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ON THE FORMATION OF

ensure.

SIGNS OF THE SEA, AS VIEWED FROM THE SHORE ON A
NIGHT IN THE AUTUMN OF 1833.

AN HERBARIUM, OR COLLECTION OF Dwells there some Spirit here? The light, that flows

DRIED PLANTS.
From the fair harbinger of nature's rest,
Steals o'er the ocean, kissing, as it goes,

A TASTE for Natural History, long cultivated among
Each little feather'd billow's snowy breast,

the higher and middle ranks of society, has, of late And trembling seems to step, with silver shod,

years, made considerable progress also among the Where Holy feet once trod.

humbler classes. The Spitalfields' weavers used to be Some Spirit stirs ! Quick wends her passage home Yon bending skiff, before the threatening storm;

celebrated for their researches after insects. If not Thick-gathering vapours shroud the starry dome,

scientific entomologists, they were diligent and sucAnd the pale timid moon withdraws her form, As if she knew 'twould be a fearful night,

cessful collectors, knew, at least, the English names And dared not meet the sight!

of the insects they met with, and in their excursions Wakes there some Spirit here? In lawless ire,

frequently took specimens of great rarity and esteem. Rude mountain-breakers lash the struggling bark,

They were noted also for the nice and beautiful manner Bursts the wild thunder, streams the liquid fire ; And all between is desolately dark;

in which they preserved their insects; an operation, While mingling cries, of piety and fear,

the successful performance of which the delicate state Portend deep peril near.

of their hands, so essential to those employed in the Saves there no Spirit now? Yes, timely yields

manufacture of silk-goods, was well calculated to To some mysterious charm the kindling war, Some pow'r unseen, but felt, the sceptre wields,

The weavers of Norwich might boast, from And lulls to peace the elemental jar:

among their ranks, of those who were scarcely less The viewless Hand that rais'd, witholds the rod,

M. K. C
That Hand is Thine, my God!

noted for their attainments in Botany, and their

diligence and success in collecting plants. And The words commonly used to signify play, are these four; among the operatives of Manchester are now to be relaxation, diversion, amusement, and recreation. The idea found many who have made no inconsiderable adof relaration is taken from a bow, which must be unbent vances, in both the above departments of Natural when it is not wanted, to keep up the spring. Diversion History. The names of Hobson of Manchester, and signifies a turning aside from the main purpose of a jour. Weaver of Birmingham, deserve to be recorded for ney, to see something that is curious and out of the way. Amusement means an occasional forsaking of the Muses, posterity with veneration. The latter, from a small when a student lays aside his books. Recreation is the beginning, has opened, in his own town, a splendid refreshing of the spirits when they are exhausted by labour, museum of general Natural History, which contains, so that they may be ready in due time to resume it again. besides many other objects of great interest, a most From these considerations it follows, that the idle man, beautiful and extensive collection of British insects, who has no work, can have no play; for how can he be relaxed who never is bent? how can he turn out of the the result entirely of his own personal industry and road, who is never in it? how can he leave the Muses who perseverance. The late Edward Hobson, originally is never with them ? how can play refesh him, who is (as we are informed,) a porter to a house in Mannever exhausted with business? - JONES of Nayland. chester, “ with only a common reading and writing

education, but with the blessing of good natural When we rise fresh and vigorous in the morning, the world talents, and by the most determined and vigorous seems fresh too, and we think we shall never be tired of business or pleasure ; but by that time the evening is perseverance at all times, when unoccupied in the come, we find ourselves heartily so ; we quit all its enjoy- duties of his station, had become a thoroughly skilful ments readily and gladly; we retire willingly into a little botanist, mineralogist, geologist, entomologist, nay, cell; we lie down in darkness, and resign ourselves to the almost a general naturalist.” This extraordinary arms of sleep, with perfect satisfaction and complacency. man published, some years ago, collections of dried Apply this to youth and old age,-life and death.

specimens of British mosses; a work, which, for its Bishop HORNE.

accuracy, and the beauty with which it was executed,

would have done honour to a professor. The morality of an action depends on the motive from which we act. If Į fling half-a-crown to a beggar, with

The list might easily be swelled by the mention of intention to break his head, and he picks it up and buys other names of self-taught naturalists in humble life, victuals with it, the physical effect is good; but with respect from among the mechanics of Coventry, Dudley, and, to me the action is very wrong. So religious exercises, if no doubt, of all our populous towns. not performed with an intention to please God, avail us We hail these events with unfeigned satisfaction nothing. As our Saviour says of those who perform them and delight, convinced as we are of the advantages from other motives, “ Verily, they have their reward.”

that must accrue, in a moral point of view, both to DR. JOHNSON.

the individuals themselves and to the country at Let your love be pure, without passion, for this will wear large, if, in the place of amusernents which are calaway with age and time; when love, true, cordial, Christian culated to brutalize the minds of those who engage love, will out-last, will out-live, even death itself.-ISAAC in them, such rational and innocent pursuits could BASIKE.

be substituted as have a directly opposite tendency.

Entertaining such sentiments on the advantages to It is observable how God's goodness strives with man's refractoriness. Man would sit down at this world, God be derived from extending a taste for natural history bids him sell it and purchase a better; just as a father, who more generally among the mass of the people, we need hath in his hand an apple and a piece of gold under it: make no apology for presenting our readers with some the child comes, and, with pulling, gets the apple out of hints on the formation of an Herbarium, or collection his father's hand; his father bids him throw it away, and of dried plants, confining ourselves chiefly to what we he will give him the gold for it, which the child utterly

conceive to be the best and readiest method of prerefusing, eats it, and is troubled with worms; so is the carnal and wilful man with the worm of the grave in this serving the specimens for that purpose. It was a world, and the worm of conscience in the next. —HERBERT. maxim of Linnæus, that an Herbarium is a far better

help to the student than the best of mere artificial CONSCIENCE is undoubtedly the grand repository of all representations, such as drawings and engravings of those pleasures which can afford any solid refreshment to

plants, and that it is a thing essential to every botanist. the soul; when this is calm and serene, then, properly, a

The use of such a collection is obvious; you have man enjoys all things, and, what is more, himself; for that he must do, before he can enjoy any thing else. It will not

the plants themselves,—the very original handy works drop, but pour in oil upon the wounded heart; it will not of nature before your eyes to consult and examine, whisper, but proclaim a jubilee to the mind. --South. and to compare with others whose species it may be

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wished to ascertain ; they are always at hand, and ready to refer to, even at those seasons of the year, the dreary months of winter, when it is impossible to procure the living plants, or, at least, to procure them in their best array. It may be added, too, that there no inconsiderable pleasure attending the very act of collecting, and the subsequent arrangement and inspection of the various specimens. None but a collector can know the satisfaction to be felt by the addition to any particular genus, or family of plants, of the one remaining species which alone is wanting to complete the series and make it perfect.

But how are such delicate and perishable things as flowers, the very emblems of short-lived fading beauty, to be preserved, so as to retain even a faint semblance of their original comeliness? That is the question. It is not possible to prescrve them in all their bloom and freshness. Dried specimens, deprived

of their juices, and flattened by pressure, cannot, in the nature of things, be equal to living ones. Form, texture, and, still more, colour, will, una. voidably, be more or less impaired by the very means employed to effect their partial preservation. But if only enough of the characters of plants can be retained in a dried state, to serve at once as a very great help to the student, and, at the same time, to afford a set of agreeable objects to the eye, that is enough to lead us to the attempt, and to justify the practice.

Let the specimens, then, be gathered, if possible, in dry weather, and never on any account put in water, with a view to keep them fresh after they are gathered and previously to their being pressed between paper; a practice which would tend to increase the quantity of moisture in the plants, and, consequently, add to the difficulty of drying them. Then take some leaves of

Aira cespitosa, Turfy Hair-Grass.

Allesley, July,'1833.

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paper-say, coarse blotting-paper, or the like, prove better adapted to undergo the operation the more porous or spongy the better, and heat of drying, than others, and should display afterthem at the fire, till they become as hot as they wards a more exact representation of their living can well be made without scorching them. Place characters. Ferns, grasses, and more especially the specimens, having first spread them a little, mosses, dry readily, and with little loss of their so as to display their several parts to advantage, original beauty. Plants of a succulent and fleshy between two of these leaves so heated; lay them nature, such for example, as stone-crops, or the one tier over another, between boards or other common houseleek, are more difficult of preservation, flat surfaces, and press them with a moderately and suffer more by the operation. The foliage and heavy weight. This process of heating the paper stalks of some species, will almost invariably turn and shifting the specimens should be often repeated; black in drying; and the colour of the flowers will twice, or at least once a day, till the juices of the often undergo considerable alteration. Yellow coplant have evaporated. By this method, the speci- lours appear to be in general the most permanent; mens, if not very robust or fleshy ones, will generally blue and purple are more liable to fade; and white be sufficiently dried in the course of a week, or even is very apt to change to brown. There are, however, in less time. The advantages of this plan are, not exceptions to these rules. The entire plant, or at only that the plants will be more thoroughly dried, least every part of it, flower, seed-vessel, leaves, and in a shorter time, and, therefore, will be less stem, and root, should be preserved if practicable, likely to become mouldy or to decay, but, also, that because all and each of these, possess their peculiar they will generally retain their colour, both of the characters. This direction, however, it is, of course, flowers and leaves, much more perfectly than they impossible strictly to observe in the case of trees would have done if dried by means of a slower and shrubs, and large herbaceous plants. Of such, process, and without the aid of artificial heat. Small little more than a sprig can well be preserved as a specimens, and such as are slight in substance, may specimen for the herbarium. be merely placed between the blank leaves of a When the specimens are thoroughly dried, they book, (not a printed book,) and kept in the pocket; should be fixed by means of paste or gum, on a the warmth of the pocket having the same effect as leaf of stiff white paper, one species only on a heating the paper. The great principle, in short, is page, and with the name of the plant, the place to dry the specimens thoroughly and quickly. And of growth, and time of gathering written below. hence it is, that such as have been preserved in Or, a still better way of mounting them on the hot climates, are generally found to retain their paper, is to secure them by means of narrow colour and beauty more perfectly, than those pre- straps of paper, let in through a small slit cut in served in cold and moist ones.

the mounting-sheet, on each side the stem or other Amid the infinite varieties of form, colour, tex- part of the specimen, and applied in various places ture, and substance, exhibited by different plants, as occasion requires. The straps are to be pasted it is of course to be expected, that some should to the back of the sheet, so as to bind the plant

firmly down to the page, (sce No. 1). For plants The student, who by his own personal industry which grow in close tufts, and bear a thick matted and research has thus formed a botanical collection foliage, like many of the small alpine species, will have gained, in consequence, a far more intimate a needle and thread, or silk, may be used on the knowledge of plants, their nature, growth, habits, same principle as the paper straps, which in such and characters, than could readily be acquired by any cases cannot well be employed. The ends of the

other means. A fund of amusement will be derived thread are to be secured by pasting a small piece from an inspection, from time to time, of the speciof paper over them, on the back of the sheet; (see mens themselves, which, associated as they will ever No. 2.) In recornmending the use of paste for the be with the wild scenery of their native woods and above purpose, it must be observed, that being a mountains, will serve as interesting and agreeable farinaceous substance, (that is, made of flour,) it is memorandums, to recall to mind many a pleasurable apt to attract various minute insects, which will prey excursion in the course of which they may have been upon it, gnaw holes in the paper, and make sad collected. He will, also, have the further advantage havoc of the specimens. In order to prevent these (as already hinted,) of enjoying, as it were, a contiill consequences, let a very small portion of that nual spring, and being surrounded by the gifts of rank poison, corrosive sublimate, be mixed up with the Flora, at all seasons throughout the whole circle of paste, previously to its being used. This treatment the year. will both effectually defend it against the attacks Here Spring perpetual leads the laughing hours, of insects, and also prevent it from ever becoming And Winter wears a wreath of Summer flowers. mouldy. Paste so medicated, constitutes

a
better

Br. cement for the purpose, than gum or glue.

A difficulty, perhaps, may occur, in determining ON THE BLESSING OF FAMILY AFFECTION. the size of the paper on which the specimens are The whole human race may be considered as one great to be finally fixed. It is certainly desirable, for family, under the care, protection, and discipline of their neatness and uniformity's sake, that all the pages Heavenly Father ; and the most important duty which he should be of the same size ; but then, while a large requires of them is that they love one another. He grapaper will be full small enough for some specimens, ciously founds their love to himself on this basis, for he even it will be more than sufficient for minute plants, and rejects the love of those who do not love their brother also.

It is a wonderful and benevolent part of the system of those of humble growth; and botanists in general, Providence, that his commandments produce our greatest hold it to be an objectionable practice, to mount dif- earthly blessings; and our perfect obedience to his laws ferent plants, that is, plants of more than one species, brings its immediate reward, in conferring upon us some on the same page. Now here, as in all like cases,

visible benefit; as, on the contrary, every outrage on his there will probably be a variety of opinions. On commands has its attendant judgment. such points, much must be left to the taste and sensibly felt as in the mutual kind offices of brotherly love.

In no case are the blessings annexed to well-doing so judgment of the collector himself. In order, how- From the sweet affections and good will of society, most of ever, to fix on some dimensions for the paper, it may our temporal comforts spring; and when we obey the combe stated, that a moderate folio of about fifteen mand of loving and serving our fellow-creatures, the benefit inches by ten, may, perhaps, on the whole be as

is reflective, we are loved and served in return : “therefore, eligible a size as any. The taller specimens may be my beloved brethren, let us love one another; for he that divided in two, and the two halves placed side by tion of these benevolent feelings is so important a duty, and

loveth his brother, hath fulfilled the law." If the cultiva side, in order to bring them within compass of the so great a blessing in extended society, where our interpage, (see No. 3); or, with a view to the same end, course is only occasional, of what still greater importance is the stems of some plants, (as for example, of the it in the near and daily concerns of domestic life! grasses especially and plants of that nature,) may All persons, in all ages, have been deeply impressed with be crankled thus, (see No. 3 and 4,) a method, which the value of family affection. The wise instructions of will practically reduce their height, without in reality pronounces, “ How good and joyful a thing it is for brethren

Solomon abound with injunctions on the subject; and David depriving them of their natural dimensions. Or, to dwell together in unity! It is like the precious ointment again, they may be placed diagonally, that is, from upon the head, which ran down unto the beard, even unto corner to corner of the page. The larger ferns, Aaron's beard, and went down to the skirts of his clothing, likewise, may most advantageously be bent towards Like as the dew of Hermon, which fell upon the hill of the top of the frond, and the upper portion turned Zion; for there the Lord promised his blessing and life for back in an oblique direction, (see No. 5;) this will spreads itself to every department in domestic life, like

This precious balm to every earthly woe, bring a tall specimen within the area of the paper, "the refreshing dew of Hermon, which fell upon the hill and, also, have the additional recommendation of of Zion;" it nourishes and gladdens every benevolent exhibiting the fructification of the fern, which, it is heart, it softens the temper, it doubles every pleasure, it well known, grows on the back of the frond.Con- lessens every care ; without it human beings become savage, trivances in short, of this kind, will readily present selfish, and morose; they lose the blessing which God has themselves to an ingenious mind; and it is not promised to it in this life, and that life for evermore, which

is a heaven of love and benevolence - Mrs, KING. necessary to enter into more minute details.

There are little difficulties and inconveniences, be Now you say, alas ! Christianity is hard : I grant it; but it remembered, to be encountered, more or less, in gainful and happy. I contemn the difficulty, when I remost things, even in our pleasures and recreations, spect the advantage. The greatest labours that have and if they cannot be wholly avoided, they may

answerable requitals, are less than the least that have no generally be met and remedied in part. We believe regard. Believe me, when I look to the reward, I would

not have the work easier. It is a good Master whom we that the very act of surmounting such obstacles, adds

serve, who not only pays, but gives ; not after the propora relish to the pursuits in which they occur. After tion of our earnings, but of his own mercy.—Bishop HALL. the specimens are mounted, they should be arranged either in systematic or in natural order, and deposited Death finds us 'mid our play-things, snatches us in pasteboard cases, made like a portfolio, or the As a cross nurse might do a wayward child, binding of a book; and, above all, care must be

From all our toys and baubles. His rough call

Unlooses all our favourite ties on earth, taken to preserve them from damp, which, next to

And well if they are such as may be answerd insects, is the worst enemy to the collector, and the In yonder world, where all is judged of truly, most destructive of the fruits of his labours,

SIR WALTER SCOTT,

There were, on the 20th of last November,
SAVINGS' BANKS.
Male and Female Servants

1037 Mechanics and Artizans

414 The attention of the public cannot be drawn too Children

406 Trust Accounts, principally for Children

597 closely to the advantages of these valuable institu

Needlewomen, Shopwomen, &c

293 tions. Here is afforded a secure depository for the Sinall Dealers

152

172

Labourers and Journeymen hard-earned savings of industry and toil, which have

Teachers

66 been too often lost, either by misplaced confidence in

Shopnien.

135 individuals, or by idle, perhaps, too frequently, mis Various minor Classes

205 chievous, gratifications. And this evil, in a great

Making a total of ......3471 measure, arises from the want of ready and satisfactory means of laying by even the smallest sum of Deposit accounts then open in the Savings Bank of

the Parish of Marylebone, alone. money as it could be spared. There are few, if any, of the labouring classes, however low the wages of

ALL FOOLS' DAY. their particular calling may be, who have not, some time, or other of their lives, a trifle more than

'Twas on the morn when April doth appear, is called for by their unavoidable necessities; and And wets the primrose with its maiden tear; this surplus is too often expended in unnecessary

'Twas on the morn when laughing Folly rules,

And calls her sons around, and dubs them Fools; indulgences, instead of being husbanded for future

Bids them be bold, some untried path explore, need: how much we all, on various occasions in our And do such deeds as Fools ne'er did before. lives, are in want of more than our immediate means afford, it has fallen to the lot of but few not to know The following brief notice, extracted (chiefly) from

Brand's interesting work on Popular Antiquities, may and feel. The greatest advantages of Savings Banks, even

be deemed acceptable by our readers at the present in a mere pecuniary point of view, are scarcely period of the year. Like many a custom derived known; as there are not many who give much consi- from remote antiquity, the fooleries of the first of deration to the dry detail of figures; but it will be April have been fancifully traced up to various found, that even the trifling sum of one shilling, origins, most of which, by their plausibility, lay deposited weekly in a bank for savings, will, at the great claim to our belief; the only difficulty consists expiration of thirty-two years, have increased to the in deciding between their respective merits. It will sum of 1491. 12s. 5d., of which no less than 661. 2s. 5d. be well if any reason can be given for the existence will be the accumulation of INTEREST ; which is little of so absurd a custom. Poor Robin, in his Almanac short of the principal from time to time deposited.

for 1760, raises a most rational doubt, as to whether But this pecuniary advantage, however considerable, the simpleton who is sent on a sleeveless errand on is not the greatest recommendation of these insti- this day, is a greater fool than he who sends him ;tutions. Their moral advantages are yet more

'Tis a thing to be disputed,

Which is the greatest Fool reputed, important. There is a feeling of honest independence,

The man that innocently went, arising from the consciousness of having secured the

Or he that him design'dly sent. means of self-assistance, and of having escaped the The French have their All Fools' Day, and call the degradation of receiving casual bounty, or parochial person imposed upon An April Fish, (Poisson d'Avril,) aid. There is a self-satisfaction, in feeling that we

whom we term an April Fool. Bellinger, in his Etymo

logy of French Proverbs, endeavours at the following have possessed sufficient strength of mind and good explanation of this custom. The word " Poisson," he conprinciple to have endured the privation of indulgences, tends, is corrupted through the ignorance of the people nay, perhaps, of actual comforts, for the sake of from “ Passion;" and length of time has almost totally future good; and these feelings, while they offer an defaced the original intention, which was as follows: that, ample reward for any temporary mortifications that as the Passion of our Saviour took place about this time of may have been endured, tend also to improve our

the year, and as the Jews sent Christ backwards and

forwards to mock and torment him, i. e. from Annas to moral habits, and to exalt us in the scale of rational Caiaphas, from Caiaphas to Pilate, from Pilate to Herod, beings.

and from Herod back again to Pilate ; this ridiculous, or Another, and not the least gratifying part of these rather impious, custom took its rise from thence, by which institutions is, the mixture of good feelings which

we send about, from one place to another, such persons as they necessarily create between the different Classes we think proper oħjects of our ridicule. Such is Bellinger's of Society. Banks for Savings, from the insufficiency

explanation. of their means in the earlier years of their establish- July, 1783,) which we call making April Fools, is practised

Something like this (says the Gentleman's Magazine for ment, must necessarily lean upon the contributions also abroad in Catholic countries on Innocents Day, on of the richer portion of Society for their maintenance; which occasion people run through all the rooms, making and the liberal hand with which this aid has been a pretended search in and under the beds, in memory, I universally granted, adds a fresh and imperishable believe, of the search made by Herod for the distovery and

destruction of the Child Jesus, and his having been imposed link to the bonds of Society. The importance of this subject has always been upon, and deceived by the Wise Men, who, contrary to his

orders and expectation, “ returned to their own country deeply impressed upon the mind of the writer of another way." these remarks. But his attention has lately been Maurice, in his Indian Antiquities, speaking of “ the more especially drawn to the subject, by a Summary first of April, or the ancient Feast of the Vernal Equinox, of the Deposit Accounts, in the St. Mary-le-bone equally observed in India and Britain," tells us, “ the first Bank for Savings, which has fallen into his hands. of April was anciently observed in Britain as a high and And it affords him the highest gratification, to find general festival;" adding, some few lines further, of

those traits of the jocundity of our fathers, preserved in by the rapid increase of this Bank, (which, although Britain, none of the least remarkable, or ludicrous, is that not yet of four years standing, has deposits amount- relic of its pristine pleasantry, the general practice of ing to upwards of 51,0001., already lodged in the making April Fools, as it is called, on the first day of that Bank of England,) that the advantages derived from month; but this Colonel Pearce (Asiatic Researches, these institutions, are so duly appreciated, and so Vol. II., p. 334,) proves to have been an immemorial eagerly sought by that Class of Society, for whom custom among the Hindoos, at a celebrated festival holden

about the same period in India, which is called the Huli they were intended; as is manifested by the following Festival.

During the Huli,' says Colonel Pearce, when extracts from this account.

mirth and festivity reign among the Hindoos of every class,

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