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“But now that we may lift up our eyes (as it with the lower animals, because he is fitted were) from the foot-stool to the throne of God, for a more divine perfection, and craves and leaving these natural, consider a little the therefore a higher good than what belongs state of heavenly and divine creatures. Touching angels, which are spirits immaterial and in to them. Reason is the director of the will

, tellectual, the glorious inhabitants of those sacred - the light of the soul. Whereas the rule palaces, where is nothing but light and blessed of nature is simple necessity ; that of beasts immortality, no shadow of matter for tears, dis- an instinctive judgment of sense; and that contentments, griefs and uncomfortable passions of angels an“ intuitive intellectual judgment to work upon; bat all joy, tranquillity, and peace, concerning the amiable beauty and high even for ever and ever, doth dwell. As in num- goodness of that object, which with unspeakber and order they are high, mighty, and royal able joy and delight doth set them on work. that law, which the Highest, whom they adore, The rule of voluntary agents on earth is the love, and imitate, bath imposed upon them;

such sentence that reason giveth concerning the observants they are thereof, that our Saviour him- goodness of those things which they are to self being to set down the perfect idea of that do."* It is the office of reason, therefore, which we are to pray and wish for on earth, did to discover the good to which man's higher not teach to pray or wish for more than only that nature is adapted, - the laws which at here it might be with us as with them it is in once regulate and express its activity. This heaven. God which moveth mere natural agents it does in various ways, and by various as an efficient only, doth otherwise move intellectual creatures, and especially his holy angels: for, signs or tokens, which our author discusses beholding the face of God, in admiration of so at length. There is some intricacy and congreat excellency, they all adore him; and being fusion in his argument here; but its general rapt with the love of his beauty, they cleave in effect is, that there are clearly discoverable separably for ever unto him. Desire to resemble by reason certain axioms or principles of him in goodness, maketh them unweariable and morality, which are universally binding, and even insatiable in their longing to do by all means to which the conscience answers as its apall manner of good unto all the creatures of God, but especially unto the children of men : in the propriate rule and life. These moral laws countenance of whose nature looking downward, witness to themselves in the orderly and they behold themselves beneath themselves ; even happy lives of those who conform to them, as upwards in God, beneath whom themselves are, just as the works of nature are all “ behove, they see that character which is nowhere but in ful and beautiful, without superfluity or de themselves and as resembled. Thus far even the fect." The prevailing infraction of even the seen into the doings of 'the angels

of God. principal of these laws among certain nations, Orpheus confessing that the fiery throne of God is is not allowed as any evidence against their attended on by those most industrious angels, universal validity, but is attributed to "lewd careful bow all things are performed amongst and wicked custom, which beginning perhaps men; and the mirror of human wisdom plainly first amongst few, afterwards spreading into teaching, that God moveth angels even as that greater multitudes, and so continuing from thing doth the man's heart, which is thereunto time to time, inay be of force even in plain presented amiable. fore be reduced unto these three general kinds: things to smother the light of natural underfirst, most delectable love, arising from the visible standing." There is a true and substantive apprehension of the purity, glory, and beauty of moral law, therefore, according to Hooker, God, invisible saving only unto spirits that are discoverable in the light of human reason, pure; secondly, adoration grounded upon the evi- and binding upon human conduct; and in dence of the greatness of God, on whom they see the relation which man bears to this the law how all things depend ; thirdly, imitation, bred of his nature, he is contradistinguished from by the presence of his exemplary goodness, who all other creatures in the world. In his case ceaseth not before them daily to fill heaven and alone is observation of law righteousness, earth with the rich treasures of most free and undeserved grace."*

and transgression of it sin. It is the moral

reality of a living will in man that makes the He then enters upon the consideration of difference. “Take away the will, and all the Law of Reason,-“ the binding principle acts are equal.”+ of reasonable creatures in this world.” This The law now mentioned binds man simply opens up to him a wide field of ethical dis- as man. Its force is irrespective of society ; quisition, in which he treats of the several but out of the fact of society there springs functions of the will and reason in man. The up a set of correspondent laws. The ground will is the moral capacity in man which of domestic society is found in human wants ; brings him into relation to his appropriate the ground of political government in human moral good. He has this capacity over and crimes. The natural fountain of law and above the sensible capacity, common to him

* Vol. i. p. 228, * Works, yol, i, pp. 212, 213,

+ Cod. Justin. 968, quoted by Hooker, vol. i. p. 238.

authority in the former case, is the father of vein of discussion, pertaining to the true and the family ; in the latter case, lawful author- only blessedness of man in communion with ity can only be exercised by consent of God; how man has fallen away from this society itself, or by the immediate appoint- blessedness through guilt, and how it is rement of God. These are the only two gen- stored to him in Christ. He considers the uine sources of political power which may fact of so many laws of reason being repubassume different forms, but in all its forms lished in Scripture, and dwells upon the adrests ordinarily on the same ground, the ex- vantage of this in brightening our frequently press or implied sanction of the community. dim natural perceptions, and guiding us in A governing power resting on any other circumstances of particular difficulty. He ground, save the special one of direct Divine is thus led to enlarge on the benefit of traappointment, is most strongly repudiated by ditional Divine law, and of Holy Scripture, Hooker; and here, as has been often point- the perfection of which-wherein nothing is ed out by Mr. Hallam and others, he clearly superfluous amid all its variety-he extols anticipated the theory of Locke. As the in a rich and eloquent passage. origin of government is thus traced to popu- Here he brings to a close the course of lar assent, so all laws for its regulation and his general reasoning, and approaches its control have the same rightful source, and bearing upon his special subject to which it no other. The language of Hooker on this will be found to have a very intimate relasubject is so forcible, that it well deserves tion, far away as it may seem to have begun quotation :

from it. Having enumerated the various

laws that obtain among men, he now enters “ The lawful power of making laws to com- upon the consideration of their particular mand whole politic societies of men belongeth so force and character. In all these several properly unto the same entire societies, that for kinds of laws there are sundry both natural any prince or potentate, of what kind soever, upon earth to exercise the same of himself, and not and positive,—that is to say, both arising either by express commission immediately and out of the personal and social necessities of personally received from God, or else by authority human life, and prescribed by external decreed at the first from their consent upon whose authority for the guidance of that life. They persons they impose laws, it is no better than are in error, therefore, who make those laws mere tyranny. Laws they are not, therefore, only to be positive that are of man's invention, which public approbation bath not made so. But attributing mutability to them and to them approbation not only they give who personally declare their assent by vow, sign, or act, but alone. Certain Divine laws are no less posialso when others do it in their names by right tive and mutable in their nature. The real originally at the least derived from them. As in ground of mutability or immutability in laws, parliaments, councils, and the like assemblies, al- is to be found, in fact, not in their origin, but chough we be not personally ourselves present, in their character. They are permanent or notwithstanding our assent is by reason of other changeable, not according as they proceed agents there in our behoof. And what we do by from God'or man, but according as the others

, no reason bat that it should stand as our matter itself is concerning which they were deed, no less effectually to bind us, than if

ourselves had done it in person.'

first made. Whether God or man be the

maker of them, alteration they so far forth Further, as there are laws appropriate to admit as the matter doth exact." This is civil societies in themselves, so there are laws the point towards which Hooker has been appropriate to these societies in their rela- aiming in his extended discussion :tions to one another, viz., International Laws. “Wherefore," he adds,“ to end with a general And the allusion to them leads him to speak rule concerning all the laws which God bath tied of the necessity and propriety of laws of men unto; those laws divine that belong, whether spiritual commerce between Christian na naturally or supernaturally, either to men as men, tions -- "laws by virtue whereof all or to men as they live in public society, or to churches may enjoy freely the use of those men as they are of that politic society which is the reverent, religious, and sacred consultations such variable accident as the state of inen, and of which are termed Councils-General."

societies of men, and of the Church itself in this Finally, there are the laws specially re-world is subject unto; all laws that so belong vealed by God in Scripture for our spiritual unto men, they belong for ever; yea, although guidance and government-Laws Superna- they be positive laws, unless being positive God tural to direct and control man in the way himself wbich made them alter them. The reason of salvation, which he has wholly lost by is, because the subject or matter of laws in gennature. Under this head Hooker, according that for the ordering whereof laws were instituted,

eral is thus far forth constant; which matter is to his wont, runs into a general and elevated and being instituted are not changeable without

cause, neither can they have cause of change, * Works, yol. I, p. 245, 246,

when that which gave them their first institution

remaineth for ever one and the same. On the ture was maintained to be the sole authority other side, laws that were made for men or socie- not only in matters of faith, but: of ecclesities or churches, in regard of their being such as astical order. Its fundamental principle, as they do not always continue, but may perhaps be clean otherwise a while after, and so may require expressed in the Admonition, was that those to be otherwise ordered than before, the laws of things only are to be placed in the Church God himself which are of this nature, no man en- which the Lord himself in His word comdued with common sense, will ever deny to be of mandeth.”* On this exclusive scriptural a different constitution from the former, in respect basis the Puritans took their stand, and felt of the one's constancy and the mutability of the themselves firm in the character of the other. And this doth seem to have been the very ground on which they stood. Their percause why St. John doth so peculiarly term the sistent keenness of purpose and stubborn: doctrine that teacheth salvation by Jesus Christ, Evangelium aternum,' an eternal Gospel,' because ness of resolution, as well as impatience of there can be no reason wherefore the publishing zeal, took their rise greatly in the fact that thereof should be taken away, and any other in. they thus supposed themselves in possession stead of it proclaimed, as long as the world doth of the only ground of truth and law in the continue ; whereas the whole law of rites and matter at issue. Destitute--as the spirit of ceremonies, although delivered with so great Puritanism everywhere is--of speculative solemnity, is notwithstanding clean abrogated, breadth and comprehension, and keeping inasmuch as it had but temporary cause of God's their views closely within the limits of ordaining it."*

Seripture, they got a certain clearness of In this paragraph lie the germ and ground vision and intensity of aim from the very of the whole reasoning of the Polity. Laws narrowness of their point of observation. are such durably, according to the matter Whitgift had so far in his reply to Cartwhich they concern, whether they proceed wright taken the right view in opposition to immediately from a Divine or human source. stance and matter of government must in.

them. He contended that while the subIt is not the mere fact of their revelation in deed be taken out of the word of God,” yet Scripture which determines their permanent " the offices in the Church whereby this obligation. This can only be determined by a consideration of their

whole character, and government is wrought are not namely and those circumstances in human life which they in some points left to the discretion and

particularly expressed in the Seriptures, but were intended to meet.

The question of the direct origin of laws liberty of the Church, to be disposed accordwas, in fact, from Hooker's whole point of ing to the state of times, places, and perview an indifferent one. For all law was to

sons." { He met the Puritan assertion by him only such, as forming an expression of shrewdness enabled him to see beyond the

a simple negation; his thoughtful sense and the original Law or Reason of the universe; and whether this expression was found narrowness of that assertion, and practically directly in Scripture, or in human reason in dealing with it; he felt that thus far it

as a question of policy he had no difficulty and life, it did not matter; its sacredness was equally the same, as springing out of

was false and untenable. But he did not the Fountain of all light and order. This

* Quotation from Ad. Whitgift's Works, vol. i. p. unity of Nature and Life and Scripture, as 176.-It may be well to add the following emphatic all alike true, if not alike important revela-statements from Cartwright:-" And it is no small tions of the Divine will, is really the founda- injury which you do unto the word of God, to pin it tion of Hooker's whole argument, although in so narrow room, as that it should be able to direct it is more implied than distinctly asserted though the substance of religion, or some rude and by him. It is this comprehensive and unfashioned matter of building of the Church, were germinant idea underlying its entire scheme uttered in them, and those things were left out that and breathing life into it--inarticulate some

should pertain to the form and fashion of it; or as times, but not the less powerful,--that gives nakedness, and not also chaing, and bracelets, and

if there were in the Scriptures only to cover her to it its great force and mastery. It was on rings, and other jewels to adorn her, and set her out." this ground above all that it met Puritanism, "Is it likely that he who appointed, not only and proved its higher spirit and strength the tabernacle and the temple

, but their ornaments against it.

would not only neglect the ornaments of the Church,

but that without which it cannot long stand? Shall According to what we have already seen, we conclude that he who remembered the bars there, it was the great aim of Puritanism in the hath forgotten the pillars here? Or he wha thera more radical form into which it passed with remembered the pins, here forgot

the master-builders? Cartwright and others, to enforce its plan Should he there remember the besoms, and here for of discipline as expressly laid down in Scrip. there make mention of the suffers, to purge the ture, and alone compatible with it. Scrip- lights, and here pass by the lights themselves ?”—

Cartwright's Reply, pp. 14-82. * Works, vol. i. p. 274, 275.

+ Whitgift's Works, vol. i. p. 6.

see further; he had no philosophic vision merely what is laid down in Seripture, but of any higher principle on which to meet what in all respects is conformable to right the Puritans, and, while resisting their im- and reason, and the consecrated usage of mediate purpose, to enlarge the sphere of history, springing out of the exercise and moral and political contemplation, and carry development of the Christian consciousness

men's minds up to a more catholic unity of in the Church. - truth. It remained for Hooker to do this This vein of thought runs throughout in the whole conception of his work. He the Ecclesiastical Polity, and alone gives saw still more clearly than Whitgift that it coherence. The key to its philosophy, the question confined to the limits of the it is moreover the only principle that conPuritan basis, could only be one of endless nects the several links of its polemic. polemics, while not shrinking from encoun- For having in the first book cleared the tering it on this basis, according to a state-way by showing the sacredness of all true ment that has been often quoted from him ;* laws, whether derived immediately from but not content with a mere negative atti- Scripture or not, he proceeds in the two tude, he sought by the native instinct of his next books to deal with the distinct asmind some loftier and more comprehensive sertions of the Puritans-first, that Scripposition from which he could discharge new ture is the only exclusive rule of human elements of truth into the controversy for life; and, secondly, that in Scripture there its possible settlement. Granting, he virtu- must be of necessity contained a form of ally said, that express Divine laws are our church polity," the laws whereof may in only warrantable guides in the ordering of nowise be altered.”. It was necessary for

the Church - admitting so far the Puritan him, in the nature of the case, to deal defiI

postulate ---yet laws are Divine not merely nitely with both of these assertions. For because they are found in Scripture. Al the first plainly met the whole course of his true laws are no less Divine, as springing preliminary reasoning; and the second leavout of and resting on the same source as ing the general question unsettled as to the those of Scripture the eternal Divine Law. force and propriety of other laws save those To show this, was the simple and grand ob- given in Scripture, yet left no margin unject of his First Book. For this " he had settled in the particular matter under disturned aside from the beaten path, and cussion. If Scripture contained a definite chosen, though a less easy, yet a more profit- and unalterable church polity, it was of no able way. Lest, therefore,” he adds, in avail to show what force and sacredness language that admits of no mistake, "any attached to laws in general. By proving, man marvel whereunto all these things however, that Scripture was not the extend, the drift and purpose of all is this, clusive rule of human action, nor yet neceseven to show in what manner, as every good sarily the exclusive source of church polity, and perfect gift, so this very gift of good as the Puritans contended, he left full room and perfect laws is derived from the Father for his opening argument to tell. The conof lights; to teach men a reason why just troversy expanded beyond the mere limits and reasonable laws are of so great force, of of Scripture, into the broad field of reason, so great use in the world, and to inform national feeling, and historical usage. It their minds with some method of reducing became, in short, a question of what was the laws whereof there is present contro- behoveful and beautiful, and becoming in versy unto their first original causes, that itself

, and in all the circumstances of the so it may be in every particular ordinance case; and the remaining books are simply thereby the better discerned, whether the devoted to the elaborate proof against the same be reasonable, just, and righteous, or several assertions of the Puritans, that the no." The particular laws in dispute there existing order of the Church of England anfore, whether or not they had the express swered to the full conditions thus dictated authority of Scripture, might have a clear by a true expediency, as well as warranted Divine sanction. They might have a valid by apostolical tradition. authority both in their proper substance We have discussed at such length, and and their direct origin, viz., the consent of with so much care, the main trace of Hookreason expressing itself in the national feel- er's argument, not only because it is that ing and will. For the eternal Divine Law which is most important in itself, but be as truly if not as perfectly expresses itself cause it is that which has most living relan this way as in Scripture. The question tion to existing Church questions. It is then came to be in this point of view, not instructive clearly to understand the posi

tion taken upon such questions by one so * Whitgift's Works, vol i.

profound in thought, and so reverent in + Do., vol. 1. p. 277.

spirit, as Hooker. Of what consequence

some in our time have thought his opinions, (same basis. Christian expediency became has been strongly displayed by the eager in his hands the true jus divinum, resting ness with which they have sought for corro- not on one-sided interpretations of Scripture, boration of their own in his pages. It is far but on the broad ground of the common from our intention to disturb the expiring Christian sense, verified equally in the light embers of a controversy that has spent it- of Scripture and of Christian history. self, as all wise men saw from the first it It is needless to urge in opposition to this could only spend itself, in the hot flame of certain special statements extracted from Romanism on the one hand, or the poor the mass of Hooker's work as to the Divine smoke of mediæval dilettantism on the other. right of Episcopacy, and the special authoriYet it may be necessary in contrast to the ty of the Christian Ministry. * To any one different extremes of ecclesiastical opinion, who really understands Hooker's position, somewhat more particularly to consider the there is no inconsistency in such statements. views of our author.

It is at once granted that he contends for the In questions of church government and Divine right of bishops, as he no doubt proauthority it will be plain to a little exami- foundly believed in that right; but he does nation, that there are only two fundamental not contend for it on the ground that this views of a positive character tenable,--the right is expressly revealed and exclusively one of which rests on a basis of theoretical taught in Scripture, so as to be everywhere ecclesiasticism, and the other on a basis of and at all times incumbent on the Church. practical Christian order. The former as- Such a view is not only inconsistent with serts that the government of the Church is explicit statements, but what is far more a polity divinely instituted once for all, and important and satisfactory to every thoughtin its form definitely revealed and establish- ful reader, with the whole conception of his ed. The latter maintains that this govern- general argument. Episcopacy was simply ment is no less divinely instituted, but that to him a true and proper expression of the grounds of its institution are found not Divine order in the Church; whereas the merely in Scripture, but in the Christian rea- Puritans maintained it to be a usurpation or son, and the development of that reason in corruption, he maintained that it rightly the history of the Church. The one, in short, represented the spirit and meaning of the upholds an exclusive jus divinum, the other primitive Apostolical system, and even that rests on what has been called in modern all the variety and grandeur of offices in the language expediency, with which term we Church of England, was only a rightful dehave no quarrel, save that it has been development of that system. This is a clearly graded to base meanings, quite inconsistent rational view, resting on grounds of comwith what we here intend.

mon sense and Christian judgment, whatTheoretical ecclesiasticism may assume ever we may otherwise think of it. Such a very different, and, in fact, opposite manifes- system of ecclesiastical polity may be well tations. In the sixteenth century its charac- founded or not; but it plainly does not claim teristic manifestation was Puritanism. The to be of exclusive Divine institution, defiPuritans were beyond all question the nitely proclaimed from Heaven, and therechurch theorists of their day. They were fore universally paramount over the conthe assertors of the jus divinum in church science and Christian reason. On the congovernment, and the first Protestant assert- trary, it directly seeks its origin and sanction ors of it. Their very name still bears tes in the assent of that reason, as expressed in timony to this, if their history throughout the "whole church visible," which is declared were not a living witness to it. Their es- to be “the” true original subject of all sential belief was that they alone were in powers within the Church. possession of the pure truth of God, derived Such a system is utterly at variance with from Scripture on this subject, and their the modern High-Church theory, whose funpersevering aim was to apply their exclusive view of this truth to the government * Keble's Preface, p. 71, et seq. of the Church of England. It is notorious, f "So perfectly are these things (of faith and and admitted on all hands, that this idea of salvation) taught, that nothing can ever need to be an exclusive Divine right was utterly un- added, nothing ever cease to be necessary; these known to the early defenders of the Church (matters of ecclesiastical polity), on the contrary side,

as being of a far other nature and quality, are not of England. Jewell was contented to .oc- so strictly and everlastingly commanded in Scripture cupy the ground of Christian expediency in but that unto the complete form of a Church Polity his Apology; Whitgift, we have seen clear- much may be requisite which the Scripture teacheth ly, took up the same position against the not, and much which it hath taught become unrequisite

, Puritans; and Hooker, only on larger and cannot."-Vol. i. p. 408-409; and vol. iii. p. 231.

because we need not use it, --sometime, also, because we philosophic principles, has laid down the

# Vol. iii. p. 239.

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