said, or if
thing; for either my description would not express coeval with the nation which first took possession of the country. Its extent was vast; though its hundred I drew a faint sketch, I should be taken for an gates, immortalized by Homer, and often interpreted enthusiast, or perhaps, for a madman. It will suffice as the gates of the city, may possibly have been the to add, that, no people, either ancient or modern, ever gates of the temples, or of the palaces of its princes conceived the art of architecture on so sublime, and D'Anville and Denon state its circumference to have
so grand a scale, as the ancient Egyptians. Their been thirty-six miles; its diameter not less than ten conceptions were those of men a hundred feet high." and a half. The number of inhabitants was in
After Karnac and Luxor, the next grand building proportion to these dimensions.
at Thebes was the Memnonium ; that is, the tomb or that the houses were four and five stories high! palace of one of the Pharaohs, whom the Greeks Although Thebes had greatly fallen from its former supposed to be the same as Memnon. In the splendour at the time of Cambyses the Persian, it middle of the first court was the largest figure ever was the fury of this merciless conqueror that gave seventy-five feet high. Behind it, there was an en
raised by the Egyptians,--the statue of the monarch, the last blow to its grandeur, about 520 years trance which led into a second court, surrounded by before the Christian æra, He pillaged its temples, and carried away the ornaments of gold, silver, and porticos supported by fifty other colossuses; and at ivory. Before this period, no city in the world could the end of several porticos and different apartments be compared with it in size, beauty, and wealth; and,
was the celebrated library, at the entrance of which according to the expression of Diodorus, The sun
was an inscription, signifying 'The medicine of the
mind.' had never seen so magnificent a city. The temple of Karnac, the most considerable
Belzoni, in his travels, gives a most interesting monument of ancient Thebes, was not less than a account of his discovering and opening the great mile and a half in circumference. It is not intended tomb of Psammuthis at Thebes. He made on the here to furnish an account of this extraordinary spot drawings of all the figures, hieroglyphics, and building, from the still mighty ruins of which, we
ornaments in the sepulchre, and took impressions in may gather evidence of what it once was; but we
wax,-a most laborious task, which occupied him may observe, as the most striking circumstance con
more than a twelvemonth. The personal vigour of nected with the place, that a portion of the structure
this enterprising traveller, guided by uncommon intelis considered to be more than four thousand years which had before never been thought of, or had been
ligence and energy, enabled him to accomplish objects old, or 2272 years before the coming of Christ.
Speaking of this magnificent edifice, and of the attempted in vain. On his arrival in England, he enormous sphinxes and other figures, into an avenue
constructed, and exhibited, a perfect fac-simile of the of which he had entered, Belzoni says in his enthu- tomb, which some of our readers will, doubtless, siastic style, “I was lost in a mass of colossal objects,
recollect having seen. every one of which was more than sufficient of itself
THE ALABASTER SARCOPHAGUS. to attract iny whole attention. I seemed alone, in It was in the tomb of Psammuthis, in the centre of the the midst of all that is most sacred in the world; a saloon, that Belzoni found the beautiful ALABASTER forest of enormous columns, adorned all round with Sarcophagus. This magnificent remnant of ancient beautiful figures and various ornaments from top days, which, most probably, once contained a royal to bottom; the graceful shape of the lotus which mummy, has not its equal in the world. It is of the forms their capitals, and is so well proportioned to finest Oriental alabaster, nine feet five inches long, the columns; the gates, the walls, the pedestals, the and three feet seven inches wide; and, though of conarchitraves, also adorned in every part with symbo-siderable thickness, is highly transparent: this may lical figures in low-relief, representing battles, pro- be proved on placing a light within. It is minutely cessions, triumphs, feasts, and sacrifices, all relating and richly sculptured, inside and outside, with several
hundred figures, of about two inches high, and at the great doubt, whether we could give it the fine smooth
bottom, within, is a graceful form, carved in outline, surface, and sharp clear edge, which we see so perfect • of the human shape and size, supposed to represent in these ancient remains, some of which, in this
one of the numerous deities worshipped by the respect, may be said to look as if they liad been nations of early Egypt. This rich treasure is in the finished but yesterday. For an illustration of this, possession of Sir John Soane, in his Museum in Lin we may refer our readers to an admirable specimen coln's Inn Fields, and remains altogether unrivalled of Egyptian sculpture in the British Museum, Ninth in beauty and curiosity.
Room, No. 66. It consists of the head, and upper In considering these astonishing works, we can part of the body, of a colossal figure, brought from scarcely doubt the deserved eminence of the ancient the Memnonium, and .thence probably called, by Egyptians in the arts and sciences. Indeed, some of mistake, the “ Younger Memnon;" while the statue of the most illustrious characters of Greece; Homer, the genuine Memnon, famous for his concert of Music Pythagoras, Plato, Lycurgus, and Solon, are said to at sun-rise, still exists at Thebes. The fragment, have travelled thither to complete their studies, and to however, to which we have adverted, is well worthy of draw from that source whatever was most valuable inspection, conveying a remarkable instance of preserin every kind of knowledge. But the Holy Scrip- vation as a relic of art, and, at the same time, of the tures themselves have incidentally given this testi- simple and pleasing expression of the Egyptian counmony, when they speak of Moses as being learned in tenance. all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in' words
THE PYRAMIDS. and deeds. (Acts vii, 22.) Yet we wonder how the We must not here omit to touch, however briefly, history of a people, which was once so great as to
on those “mysterious buildings*,” THE PYRAMIDS, erect these mighty edifices, could be so far obscured, as amazing monuments of power and industry. These that even their language and method of writing are
structures have generally been viewed as relics of in a great degree unknown to us.
antiquity, and matters of curiosity only; but they HIEROGLYPHICS.
are also important as furnishing a striking illustration Much has indeed been done of late, in deciphering of a portion of Sacred History. For various reasons, hieroglyphics; and with the knowledge of them into which we have not room to enter at present, which is now gained, it may be hoped, that ere long, the labours of the Israelites before the Exodus ;
they may be supposed to have formed a portion of this picture-language of ancient Egypt may be read the labours of the Israelites before the Exodus; and with correctness and certainty. The labours of
we may rationally conjecture that Pharaoh—that is, M. Champollion in this department are well known.
one of the Pharaohst, “the king who knew not Among Englishmen, Mr. Wilkinson, an intelligent Joseph,” set the people to execute these works under traveller, who has examined the tombs in Thebes, task-masters, from a fear of their increasing numbers
and strength. has pursued the subject with perseverance, and a
It is intended, in a future number, to give some gratifying degree of success. It was clear, that no master-key to these hidden stores could be obtained, account of the proficiency of the ancient Egyptians unless some ancient inscription were found, written in hieroglyphics, as well as in some known language. of Egyptian Antiquities, a short notice respecting Now, it so happens, that a stone of this kind actually specting the figures at the head of the present exists among us; the celebrated ROSETTA STONE,
number. found by the French in digging for the foundation of Fort St. Julian, near Rosetta. It is a large black
* For a view and memoir of the Pyramids, see the Saturday
Magasine, Vol. I., pp. 137-8; and for an account of the Cavern stone, containing three inscriptions of the same Temples and Tombs, Vol. II., p. 249 import; namely, one in hieroglyphics, another in the + Pharaoh is a title of honour, and was applied to severa. ancient and common characters of the country, and Egyptian kings successively, for a very long period of time. another in Greek. Though imperfect, the stone being broken, the writing is sufficiently ample to
THE ANSWER OF THE EGYPTIAN MUMMY*.
A spell that long has bound these lungs of clay,
For since this smoke-dried tongue of mine hath spoken, records a decree of the Egyptian priests, in honour of Three thousand tedious years have rolled away. Ptolemy Epiphanes; the leading events of his reign; Unswathed at length, I “stand at ease" before ye, his liberality to the temples; his conquests over
List, then, oh! list, while I unfold my story. certain rebellious subjects; his clemency towards
THEbes was my birth-place--an unrivalled city,
With many gates, but here I might declare some of the traitors; the measures he took against Some strange plain truths, except that it were pity the fatal consequences of an excessive inundation of To blow a poet's fabric into air;
Oh! I could read you quite a Theban lecture, the Nile, and his generosity towards the College of
And give a deadly finish to conjecture. the Priests. Proceeding upon this and other docu
But then you would not have me throw discredit ments, Champollion published in 1824, his Précis du On grave historians--or on him who sung
The ILIAD-true it is I never read it, Système Hieroglyphique, a work of high interest and
But heard it read when I was very young; value, as affording light on some of the most intri An old blind minstrel, for a trifling profit, cate points that can engage the attention of the Recited parts--I think the author of it. antiquary.
All that I know about the town of Homer
Is, that they scarce would own him in his day,
Were glad, too, when he proudly turned a roamer,
Because by this they saved their parish-pay; But our admiration of ancient Egyptian skill will
IIis townsmen would have been ashamed io Hout him, increase, when we take into account the nature Had they foreseen the fuss since made about him, of the materials on which they worked, in raising One blunder I can fairly set at rest, their temples, obelisks, and statues.
He says that men were once more big and bony
Than now, which is a bouncer at the best particularly the granite, and the breccia, are ex
I'll just refer you to our friend Belzoni, tremely hard, and we do not know with what tools Near seven feet high! in sooth a lofty figure!
Now look at me, and tell me, am I bigger? they were cut. The tools of the present day will not cut granite without much difficulty; and there is a • See the ADDRESS TO THE MUMMY, p. 72 of this Volume
Not half the size but then I'm sadly dwindled;
pulp, under a thin green rind; and the butter proThree thousand years, with that embalıning glue, Have made a serious difference, and have swindled
duced from it, besides the advantage of its keeping My face of all its beauty-there were few
the whole year without salt, is whiter, firmer, and, ti Egyptian youths more gay,-behold the sequel,
my palate, of a richer flavour than the best butter I Nay smile not, you and I may soon be equal!
ever tasted made from cows' milk. The growth and For this lean hand did one day hurl the lance With mortal aim—this light fantastic toe
preparation of this commodity seem to be among the Threaded the mystic mazes of the dance:
first objects of African industry, in this and the This heart hath throbbed at tales of love and woe, These shreds of raven hair once set the fashion,
neighbouring states, and it constitutes a main article This withered form inspir'd the tender passion.
of their inland commerce. The annexed Engraving In vain! the skilful hand, and feelings warm,
The foot that figur'd in the bright quadrille,
៨៦ Where cows and monkies squat in rich brocade,
With scarlet flounces and with varnish'd faces;
With ladies that might pass for well-tanned leather.
And splendid Psammis in his hide of crust; Princes and heroes, men of high renown,
At Dido'st table, when the wondrous tale
And ever and anon the queen turned pale ;
Hot 9tesj old: Who hath not heard of Egypt's peerless lore ?
Her patient toil? acuteness of invention ?
LEAF AND FRUIT OF TUE BUITER-TNLE.
represents the specimen I gathered. The appearance On blocks gigantic building up her fame!
of the fruit evidently places the Shea-tree in the Crowded with signs, and letters hieroglyphic, Temples and obelisks her skill proclaim !
natural order of Sapotæ; and it has some resemblance Yet, though her art and toil unearthly seem,
to the Maduca-tree, described by Lieut. CHARLES Those blocks were brought on RAIL-ROADS and by STEAM! Hamilton, in the Asiatic Researches.—MUNGO PARK. How, when, and why, our people came to rear
'The Pyramid of Cheops $, mighty pile! This, and the other secrets thou shalt hear; I will unfold if thou wilt stay awhile,
VISIT TO THE SALT MINES OF HALL The hist'ry of the Sphinx, and who began it, Our mystic marks, and monsters made of granite.
AFTER breakfast I proceeded to visit the mines, Well, then, in grievous times, when king Cephrenes
clothed in a suitable dress; and with a staff in my But, ha! what's this ?--The shades of bards and kings Press on my lips their fingers! What they mean is,
hand, and preceded by flambeaux, I followed my I am not to reveal these hidden things.
conductor into the mine. The visit commences with Mortal, farewell! Till Science' self unbind them,
a descent of three hundred steps, when one may Men must e'en take these secrets as they find them.
fairly believe himself in the howels of the mountain. • See BELZONI's Travels. + " After the exertion of entering into a burial-place, through a passage
'Tis a strange empire one finds in these dismal of siz-hundred yards in length, nearly orercome, I sought a resting-place, abodes : life is a different thing when sun-light is found oue, and contrived to sit; but wheu my weight bore on the body of an Egyptiun, it crushed it like a band-box. I then had recourse to my hands to
withdrawn ; and there is an icy feeling falls upon the sustain my weight, but they found no support. So I sank among the broken heart, as well as on the senses, when we look around raised such a dust, as kept me motionless for a quarter of an hour, waiting these dismal galleries and dark walls, dimly lighted Answer, he will please to remember, that in point of chronology Virgil idea of “ darkness visible ;” and scan the dark sub
Should the reader detect some slight anachronism in the Mummy's by a few ineffectual flambeaux, that convey truly the himself was not particular about a century or two. His, as well as Ovid's poetical fiction, representing Æneas as living in the age of Dido, involves an terranean lakes, whose extent and profundity the eye error of this kind, of nearly 300 years,
cannot guess but by the plunge of a fragment of the This, the largest of the Pyramids, was reckoned one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
roof, and the dim glimmer of the lights; and hear the distant stroke of the miner's axe, far in the inte
rior of the caverns. Still more do we feel the difTHE SHEA, OR BUTTER-TREE.
ference between the world above and regions such as On the 24th of July, the people about Rabba, in these, when we reach the solitary miner, in some vast Africa, were every where employed in collecting the cavern, with his single candle, striking his axe ever fruit of the Shea TREES, from which they prepare and ever into the dull wall. But, along with these the vegetable butter.
feelings, astonishment and admiration are engendered, These trees grow in great abundance all over at the power of man, whose perseverance has hollowed this part of Bambarra. They are not planted by out the mountain ; and with his seemingly feeble inthe natives, but are found growing naturally in the struments—his human arms and little axe— has woods; and, in clearing wood-land for cultivation, waged war with the colossal works of nature. every tree is cut down but the Shea.
The results are, indeed, almost incredible. No The tree very much resembles the American oak, fewer than forty-eight caverns have been formed, and the fruit, from the kernel of which, being first each from one to two acres in size. One of the dried in the sun, the butter is prepared by boiling the galleries is three leagues in length; and I was assured kernel in water, has somewhat the appearance of a that, to traverse all the galleries, six whole days Spanish olive. The kernel is enveloped in a sweet would be required.-Inglis's Tyrol.