Obrazy na stronie





hood of Dr. Samuel, ib. ; the young student, 204 ;

his estimate of Forbes, 204, 205; the Red-Ribbon
America. See United States.

Society, 205; visit to St. Petersburgh, 206; death
Arctic Eplorations, 218, second Grinnell expedition of his father, and its effect on him, ib.; error some-

under Dr. Kane, ib.; his fitness for the task, ib. ; times the reflection of undiscovered truth, 207 ;
departure from New York in the “ Advance," 219; work begun, course of public lectures, ib. ; diffi-
Newfoundland, South Greenland, Fiskernaes, ib. ; culties with which he had to contend, ib. ; opin-
the Greenland Coast and its "jewellery," 220; re ions regarding him, 208 ; life at Rosebank, Porto-
mains of Esquimaux - Refuge Bay, ib. ; voracity bello, 209; circle of his friendships, 210; becomes
of the dogs, 220, 221; Dr. Kane's education" for a candidate for the chair of chemistry in the Uni-
Arctic travel, 221; difficulty in driving the dog versity of Edinburgh, ib. ; circumstances on which
equipage, ib. ; rate of travel, ib. ; progress of the his success was made to depend, 210, 211; disap-
"Advance," 222; imminent danger, 223 ; expedi pointment and its fruits, 212 ; mistaken supposi-
tion under Kane to discover a spot in which to tion as to his having consequently abandoned his
winter, ib.; command given to Ohlsen, ib. ; skele chemical studies, ib. ; his laboratory labours, ib. ;
tons of the musk ox, ib. ; discovery of a great lines on "My laboratory," 212, 213; his literary
river, ib. ; return of the expedition, 224; Rens labours, 213; his projected work, purposed by
selaer Harbour, ib.; the brig on fire, ib. ; suffer himself to be the magnum opus of his literary life,
ings of the depot party, 225; sports for the sun 213, 214 ; three sonnets, as illustrations of his
less days, ib.; effects of darkness on the dogs, ib.; method, '214 ; Brown as a public lecturer, ib. ; a
the ice-belt, 226; return of the sun; their north "rare and ill-beloved trick," 215 (see also 204);
ern journey ; some of the party disabled ; their suffering and its discipline, ib. ; marriage and loss
sufferings, 226, 227; the rescue, and perilous re of health, 216 ; " Thy will be done,” better than
turn, ib. ; visit to the ship of a large party of Es health, ib. ; removal to Edinburgh for medical ad-
quimaux, 227; new expeditions to the west and vice, ib. ; close of the scene, 217; characteristics
north, 227, 228; perils encountered ; battle with of Brown, ib. ; conclusion, 218.
a bear, 228 ; expedition to Beechey Island, 229; Browning's (Mrs.) Poems, 237; divisible into three
frequent intercourse with the Esquimaux, ib.; classes, ib. ; " Bertha in the Lane," ib. ; " Lady
treaty with them; preparations for a second Geraldine's Courtship,” 238 ; appears to greatest
winter, 230 ; specimen of Arctic morality, ib. ; a advantage in her sonnets, 238, 239; “ Casa Guidi
merry Christmas, ib. ; the sun and food; a plot Windows,” the happiest of her performances, 239,
ard desertion, 231; the story of William Godfrey, 240 ; " Aurora Leigh," a novel in verse, 240 ;
231, 232; social condition of the Esquimaux at death of Aurora's father, and its consequences to
Etah, 232; southward progress of the Expedition, her, 241 ; her notions of female education, 242;
333; an Esquimaux Eden, Melville Bay, ib. ; perils of studying "books good and bad," ib. ; art
kindness of the Danish authorities at Uper and philanthropy, 243; in love with her cousin,
navik, 234; expedition from New York to rescue Romney, ib.; her aunt's sudden death, ib.; Lady
Dr. Kane, ib: ; return, 235; geographical and me Waldemar, ib.; story of Marian Erle, 244; Aurora
teorological results, ib.; magnetical observations, and Marian at Florence, 245; Romney's appear-
236; the question of Franklin's fate, ib.

ance there, ib. ; the éclaircissement, 245, 246 ;
Art-Unions, 269 ; origin of the Parent Association command of imagery shown by Mrs. Browning, 246.

in Edinburgh, 271, low state of art at that time,
ib. ; inadequacy of private patronage, 272 ; suc-
cess of the Unions, ib. ; Unions do not violate the
laws of political economy, 273; principles on
which they ought to be conducted, 274; the Chalmers, Dr. Thomas, his place in the religious
Scotch and English systems, 274; principle of se history of Scotland, 1; relation of his works to
lection of paintings or other works of art by the British literature, 1, 2; their classification, 2; cha-
different councils, ib. ; artistic education in Lon racteristics of

, as a man, ib.; his method and style,
don, 275; favouritism in the committees, 276; 4; the ends at which he aimed in his Political
jobbing, ib. ; system of patronage in the Scottish Economy, 4, 5; his “ Polity of a Nation,” 5–7;
Association, as compared with the London Union, animadversions on “Lectures on Establishments,"
277 ; pre-eminent place of the Scottish School of 7-9; review of his Christian Evidences,” 9-12;
Art, ib.; the claims of the Scottish Association, 278. faults of his style in “Natural Theology," 12-14;

comparative merits of Chalmers and Brown on

moral philosophy, 16; the pulpit, Chalmers's

place, 17; in what sense a great preacher, ib.;

compared with Robert Hall, 18; with John Foster,
Bolingbroke. See English Statesmen.

ib. ; high merit of the "Congregational Sermons,
Brown (Dr. Samuel), his experiments on chemical 18, 19, his "Lectures on Romans," 19 : grounds

isomerism, 202 ; joint lectures of Brown and Ed on which it is desirable that they should be re-
ward Forbes, ib. ; the elder Samuel, 203 ; boy. garded as models of biblical interpretation, 20-22;


modern thought, 22; the authority of Scripture journalism in England, ib.; its influence, 105 ; ex-
the grand centre towards which all lines of tracts from Dean Swift's journal, ib. ; was Boling-
thought in these expositions tend, 23; the "As broke a traitor? 106; his declaration of war
tronomical Discourses," ib. ; seasonableness of against the press, ib. ; proposed restrictions on it,
their delivery, 24; value of his argument yet un 107; his flight to the Continent, 107, 108 ; his re-
abated, ib. ; becoming every day consolidated, 25; lations to the Pretender, 108 ; his re-expatriation
plurality of worlds, 25, 26; the several discourses and subsequent return, ib. ; his literary connex.
reviewed, 26-28; "Daily Scripture Readings," ions, 109 ; his influence with Voltaire and Pope,
28, 29; “Sabbath Scripture Readings,” 29, 30 ; ib. ; his old age, 110; his death and character,
the "Institutes of Theology," 30, 31, 37, 38; Christ 110, 111; critique of Remusat's work, 111, 112.
ianity in Scotland, 31, 32 ; Chalmers as a theolo-
gian, 32-34 ; his prelections on Butler and Paley,
34, 35; the purpose in view throughout this

article, 38, 39.
China. See Opium Trade.

France--the coup d'état of December 1851, 99; its
Cockburn's " Memorials of his Time,” 122; this title results, 100, 101; the case brought home to Eng-

a misnomer, ib.; Memorials yet unpublished, 123; lish apprehension, 100; case of M. de Remusat,
Cockburn's early life, ib.; Thomson and Cranston, ib. ; remarkable change in the journalism of
133, 124; Jeffrey, 124; Cockburn as an advocate, France and England, 100-104.
125'; his position on the bench, ib. ; lengthy re- Franklin, Sir John, question of his fate, 236.
ports of decisions, 126 ; characteristics of his judi-
cial opinions, ib. ; Brougham's Article on Cock-
burn in the "English Law Magazine," 126, 127;

Cockburn's promotion, 127; anecdote of Brough-
am, ib. ; his charge of exaggeration, 128 ; his Hooker (Richard), works of 247 ; Walton's Life
Sketches criticised, 129; the Scottish reign of characterized, ib. ; his birth, parentage, and edu-
terror, 130 ; political trials of 1796, ib. ; Lord cation, 248; his college life, 249; appointed to
Braxfield, 130, 131 ; his severity as a judge, 131, preach at St. Paul's Cross, ib.; Mrs. Churchman's
132; whig advocates of 1796, 133; Henry Erskine, kindness and its results, 250; his marriage, ib. ;
184 ; anecdote of Moncrieff, ib. ; political prosecu country parsonage at Drayton Beauchamp, ib. ;
tions, 134, 135; quotation from one of Burke's election to the mastership of the Temple, 251;
speeches, 135; the theory of advocacy, 136; diffi contest between Hooker and Travers, ib. ; the
culties of the advocate's position, ib., Jeffrey as early Puritans, 252 ; Field and Wilcox, 253;
an advocate and as a judge, 136, 137; his literary Thomas Cartwright, ib. ; state of matters when
work, 137; Cockburn as his biographer, ib. ; cha Hooker succeeded to the mastership of the Tem-
racter of Horner, 138-140 ; change of manners ple, 254, 255; Hooker and Travers as rival
among the Scottish people, 140; Edinburgh, 142; preachers, 255; interference of the archbishop,
peculiarities of society there, 143 ; Edinburgh 256; removal to Bishopsborne, ib.; his life there,
Suppers, ib. ; legal reform, 144 ; Scotch appeals, 256, 257; illness and death, 257, Mrs. Hooker
ib. ; difference of English and Scotch law, 145; and her husband's MSS., 257-258 ; evidence of
reversal of Scotch decisions, 145, 146 ; a Scotch their having been tampered with, 258; Puritan
lawyer in the House of Lords, 146.

interference, 259; characteristics of Hooker's
great work, ib.; Hooker as a thinker and writer,
260; the Law of Nature, the Celestial Law, the
Law of Reason, 261, 262; origin of government,

262, 263; Laws Supernatural, 263 ; point of his
England, Froude's History of, 39; the real life of

general reasoning, 263, 264; the direct origin of

laws an indifferent question with Hooker, and
past times, ib.; strictures on the principles on which
our English histories have been constructed, 39,

why, 264; character of Puritanism, ib.; Scripture
40; sacerdotal histories, 40; irreverence for our

and reason, 265 ; Hooker's position against the
" An ancient Hebrew book," 41,

Puritans, ib.; the jus divinum in church govert-
forefathers, 41;
42 ; tone of Mr. Froude's History, 42; dramatic

ment, 266; modern High-Church theory, 266,

267 ; Romanism, its logical termination, 2671
faculty in history, ib.; critique of Hallam's opinion

Hooker no Erastian, ib., his position in Church.
of Henry VIII., 43; Mr. Froude's text-books, 44;

of England annals, 268.
his opinion on the divorce question, ib. ; times of
Henry VIII., 45; Anne Boleyn, ib.; Wolsey, 46,
Froude's sympathies not party ones, ib. ; his view

of Henry's character not new, but obsolete, 47 ;
Henry, as described by him, 47, 48; Froude and Novels (Religious)-"a novel" defined, 112; the
Hallam, 48, 49; Henry and his Parliament, 49, novelist, humourist, and satirist, 112, 113; didac-
50; was this old parliament servile? 50, 51; tic or controversial novel, 113; objections to
Government influence, 51; the charge of tyranny didactic novels, 114; tendency to impersonate
against the Tudors repelled by Froude, 51, 52; abstractions, 115; ridicule as applied to religious
was there any real lack of liberty in those times ? controversy, ib.; objection to the satirical class of
53 ; working classes under Henry, 53, 54 ; quota religious novels, 116; fiction unsuited for convey.
tion from Froude's introductory chapter, 54; the ing religious truth, ib.; Miss Yonge's novels, 117;
old idea of liberty, 54, 55; Britain the only mili "Loss and Gain," 118; "Perversion," ib. ; out.
tary nation, 55, 56 ; war the normal condition of line of the story, 119, 120; life at Oxford, 121;
the world, 56 ; views of continental nations as to author of "Perversion " should abandon fiction,
our present peace, 57.

English Statesmen-Bolingbroke, 99; Remusat's
"Studies and Portraits," 101; interest of the sub-

ject, ib.; Bolingbroke's early career, 102 ; charac-
ter of Harley, 102, 103 ; his intimacy with St. Opium-trade with China, 278; purpose of the
John, 103 ; Bolingbroke Secretary of State, 104 ;! Article, 279; the people of China, 279, 280 ; in-

firmity of their moral nature, 280 ; civil war in
China, ib.; the miseries consequent on opium-
smoking, 281; the comparative recentness of this
habit, ib.; average daily consumption, 282; rela-
tion of the opium-trade to the interests of the East
India Company, ib.; culture of the poppy in India,
283; revenue to the Indian Government, ib. ;
possibility of China raising its own opium, 284;
in such a case, what would be the course of the
Indian Government ? 285; resources of India :
territorial acquisitions, culture of cotton, &c., canal
navigation, 285, 286; how these resources affect
the opium-trade, 286, 287; proportion of revenue
to ordinary charges, 281 ; British trade with
India, 288, 295; how our Chinese customers are
affected by the opium-trade, 288; opium-smoking
more pernicious than opium-eating, 289; Chinese
opium-shops described, ib. ; testimonies of Chinese
residents, 289, 290; the opium war, 290; opium
a barrier to the reception of Christianity, 291; is
there a remedy ? 291, 292 ; singularity of the
opium culture, 292; this traffic a mutual mischief,
293 ; British interests and Indian revenue, ib.;
Chinese civilization, 294; the opium-trade a bar-
rier to British commerce, 295; it is limitable, 296;
commerce and Christian missions, 297; anomalous
position of missionaries to China, ib. ; the duty of
England, 298.

ib. ; differs with the subject, ib. ; formed and
unformed, 185; style and genius, ib.; originality
two-fold, 186, how to write readably, 186, 187;
writing conventionally, 187; Emerson, Wilson,
and Bulwer, the poets of prose, 187, 188; humour
and impertinence, 188 ; satire a confession of
weakness, ib. ; Biblical style, 189; changes of
meaning in English words, ib.; style affected by
philosophy and woman's position, 190; restora.
tion of the romantic school in England, ib.; effect
of cheap and railway literature, 190, 191 ; young.
ladyism in literature, 191; the "natural" school,
ib.; the French remarkable for their terseness, ib.:
French versus English, 192 ; history and histo-
rians, ib.; Hume, Gibbon, Hallam, 193 ; Mack-
intosh, Mitford, and Grote, 193, 194 ; Macaulay
and Alison, 194; Guizot and Lamartine the pre-
sent two extremes of French historical style, 195 :
the Essay, ib.; Anglo-Saxon love of individual
opinion, ib.; quarterly Reviews, 196 ; value of
criticism, ib.; necessity now of rapid critiques, ib. ;
consequent change in our

quarterlies, ib. ; Sydney
Smith, 197; Jeffrey and Wilson, ib. ; compound
words, 198; Carlyle and Emerson, ib. ; "de-
scriptive literature," 199; biography, history, fic-
tion, ib.; classical, romantic, and natural schools
of fiction, 200; the humorists, ib.; the natural
school, Dickens, ib.; the romantic school, Bulwer
and Disraeli, 201; sporting, maudlin, and dra-
matic novels, 201, 202.


Sight, of the five senses the most important, 78 ;

speculations on man's condition without it, 79; the
human eye described, 79-81; ascertained facts in
reference to vision, 81; mode in which vision is United States Politics, 289; progress of the States.
performed, ib. ; its phenomena, 82; new affections 299; slavery, ib. ; its demoralizing effects, 300 :
of the foramen centrale, ib.; luminosity of the eye predominance of slavery party, 301; the Missouri
by compression, 83 ; binocular vision, 84; two compromise, 301, 302; Kansas, 302, 303; Missou-
eyes necessary for important purposes other than rian outrages, 303-305; democratic tyranny, 305 ;
that of symmetry, ib. ; the vision of distance, 85; Mr. Sumner's oratory, 306–308; the Sumner out-
importance of binocular pictures for the stereo rage, 308-310; position of the Free States, 311 :
scope being taken at the proper angle, ib.; the Mr. Buchanan and his opinions, 311, 312; his
true theory of single vision with two eyes, 86, 87; probable policy, 312; prejudice against negroes,
diseases of the cornea: conical cornea, 88, 89; 313; future relations with the United States.
cylindrical cornea and its cure, 89; partial opacity, 315, 316.
ib. ; thickening of the fluid which lubricates the
cornea, ib. ; origin and cure of cataract, 90, 91;
phenomena of musce volitantes, 91-93 ; are quite

harmless, 93; hemiopsy and its causes, 93, 94;
double vision, 94; adjustment of the eye, 95; Women, employment of, 157; amateur work, 158 ;
state of the eyes requiring the aid of spectacles, the useful and the beautiful, 159; workhouses,
ib. ; Mr. Salom's visometer recommended, 96; 160; neighbourhoods, 163; maid-of-all-work, 166 ;
when should spectacles be first used ? 97; read male and female servants, 167 ; Defects of educa-
ing-glasses, 97, 98; spectacles for long and short tion, 169; wants of organization, 172; slop-work.
sight, 98; green the best of coloured glasses; the 171; case of Maria Perkins, 175; lady-workers,
injuriousness of blue, ib. ; spectacles for strong 177; teachers, ib. ; governess life, 179; women
and weak light, 98, 99; preciousness of eyesight, and watchwork, 181.

Workmen of Europe (M. Le Play's) 57; incorrect
Spain—the question of ecclesiastical sales, 147 ; spirit in which his work is executed, 58; work-

government of Espartero, ib. ; history of the aliena men of the East and West, 59; his three régimes
tion of ecclesiastical property, 148, 149; its influ of labour, ib.; classification of workmen, 60; asso-
ence on the future of Spain, 149; antagonism ciations corporate and communistic, ib.; the pre-
between the constitution of the government and sent state of society being transitional, communism
the character of the people, 150; Spanish" con unlikely to succeed, 61; communistic nomads, ib.:
servatism," ib.; the constitution of 1837, 151 ; improvidence of the working-classes the chief bar-
three distinct organizations of popular authority, rier in attempting to ameliorate their condition,
151, 152 ; objections to the Constitution, 152; 62 ; necessity of economy, ib. ; workmen in
what Spain requires, 152, 153; Moderados and Spain, France, Italy, &c., ib.; Britain excluded
Progresistas, 153; political distinctiveness of the from Le Play's list of the most economical and in-
Spanish provinces, 153, 154; social reforms, 154; dustrious workmen of Europe, ib.; his division
review of the condition of Spain, ib. ; government into four sources of the (foreign) workmen's in-
there not that of moral authority, but of forcible come-tenure of land, &c., ib.; subventions, 64;
usurpation, 155.

“ travaux speciaux," ib. ; tailors and dressmakers
Style (Modern), 182; the Augustan age, 183; im in the East, 65; the labour of women, ib. ; Le

portance of style, 184; style the rhythm of prose. Play's views on the domestic circle, 66; varieties

of food, 66, 67; physical condition of workinen abroad, 67; the Belgian ouvrier and prisoner, ib. ; the dwellings of the working-classes, 67, 68; the cost of light and clothes, 68, 69; the aids of misery and the causes of misery to be distinguished, 69; utility of baths, ib.; the Bachkirs of Russia, 70 the peasants of Hungary, 72; recognised serfdom and seigneurial absolutism. ib. : mode of life

among Hungarian day.labourers, 73; Vienneso cabinet-makers, ib.; cotton-spinners of the Rhine, and Genevese watchmakers, 74; the London cutler, 75; Parisian workmen, ib.; compagnons and cloge guilds, 76; view of the condition of the Western working world, 77; necessity of justice to the workman, ib. ; deficiencies of M. Te Play's work, 78.




No. LI.


Art. 1.-Dr. Chalmers' Works. Twenty- will always be many who will draw from five Volumes, 12mo.

certain portions of them a large amount of 2. Posthumous Works. Nine Vols. 8vo. their spiritual and theological aliment, and Edinburgh : T. Constable & Co.

who will think themselves well and suffi

ciently disciplined, and kept safely orthoThe high place which Thomas Chalmers oc- dox, and evangelical, so long as they are cupies in the religious history of Scotland, content to sit at the feet of this revered he holds securely, it is a position which he teacher. will not lose, unless a time shall come when But when we come to think of English John Knox and other worthies of the like literature at large, and to think of it as in. stamp shall have ceased to be thought of in fluenced or favoured by no special or natheir native country

with reverential grati- tional feelings, it is quite certain that the tude. But the rank which his writings will " WORKS” will undergo a severe sifting. ultimately hold in the body of English lite. Portions-large portions, of the mass, we rature is a point yet to be determined ; and cannot doubt, must subside and at no disat present it can be only conjecturally spok. tant date, will cease to be often asked for, en of, and this on the ground of considera- or popularly read. The works of the very tions of quite a different order from those best writers (if voluminous) have undergone which affect his place in the regards of his the same discerptive process. Nor has any countrymen. Nevertheless, on this ground human reputation hitherto been of such plewe do not hesitate to profess the belief that, nary force as might suffice for immortalizing as a religious writer and as a theologian, he every paragraph or treatise that a man has will live. A distinction, however, must written and printed. Assuredly Chalmers here be made :-The “Works," entire, of will not stand his ground as an exception to Dr. Chalmers, will, no doubt, continue to this almost universal doom-a doom which be sought after, through a course of many has consigned to oblivion a half—threeyears, and will often be reprinted in their fourths or a nine-tenths of the products of mass for the use of Scotland, and of England even the brightest minds; especially if they too, buoyed up, as one might say, by his have been, in their day, teeming and indusimmortal renown, as one of the best and trious minds, and if such writers have mixthe ablest, and the most useful of the greated themselves at large with the social and men whom Scotland has in any age pro- political movements of their times. duced. The grateful and religious Scot At this time—and if we are looking to tish people at home as well as those thou- the volumes now before us, it is not Chalsands of the “ dispersion,” who are scatter- mers as the great, the good, and the emied over the face of the earth, will (so we nently useful man of his age and country imagine) for generations yet to come re- whom we have to do with :—it is not Chalgard it as a sacred duty to possess them- mers as related to those religious and eccleselves of the Works Entire of their own siastical movements of which Scotland is now Chalmers. And, moreover, among these reaping the fruits ;- but it is the same dispurchasers and readers of the Works, there tinguished man, considered simply as VOL. XXVI.


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