Obrazy na stronie

tions as only so much dimination of the lord's no sort of ambition, competition, hurry, or property—the same as he would speak of the enterprise among these iron-manufacturers. escape or death of the slaves of America. Such usines as are established are kept at He does not seem aware of the fearful im- work, but the establishment of new ones is port of his own words. The Oremburg pea- prohibited, and the produce of the old limitsant drinks a great deal of variously-made ed by law. Hence the total want of motive beer. Quass, braga, and souslo, drunk in for ambition, and of the power of enterprise. summer with ice--for each peasant has an Yet in spite of this deathlike state of society, icehouse and a bath among his dependencies which Le Play strangely persists in confound-are the names of the three principal drinks, ing with morality-placing the negation of the foundation of which in each alike is bar- passion in the room of active virtue--the ley must.

men are given to the sin of drunkenness, The Iobajjy or agricultural peasants of and though there are temperance societies in Hungary, are also a la corvée. The corvée abundance, there are more drinking ones. is a due of 104 days' labour to the lord for Forgerons des usines à fer à Samakowa, a whole sessio of land. Sometimes they in central Turkey, are under the same kind have only a quarter of a sessio, when they of system. They are of the Greek religion, have only twenty-six days' labour to give. are ignorant, unlettered, unintellectual; and A peasant, if he can, employs a substitute they, like their brethren of Danemora, mortfor his corvée, gaining one franc sixty cen- gage their labour to their patron, for help times himself for his day's labour carried afforded by him in their early life. They either to his own farm or elsewhere, while have large common lands for firewood and paying his substitute forty-one centimes only. pasturage; and private lands they hold If they have the means they can also buy off under peculiar conditions. It is a Turkish their corvée for life, and take land by one of maxim, that all the land belongs to God, the these three means :- 1. By paying half the usufruct to the lord or the State, who may produce to the lord ; 2. By mowing as much transfer his right on payment of a certain hay for the lord as lies on twice their extent yearly sum from the cultivator. So that of land; 3. By paying a certain sum of under a very long paraphrase, they come money down at once and for all. The lobajjy round to the simple conditions of landlord are of the Roman Catholic religion, are sim- and tenant. The terres mortes are such ple, gay, and virtuous; dance and sing and lands as, lying round a house, are cultivated sport whenever they have a moment's lei- by the spade; the terres vivantes are those sure; neither game nor drink, and know under plough cultivation. The terres mortes nothing, absolutely, of a broken marriage belong to the peasant living in the house atvow, nor of children born out of the mar- tached, and cultivating them ; so long as he riage law.

continues to do so; if he leaves his place and Passing from the extreme condition of they fall into neglect, after three years of recognised serfdom and seigneurial absolu. such abandonment they lapse anew to the tism, M. Le Play's next monography is that seigneur and the State. Often a peasant of the “ Forgerons des usines à fer à Dane places them under the care of a mosquée, who mora, Suède, tâcherons sous la système des for a few pence (M. Le Play says ninety-one engagements volontaires permanent.” Here centimes) inscribes them in the books of the begins the system of patronage, which yet is commune, either under his own name or practically that of serfdom, sweetened or that of some institution. This insures the embittered according to individual tempera- recognition of the present tenantship, in case ment, by the mockery of theoretical free will. of sudden death or disputed heirship; for These Swedish iron-founders at Danemora the tenancy of the terres mortes, as of the owe their first start in life to their master. terres vivantes, is hereditary. The seigneur He advances them money, to enable them obliges the cultivators of the terres vivantes to marry, and they in return dedicate their to stay where they are; and as all are under whole lives to his service, and pay him back debt to the seigneur--agricultural as well as with all their time. Old age must overtake manufacturing peasants-his will is practithem before even the most industrious can cally as paramount as if there were no such have worked off the life-debt contracted in farce between him and his serfs as the empty early manhood. In Sweden, says our au- name of freedom, The women of Samakowa, thor, all the men are moral, and all the wo- as indeed all the Bulgarian women, wear men virtuous. The women stay much at long garlands of pieces of money ; long in home, and take no active part in life; the proportion to the wealth and stability of the men are too gallant to suffer them to do family; and their love of dress and ornaheavy work. They wear gloves, and are ment generally is a marked local characternoted for their beautiful hands. There is istic.

Fondeurs Slovaques des usines à argent del by the administration to each workman is Schemnitz (Hongrie) are again day-labourers limited--forty-six kilogrammes to each ableon the system of voluntary permanent en- bodied ouvrier, twenty-three kilogrammes gagements; and with them, as with the to each woman and child. A special account others before enumerated, the seigneurial is opened for each workman at the store; feeling is in as full force as in the confessedly and, subject to the above restrictions, the serf states of Russia. But amongst the iron- wife is allowed to take the household bread founders at Schemnitz, more seems to be when she will, as so much advance on her done in the way of charities than we have husband's wages. Austria, Hanover, and hitherto seen. 'A doubtful good at the best. other kindred nations, exercise the same The administration gives the right of gather- kind of truck system, which certainly, if it ing fire-wood in the domanial forests, keeps be as perfect in the working as its panegyrist a gratuitous school for the young, gives free makes it appear, throws our disgraceful efpasturage to one cow for six months and a forts into still deeper shade, and makes our half in the year, asks only two francs sixty masters and administrators appear still centimes a year for another cow, if the family more cruel and infamous than the law itself chooses to keep a second, and allots a plot decided they were. With us, the truck sysof potato-ground at low price. The men tem was merely an organized system of robwork in spells of twelve hours each, some-bery and cheating, and the disclosures which times by day, sometimes by night. They led to its prohibition by Act of Parliament, have about a month altogether of “off-work” were such as to make every master manuin the year, which they employ on their po- facturer blush before man and God for the tato-ground, and in repairing, painting, beau- infamy he had supported and upheld. tifying their houses. The women stay much The cabinetmakers' close guild at Vienna at home. They make lace, and are light otherwise, “ le compagnon de la corporaporters when they have time, and our author tion fermée (Innung) des menuisiers à enumerates as about the only recreation they Vienne," are also by theory somewhat indehave, that of talking with each other. Gene-pendent, while by practice they are little rally the house of one workman has various less free than the serf and the vassal. But lodgers. A large room is let to a whole they have decided advantages in their guild ; family; another smaller one to two unmar- and though we would see all men free and ried workmen ; the third belongs to the able to take care of themselves, yet it is an master of the house; and there, during win- incontestable good when, in a hostile state ter, all the lodgers assemble both during the of society, there are laws made to protect day and in the evening, paying amongst them, unprotected else. A great deal is themselves the firing of six weeks, in return done in the way of charitable aids for the for the accommodation. Le Play says that menuisiers. When ill they are sent to the this is the only instance of a communistic life hospital, where the guild has always a certo be found in Europe ;-he means of house- tain number of beds to dispose of, and, durcommunism among strangers. They marry ing any such period of sickness, the wife young, and begin young to labour ; when and children are taken care of by the comold and infirm, they are taken care of by mune. The ouvrier has another means of their masters. They are protected by a sanitary aid, when his case is not so grave complete system of institutions, partly sup- as to require hospital attendance. He goes ported by communal privileges, partly by to the "section of his quarter," and there the laws of the ancient mining corporations gets a certificate of indigence, declaring that of Germany. For instance, in the matter he has habitually received charity; and by of bread: The price of bread is fixed by this is entitled to the gratuitous attendance the Hungarian and German mining admini- of the doctor of the quarter, who visits him strations, either by arranging the workman's at his own home for so long as may be necessalary in proportion to the price of bread, sary. His medicines are delivered to him or by keeping wages and all else at a fixed gratis by the chemist, on receipt of orders point, and supplying the men with bread from signed and countersigned by the doctor and the storehouses of the administration. At the curé. In this case, also, the family is Schemnitz the price is fourteen francs eighty supported by the commune. A great deal centimes for a hundred kilogrammes of wheat. of indiscriminate charity takes place at When the outside markets supply cheaper Vienna, as in all large cities; but it seems bread, the workman may buy his there if almost below the dignity, and the positive he will; but as wheat is sometimes twenty- accuracy, of scientific monographies, to set three francs for a hundred kilogrammes, it is down, as M. Le Play does, an old hat or not in general his interest to go to the outcoat, a faded cotton gown, or a chance penny side markets. The quantity of bread sold I given to the children in the streets, as dis

tinct sources of income and recognisable sub-| also marriage is deferred until a certain ventions. The cabinetmakers' guild at Vienna grade is obtained, which grade cannot be is composed of apprentices, (lehrejungen,) obtained before the age of thirty-two at the companions, (gesellen,) and masters, (meis- earliest; but in return every one lives openter.) The number of apprentices, who are ly in a state of concubinage, and natural generally the sons of the masters, is limited; children are more plentiful than legitimate eleven years of age is the usual age when ones. No one thinks this a reprehensible they are admitted. When sufficiently in state of things. The unmarried wife lives structed they are raised to the rank of com- with her parents who take care of the chilpanions, when they begin their Wanderjahre dren; and when the man has attained the or travels, assisted by the office of their desired grade he marries, and joins his wife guild, established in every city in Germany. at her father's house. Just the reverse arBefore they can be masters, they must exe- rangement to that usual in Russia, where cute a chef d'auvre, or Meisterstück, which male parental authority is only second to is submitted to the committee of masters, the divine authority of the Seigneur and the and, if deemed worthy of being the produc- Czar. The right of membership in the cortion of one of them, the Gesell is made a poration is one much prized; and as the master on the payment of certain fees, vary- number of members is limited this is one ing from 600 francs to 5200, according to cause of the great restriction on the increase the annual benefice obtained by the last mas- of their families. ter admitted, and according also to the im The cotton-spinners of the Rhine, near portance of the city where the reception takes Bonn, task-workers under the system of place. No companion may work directly temporary engagements, have a singular for a bourgeois. If he does, and is discover- custom. Three days before the feast of ed, as he is sure to be, he is arrested by the Saint John they may have all the hay which police, and brought before the council of the their whole family and cattle can get in that guild. For the first offence, his tools are time from a certain canton fixed by the taken from him, and he is fined rather more forest guards. The commune and public than thirty-three francs; for the second, the domaine give here the charitable aids left in fine is doubled. In case of persistence, he is Other places to the seigneur to bestow. banned against all the workshops of the guild Of all the workmen mentioned by Le Play -a sentence equivalent to depriving him of the watchmaker of Geneva holds the highest his profession, and too often of all honest place. Sober, industrious, intellectual, findmeans of livelihood. Each companion sub- ing his chief pleasure in reading, attending scribes to the sick-fund from five to ten francs lectures, and the cultivation of flowers, he a-year; a small tax compared to the im- stands forth as one of the model workmen mense advantages derived therefrom. No of Europe,-a little like the Scotch both in man can marry without one certificate, stat- moral character and in spiritual leanings, ing that he receives so much--the minimum but without that terrible stain of drunkenallowed—by his labor, and another certifi- ness which unhappily marks the Scotch. Side cate stating him to be of good morals. These by side with the Genevese watchmaker, equal two requirements, especially the first, natur- to him in sobriety and forethought, is the ally delay a man's marriage far into mature agricultural peasant of old Castille, the most age, and naturally create and necessitate a entirely democratic in his habits and in the state of things the very opposite to morality. constitution of his society of all the EuroYet by law illicit unions are sternly and pean ouvriers. This is owing to the long dostrictly prohibited. Le Play finds this " dif- mination of the Moors in that part of Spain, ficult to reconcile with the laws of morality, which knit together Christians of every and the just rights of human dignity;" though rank in the one undiscriminating brotherit is but one phase of that arbitrary power hood of religious faith. The green plains of which he rejoices to see in the hands of some Andalusia, La Manche, and the two Castilles, European masters, und which he would will- belong to large proprietors, who sub-let them ingly extend to all alike. Yet in spite of all to farmers, or to entrepreneurs sédentaires." these rules and interferences, illegitimate In harvest time, all through the centre and children abound in Vienna; and perhaps no- south of Spain, especially in Sierra Morena, where is it more easy to conceal and dispose troops of nomadic reapers come down from of them with every certainty that they will the mountains, where in winter they keep be well cared for. Many will regard this as their flocks, and in troublous times carry on a result of the rigidity of the law.

the terrible guerilla war. A brave and inIn the corporation of the quicksilver mines dependent people are they, industrious and of Carniola, in Austria, this question is frugal to å proverb, honest, proud, and treated in a very different manner. There manly, the source of some of the boldest

blood of Spain. There are large common their theatres 4f. 38c., making altogether a possessions in Spain, called dehesas, where total of 12f. 99c. for amusement in the the thinly scattered population make a liv- year. The wages of our cutler amount to ing out of their flocks and bees, helped some- 2497f. 80c. in the year, or £100, 6s. 4d. what by the game they kill and carry to The husband, according to our author, spends market. In Catalonia, Aragon, and Navarre, yearly on his wardrobe 63f. 23c., and the land is subdivided into minute portions, wife 71f. 50c. The items of both wardrobes which system creates our author's bugbear are given in great minuteness; but there is of " indigent proprietors;" in Andalusia, on not one particular that a practical man who the contrary, the law of primogeniture ob- knew our workmen in their own homes, tains, with mainmort to convents, so that would say was correct. Similar minuteness large properties accumulate as we have seen, and inaccuracy pervade the monographies of which are let out in smaller portions to far- the Sheffield cutler and cabinet-maker. mers, or tilled by nomadic workmen.

Some of the Parisian workmen offer the We come now nearer home. A London fairest specimen of all the French monogracutler, living in Whitefriars, a little way off phies of the Atlas. The maitre blanchiseur de Fleet Street, to be near his master in Ox- la banlieue de Paris, is the most steady and ford Street, is the first British monography the most thriving. As a proof of the wellbe

ven in this marvellous Atlas :-marvellous ing of this profession, its members have mea for its pretensioŋ and its inaccuracy. The twice a day—in the country, farmers and children of our London cutler go from six day-labourers eat meat once, twice, or six to eight in the evening to play in the neigh- times in the year—they belong to benefit bouring garden, called the Temple Garden, societies, and by extreme industry and ecowhich is their only place of exercise. If nomy generally amass a fortune, and leave they do not go there they do not go out at their heirs not only the example of virtue, all. Our London cutler is totally devoid of but its fruits. A somewhat suspicious cirreligious instruction, never enters a church; cumstance is mentioned, that they have alwhich indeed he could not well do, seeing ways large quantities of very fine and that, according to M. Le Play, there are two beautiful linen; taken, says Le Play, as rehours of service, one for the rich and one for tribution for bad debts, &c., but of ugly the poor, and but very few churches where suggestion to those whose shirts, handkerthe poor can go at all. This is in reality chiefs, and stockings, slowly disappear at painfully like the truth, though enveloped in the wash,” like grains of sand through a a form so positive as to make it look like sieve, without their being able to mark the falsehood. Our London cutler lives in a moment, or the manner, of such disappearsmall house, in a narrow street between the ance. He makes nearly two hundred a year Thames and Fleet Street, where he pays -in our author's pedantic precision, his 11f. 25c. weekly for rent, including water- earnings are set down as 4957f. 83c. Of rate. He lives in the kitchen or cellar, and this he is stated to save 247f. 300. yearly : lets a room on the third storey to his bro- the 30c. being far too good a thing to be forther for 1f. 25c. a week. He has furniture gotten. From Wednesday to Wednesday in mahogany, "assez élégant,” but not so he toils incessantly, his only amusements bemuch linen as would be found in France and ing fine clothes, and an occasional visit to a Germany in the same class; yet he has fête outside the barrière. Le Play says notwenty-four towels; which most of our rea- thing of the fact, that the grisettes, and the ders-all those at least who understand the young ladies who dance the cancan at Mahabits of our working classes, will think rather bille and the Château des Fleurs, are, many a goodly provision. His furniture is 663f. 25c.; of them, the “washerwoman's girls,” and his utensils are worth 80f. 18c., including two that they have about the lightest reputation umbrellas at 6f., a boiler at 2f. 50c., a white of any young ladies in Paris. metal teapot at 3f. 13c., a pail and two The maraichers, or market-gardeners of buckets for water at 10f., and three irons at the banlieue, are also favourable specimens 2f. 80c., with other things of the same cha- of condition and morals; and the nourris-. racter. Irreligious as is our London cutler seur, or cow-keeper, comes into the same

- he and his pale sickly wife--they are very honourable category. Most of the emigrant sober, and frugal in the item of amusements. workmen who flock to Paris are likewise Twice in the year they go to Greenwich, estimable and industrious. But these have once to the theatre, and every Sunday, when specialities which demand a special notice. it is fine, to the parks. Their

journeys to The porteurs d'eau to a man are Auvergnats Greenwich cost thêm 6f, 11c. Their Christ

--from the mountains of Auvergne. Their mas goose and plum-pudding, together with trade is a lucrative one; in 1853 it was cala few toys for the children, cost 2f. 50c., culated that it produced a net revenue to

each, working on his own account, of 2100f. and in the next belle saison begin again. a year, at least. Their number in Paris is After several seasons passed in progressive about eight hundred, and the admission of a increase of gains and corresponding increase new member to their body is a privilege in savings, the young workman marries : guarded with extreme jealousy and care. always one of his own payses, and never a We may even calculate for ourselves the pro- Parisienne, with whom he rarely or never bable lucrativeness of the trade, when we contracts engagements less stable and less know that the rich houses which address virtuous. At forty-five he has a house, land, themselves directly to the City of Paris, pay a cow, and six or ten thousand francs. He a subscription of which each 30c. would have then sends out his young sons as he went mounted up to 5f., if the water had been before them; and is a country proprietor supplied by the Auvergnat carriers. The for the rest of his life. We have given the masons are another class of emigrant work- generic term of masons for them all, but the men, from the centre of France. They ge- sketch comprises masons, stone-cutters, and nerally live in chambrées in the quartiers paviors. Maubert, Saint Marcel, the Cité, and the The carpenters are something analogous Hotel de Ville. These chambrées are large to the masons in their way of working, rooms, holding about twenty people, where They also belong to two companies or famithey sleep two in a bed; all masons of the lies those of Solomon and Le Père Soubise. same company. A chair by the bedside, The members of the Soabise are called and a shelf for clothes, &c., are the only ar-compagnons devoirants, or roulantsthose of ticles of furniture. These lodgings cost from the Solomon, compagnons de liberté. Their 6f. to 9f. a month, including "a soup” for nom d'amitié is that of bon drille, used exsupper, and the washing of one shirt a week. clusively among each other, and each secThe room is not warmed at all, and lighted tion is recognised by its “grande canne à only by one tallow candle, which each pays grosse tête moire, et au ruban de couleur for in his turn. When the evenings are vive qui entore le chapeau, et retombe en long, those who are not at the cabaret as- flottant sur le devont de l'epaule gauche.” semble in the kitchen for warmth and com- Each company has its agent, whom they pany. The food costs 38. a month each; call La mère and who, like the several chiefs the wages are 4f. 25c. a day for the mason, of the Russian artèles, is “un guide, un con---for the stone-cutter, who is one grade seiller, un entrematteur pour les engagehigher and slightly more skilled, they are ments, un arbitre dens les contestations, et 4f. 50c. The stone-cutters are from the same un prêteur dans les mauvais jours.” The districts as the masons, but are under pecu- compagnons devoirants live on the right liar regulations which form them into distinct bank of the Seine; those of la liberté on the classes or guilds. Some are the children of left. The centre of the first is the Faubourg Solomon, and some of Maître Jacques. So- Saint Martin, and their “ mother" lives at lomon's children punch the heads of Maître Villette; the centre of the second is the Jacques' children whenever they have the Faubourg Saint Germain, and la Rue des chance, and Maître Jacques' hopeful family Bouchries is the home of their mother. abuse and maltreat those of the Père Sou. There are some freebooters, who have bise. And they all howl and cry, and make neither mother nor company, who prowl mad noises like the possessed, which how- about on all sides and pick up any work ever have intelligible significations among they can get. They are called renards, and themselves, and turn their quartier into a must look out for hard knocks if they are perfect pandemonium when they fight. But caught. There are others again, neutrals, they are a sober and an honest set, for all who live at the Faubourg La Râpée, and their village feuds and trade vendette; and the Garé d'Ivry, who, called mixtes, are of if they are rougher than the polished Pari- both parties and of neither. They can work sian, they are also worthier. They are ge- with either of the factions, and are recogniznerally the sons of some Auvergnat or Li- ed as not to be molested. In the slang of the mousin farmer, who in his young days had workshop, the patron or master is the been an emigrant-mason to Paris. As soon " singe," the chief d'atelier the “gâcheur," as they are old enough to carry the hod- and the “ lapin" is the apprentice. those of the sons who choose the mason's The chimney-sweepers come exclusively life in preference to the farmer's, and who from Domo d'Ossola : and, among the have drawn the lucky number in the con- nomadic or emigrant workmen in Paris, we scription, come to Paris as aide-maçons. In may count the commissioners, small coal their first campaign they earn about one and wood-merchants, (charbonniers,) chiffranc and a half a day; from which earnings fonniers, second-hand-clothes-men, and others they take home a sum of about 70 francs, |of like trades. The chiffonnier is the lowest

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