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opinions. At any rate he was not long left stances of their time, to justify itself. There in doubt about this. For we learn from was no doubt a real principle of abhorrence himself

in his answer to Travers' supplication to Popery at the bottom of their scruples, as to the Privy Council, that the latter waited to the vestments and ceremonies; and it was upon him, with the view of urging him to therefore both a cruel tyranny and a misguidsubmit to a sort of popular call before begin ed policy that insisted on enforcing them. But, ning his ministry in the Temple.He ad if this strengthens our regard for their honvised me," says Hooker, “not to enter with esty, it does not raise our estimate of their a strong hand, but to change my purpose of intelligence and sober-mindedness. It argued preaching there the next day, and to stay till a narrow comprehension not to be able to he had given notice of me to the congregation, rise above such accidents and seize some that so their allowance might seal my calling higher point of discussion, and some nobler The effect of mine answer was, that as in a end of victory. It argued a weakness of place where such order is, I would not break judgment, and a rashness of self-complacency, it; so here where it never was, I might not to imperil the peace of the Church, and the of my own head take upon me to begin it."* real progress of the truth, by a mere obstiIn these few words we seem to see into the nate determination in matters which suffervery heart of the controversy then raging. ing could not exalt nor even martyrdom The proposal of Travers shews how deeply dignify. the puritanical spirit had leavened the Tem The disputes about the vestments date ple congregation, And how truly does the from the appointment of Hooper to the see principle laid down by Hooker correspond of Gloucester in the reign of Edward VI. to his whole views and character! It By the influence of Peter Martyr and Bucer breathes the very tone of many parts of the the opening breach was then partially healBooks of Ecclesiastical Polity.

ed; and Hooper and Ridley, who had been In order to enter fully into the contest keen opponents in so small a matter, testified between Hooker and Travers, and the im- to the unity of their faith in a common marportant results to which it led in Hooker's tyrdom. They had been “two in white” in case, it will be necessary to review shortly the quaint but touching language of the mesthe position of the two great parties now sage that passed between them in the awful struggling within the Church of England. moment of their fate, but they became “one

There are few men who both so warmly in red." Yet the conduct of Hooper and interest, and so strongly repel our sympathe vehemence with which he denounced the thies as the early Puritans. Their history is a vestments, had made a strong impression on strange mixture of lofty endurance, inflexible the minds of many. The Marian exile, with courage, and persevering integrity, with all its anti-ceremonial associations, greatly narrow views, impatient zeal, and factious strengthened this impression, as well in fact temper. In one point of view they can never as opened up the way to far deeper and cease to engage our admiration; as the more important differences between the advocates of freedom of conscience against two parties. At the first, however, even in ecclesiastical and royal oppression,-as the the reign of Elizabeth, the contest did not determined opponents of Papal superstition manifest itself in any more serious form, and the heralds of political liberty; while than in relation to the “habits ;" it was for the pathos of their sufferings, and the undy- "scrupling the habits” that Fox and Covering arbour of conviction that outlived and dale suffered as we have mentioned ; and triumphed under all, move at once our pity there cannot be any doubt that it was a and our pride. We cannot think of old most fatal obstinacy which led the Queen to Miles Coverdale, the venerable translator of meet the Puritan scruples as she did at the the Bible, neglected and suffered to fall into outset of her reign. Some limited concespoverty, and finally driven from his parish sions then under the favouring circumstances by the stringent demands of the Act of of her accession to the throne, might have Uniformity (1557); nor of Sampson, prose- had the effect of allaying

the troubles that cuted and expelled from his Deanery in were fast growing. "Obstinacy 'in contempt Christ's Church; nor of Fox the Martyro- was met however by obstinacy in demand ; logist, reduced to such straits in his old age and the disputes which had been rekindled as to complain of the want of clothes ; about vestments, especially in London and without a kindling feeling of indignation the University of Cambridge, gradually and of sympathy. And yet the ground strengthened and settled into other and more of their resistance to the Church fails to determined forms of opposition to the existinterest us, or even, in all the circum- ing Church system.

This more extreme puritanical movement * Vol. iii., p. 571.

was undoubtedly in the main of foreign

origin. Its principles were not Anglican, that of Thomas Cartwright; none which rebut Genevan. It embraced all the existing presents a union of so much intellectual elements of dissent, and carried them for- power, persevering courage and noble sufferward in a more confirmed manner; but it ing. His history gives us the idea of a very was not the mere spontaneous development manly, if stubborn nature of a high and even of these elements. It drew all its life and daring spirit under all its restlessness and strength from deeper principles of hostility frowardness. His fate, especially when we than any that had yet been put forward contrast it with that of his opponent, strongly against the old rights and usages of the excites our sympathy. They had been toChurch,--principles which may have been gether at Cambridge, and their rivalry as growing up in the minds of many in Eng- disputants, dated from the period when they land, but which had become familiar and preached from the same pulpit before the distinct to all who, during the reign of Mary, University. Each maintained his cause with had sought refuge in Switzerland and the an earnestness and vigorous eloquence that Low Countries. From this exile many able stirred a tumult among their hearers. Whitand earnest men returned, not only with gift, however, had chosen then, as afterwards, their hatred of Popery deepened, but with the winning side. He succeeded first in their whole convictions as to Mediaevalism having his opponent silenced, then degraded changed. Accustomed while abroad to a from his professorship, and finally expelled worship which had been purged not merely from the University. The whole of Cartof papal doctrine, but of papal associations, wright's subsequent career was one of obthis worship became identified in their minds scure but incessant activity. He retired to with scriptural truth, as opposed to Romish the Continent after his expulsion from the error. Presbyterianism came to be viewed University, and laboured, chiefly at Antwerp, by them as the normal expression of Protest- for eleven years, when his health failed him, antism; and the Church of England conse- and he again sought his native country. quently, when they returned, seemed only Here he had scarcely landed, when he was half reformed. It was the aim of Puritan- seized and imprisoned at the instigation of ism, in the form which it now assumed, to Aylmer, Bishop of London, whose character, complete the reformation of the English amid the fierce intolerance and oppression Church after the Genevan model. Setting of the period, stands out as peculiarly conout from å definite scheme of church polity, temptible in the vindictive severities with supposed to be revealed in Scripture, it which it is associated.* He was liberated sought to apply this scheme rigorously to at the instance of Whitgift, who, however the destruction of the hierarchical constitution severe himself, did not care to see his victims and mediaeval ceremonies of that Church. in the hands of others. An interview is

In the year 1572, a bold step was taken, even said to have taken place between them which served to precipitate matters, and at this time, which left a softening impres. bring the conflict between the two parties to sion on the minds of both; and it is undea height. Two of the Puritan leaders, Field niable that Cartwright's friend and patron, and Wilcocks, addressed an “ Admonition to the Earl of Leicester, addressed a letter of the Parliament for the reformation of Church thanks to the Prelate for his " favourable and discipline." The admonition was published courteous usage” of his old rival. Cartand presented to the House by the two lead wright retired to Warwick, and settled there ers themselves,-a proceeding for which they as master of an hospital founded by his noble were immediately committed to Newgate. patron. The vigilant eye of Whitgift, howThis, of course, only served to quicken the ever, still watched him; and though urged rising flame. Sympathy was excited to to allow him to resume preaching, he dewards the sufferers; and notwithstanding clined to do so until he should be better vigilant efforts made to suppress the Admonition, it passed through several editions,

* See Marsden's History of the Early Puritans, Whitgift, who had already distinguished 340-1, 66. We take this opportunity of expressing himself on the side of the Church party, our high opinion of the former of these works. The came forth with an " Answer to the Admo- spirit of fairness and moderation in which both this nition,” conciliatory in its principles, and mod- and Mr. Marsden's history of the later Puritans are erate in its tone of argument, but harsh and written, is especially commendable; while their clear,

well-balanced, and forcible style, rising in some cases overbearing in its language. This defence into eloquence, and the general life and vigour of the drew forth a reply from one who must be narrative, make them very interesting and delightful yond doubt be considered the great cham- reading. Neale's History of the Puritans is too well pion of Elizabethan Puritanism.

known to need comment. Prejudiced no doubt it is; There is no name upon the whole, so illus- after all the efforts of High Church critics to weaken

but simple, graphic, and, upon the whole, faithful, trious in the Puritan annals of the time as and impugn its authority. VOL. XXVI.


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persuaded of his conformity. He even for-pamphlets on the Puritan side, and others
bade him, some time afterwards, by a very not a whit behind them in scurrility on the
imperious exercise of authority, to proceed Church side, * attest the vehemence of the
with an answer, which he had been request contest, and the extent to which it interested
ed by a great body of the clergy of London and convulsed the nation.
and Suffolk to prepare, to the Rhemish trans- Things were in this agitated state when
lation of the New Testament Vulgate.* On Hooker succeeded to the Mastership of the
the death of the Earl of Leicester, Cart- Temple. The puritanical spirit, especially
wright's troubles were renewed. He was among the citizens of London, has spread
summoned before the Court of High Com- widely, and all the efforts of Whitgift, backed
mission, and again imprisoned, along with a by the power of the High Court of Commis-
number of other Puritan divines, till he was sion, had, at the most, only restrained its
finally released in 1592, and allowed to end outward expressions here and there while
his days in peace in his old sphere of labour intensifying the feelings in which it originat-
in Warwick, among attached friends. ed. These feelings appear to have been

It may easily be imagined in the circum- particularly strong among many in the
stances we have mentioned, that a contro-Temple congregation, fostered as they had
versy between Cartwright and Whitgift was been under the ministry of both Father Alvie
conducted with sufficient spirit and bitterness. and Mr. Travers.
The tone on both sides is, in fact, rude and The latter is to be reckoned, after Cart-
vituperative, descending into endless minutiæ wright, the most distinguished of the Pu-
of personal attack, wearying to the reader, ritan leaders. Both of them inferior in
and making it difficult for him in many cases learning to Reynolds, who is said indeed to
to catch the main drift and meaning of the have been the most learned man of his day,
argument. On which side the advantage there are yet no others who claim so de-
lay it were needless to inquire. Both con- cidedly to be considered the literary repre-
tended with marked ability, and were recog- sentatives of Elizabethan Puritanism. They
nised as the champions of their respective had been associated as preachers at Ant-
parties; Cartwright displaying, perhaps, werp, and the same principles, and the same
more vigorous eloquence and rough sense in fiery zeal in their defence, had bound them
details, a more pungent wit and superior closely together. In many points, both of
learning, as some have maintained; Whit- mind and character, they seem to have
gift more freedom, comprehensiveness, and resembled each other. The same mental

thoughtful force in general reasoning. We restlessness, the same hard and extreme shell wilt afterwards have occasion to advert to dogmatism, the same ambitious, ardent, and

the principles on which the latter maintained unflinching spirit, and, what cannot be his argument.

denied by their fiercest opponents, the same He met Cartwright's reply with a defence purity of character, and integrity and manof his answer, which appeared in 1573; and liness under suffering, unite and distinguish Cartwright again entered the field some their names.t Travers appears to have years later, with a second and more elabo- been the more polished and attractive rate Reply. These were the main comba- preacher; Cartwright the stronger and more tants; but, of course, a swarm of minor wri- systematic reasoner. Upon the whole, the ters took up the controversy, which raged latter strikes us as the higher character, long and hotly. The Martin Mar-Prelate

* Such as, "A Fig for my Godson, or Crack me

this Nut, that is, a sound box of the ear, for the idiot * See Marsden's Hist. p. 172.

Martin to hold his peace; " and "An Álmond for a Do. p. 175.

Parrot," by Cuthbert Curry-Knave, the pseudonyme The “untempered speeches," "hard words," of Tom Nash, who was, says Walton, "a man of - bitter reproaches," (" as it were sticks and coals;") a sharp wit, and the master of a scofling, satirical, by which term Cartwright characterizes Whitgift's merry pen." reasoning, are sufficiently met by the "flouts," it ap- 7X somewhat interesting tribute to the character probries," "slanders," and "disdainful phrases," and learning of both, and the manner in which which the latter imputed to the Puritan.-Works of together they represented the cause of Puritanism, Whitgift, Parker Society, Vol. i. pp. 45, 46, 54.-Whit- is found in Fuller's Church History, in the shape of gift does not even disdain to reproach his adver- a letter written by Andrew Melville, with the consary with the poverty which his own harshness had currence of the King and Scottish Estates, inviting inflicted.

them to accept chairs in the newly-established Divi$ This is undeniable. Cartwright's Rejoinder to nity College of St. Mary's, in St. Andrews; an inWhitgift

, consisting of two parts, appeared, the first vitation, however, which they declined, either bepart in 1575, the second in 1571, after he had fled cause (as Fuller in his own way explains it) " they to the Continent, although Fuller (Church Hist. B. 9, would not leave the sun on their backs, and remove p. 103, Fol.) seems to have been ignorant of this, and so far north, or because they were discouraged by the says that Whitgift's " Defence kept the field, and slenderness of the salary assigned to them."(for ought I can find) received no solemn refutation." | Church Hist. B. ix., p. 216.

animated by a more living, a less captious | land and that of Rome -- the main topics earnestness in the work of controversy in which the controversy embracedare in which their lives were spent.

poor and unfavourable contrast with the With such a spirit in the Temple Congre- comprehensive, tolerant, and enlightened gation, and such a beginning between the sentiments of the former. We do not two preachers as we have already mention- know, indeed, that Hooker appears greater ed, little harmony was to be expected. anywhere than in the theological and ChristHooker, quiet and humble as he was in ian attitude which he was enabled to hold manner, was not one to yield his convictions on such questions in his age, as we see this for a moment, in deference to any oppo- attitude preserved in the two sermons on sition; and Travers, popular and self-con- "The Certainty and Perpetuity of Faith in fident, was as little likely to brook any sen- the Elect," and on “Justification,” which timents which he considered inconsistent sprung out of this controversy. Here, as with the “Word and will of God." The well as in his Criticisms on the Lambeth former, consequently, had scarcely begun Articles, we can measure distinctly how far his ministry, when the flame of dissension he rose equally above his opponents and broke out between them. Certain forms his friends,—to what a height a truly rewhich Travers had introduced in the dispen- verent spirit and a divine philosophy carried sation of the Lord's Supper, seem to have him, beyond their hard oppositions and unbeen among the first causes of disagreement. charitable dogmatisms. But they soon assailed one another's views As rival preachers, apart from their in the pulpit, which spoke "pure Canterbury dogmatic differences, Travers easily mainin the morning, and Geneva in the after- tained a popular superiority. In all pernoon."

sonal qualities of voice and manner, as well, Any one who would understand the apparently, as in the easy handling of his grounds of this controversy, memorable, it subject, he had the advantage. The followmust be confessed, more in the weakness ing are Fuller's portraits of them, respectthan the glory which it casts around two dis-ively, in the pulpit :tinguished names, will find them fully de

"Mr. Hooker :-his voice was low, stature tailed in Walton's Life; and especially, in little, gesture none at all, standing stone-still in Travers' Supplication to the Council, on the the pulpit, as if the posture of his body were the one hand, and Hooker's Reply, on the other, emblem of his mind, immovable in his opinions. published together in both the Oxford edi- Where his eye was left fixed at the beginning, it tions of the latter. In order to understand was found fixed at the end of his sermon; in a its full merits, and, above all, the spirit word, the doctrine he delivered had nothing but which animates the respective disputants, it itself to garnish it. His style was long and is necessary to study their own statements, before he came to the close of a sentence. So that, which are, moreover, very interesting from when the copiousness of his style met not with the view which they give us of the character proportionable capacity in his auditors, it was of the two men, and the marked contrasts upjāstly censured for perplexed, tedious, and obwhich they exhibit between the Genevan scure. His sermons followed the inclinations of theology and that of Hooker. It were a his studies, and were, for the most part, on convery invidious task to say upon which of troversies and deep points of school divinity....

Mr. Travers :-his utterance was graceful, gesture them the chief blame of the contention plausible, manner profitable, method plain, and rested. A higher spirit of love and freedom his style carried in it indolem pietatis, a genius of in both, would, no doubt, have found the grace, flowing from his sanctified heart."'* means of averting it; but this were to

One can easily realize the mental and demand what the age does not entitle us to seek, even in Hooker, noble and conciliatory stand how it was that the congregation

personal differences of the men, and underas was his character, and far as he rose ebbed in the forenoon, and flowed in the above its temper of polemie

, in the quiet afternoon.” Some, we are told, did not and thoughtful preparation of his immortal hesitate to ascribe the first occasion of differ. work. On looking back upon the controversy, however, we have no hesitation in who appreciate, in any degree, the quiet

ence between them to this cause. But all pronouncing upon whose side the highest wisdom and rich sense of Hooker in his spirit, both of theological wisdom and of writings, will not fail to concur in the pointecclesiastical feeling, is to be found. In ed dictum of Fuller, " that he was too wise these respects, Hooker stands greatly above to take exception at such trifles, the rather his rival, whose narrow and one-sided views because the most judicious is always the on the doctrines of predestination and as least part in all audítories.” surance, and the relations of Christian feel. ing allowable between the Church of Eng * Church Hist., B. ix., p. 217.

The differences, however, between the the archbishop, who presented him, in the rival preachers reached such a height as to year 1591, to the rectory of Boscum, in require interference, or at least to give occa- the diocese of Sarum, and six miles from sion for it. The archbishop interposed his that city. Here he remained for four years power and silenced Travers. This appears devoted to his important task; and in 1594 to have been a harsh and injurious step, appeared the first four books of the Ecclecarried out in a harsh and discreditable siastical Polity. In the same year he was manner. The notice of prohibition was transferred to the living of Bishopsborne, only served upon the preacher on the near Canterbury, where he spent the few Sunday afternoon, after he had entered the remaining years of his life, and gave to the pulpit. The scene is so graphically describ- world the fifth book of the Polity. Here ed by Fuller in his grotesque fashion, that he is said to have formed an intimate we cannot help quoting it.

friendship with Dr. Hadrian Saravia, about

that time made one of the prebends of “ For all the congregation on a Sabbath in the afternoon were assembled together, their

attention Canterbury, a German by birth, and who prepared, the cloath (as I may say) and napkins had been a pastor in the Low Countries. were laid, yea, the guests set, and their knives This Saravia, whose name is now so little drawn for their spiritual repast, when suddenly, familiar to us, appears to have been one of as Mr. Travers was going up into the pulpit, a the most active controversialists of his day, sorry fellow served him with a letter, prohibiting and to have been one of the first who him to preach any more. In obedience to autho- espoused those High Church views, a little rity, (the mild and constant sabmission whereunto before this time promulgated by Bancroft. won him respect with his adversaries,) Mr. Travers calmly signified the same to the congrega- The influence of this friendship is supposed tion, and requested them quietly to depart to by some to be discoverable in the tone of their chambers. Thus was our good Zacharias Hooker's latter books; but after all, little struck dumb in the Temple, but not for infidelity, can be made of this, and certainly Hooker's impartial people accounting his fault at most but principles were not essentially affected by indiscretion. Mean time his auditory (pained Saravia's reactionary notions ; however, his that their pagnant expectation to hear him natural tendency to conservatism of feeling preach should go publicly prove abortive, and sent sermonless home) manifested in their varie may have been strengthened by personal ty of passion, some grieving, some frowning, intercourse with him. some murmuring, and the wisest sort, who held We have a pleasing picture of his life at their tongues, shaked their heads, as disliking the Bishopsborne. In study, preaching, and managing of the matter." *

visiting, and a somewhat ascetic devotion, The Temple, it may be supposed, was not modest countenance, low stature, and awk

he consumed his days: a quiet man of a very happy sphere of ministry to Hooker, ward bashfulness, yet nourishing lofty notwithstanding the enforced silence of Travers. The seeds of discontent were

thoughts amid all his lowliness, and carry. deeply rooted in the congregation, and al- ing on a noble strife of argument amid all

his peaceableness. though countenanced and supported by the chief Benchers, t he met with

many neglects “ We are told that he gave a holy valediction and oppositions from the friends of his to all the pleasures and allurements of earth, opponent. He sought a refuge from the possessing his soul in a virtuous quietness, which discomforts of his position in the retirements he maintained by constant study, prayers, and of study; and his thoughts, taking their meditations ; his use was to preach once every direction from the troubles in which he had Sunday, and he or his curate to catechise after been embroiled, he now sketched out, and the second lesson in the evening prayer; his serlaid the foundations of his great work. As with a grave zeal, and an humble voice ; his eyes

mons were neither long nor earnest, but uttered the idea of it grew in his mind, and his always fixt on one place, to prevent his imaginamental life became more absorbed in it, his tion from wandering, insomuch as that he seemed inclinations turned to some quiet country to study as he spake; the design of his sermons parsonage, such as he had formerly desired, (as indeed of all his discourses) was to show reawhere, without disturbance, he“ might sons for what he spake ; and with these reasons, meditate,” and pray for God's blessing upon such a kind of rhetoric, as did rather convince his labours; and in his own touching lan and persuade, than frighten men into piety; guage, see that blessing spring out of his wanted), as for apt illustrations to enforce and mother earth, and eat his bread in peace teach his unlearned hearers by familiar examples, and privacy." I He accordingly applied to and then make them better by convincing

applications ; never labouring by hard words, * Church Hist., B. ix., p. 217.

and then by needless distinctions and subdistinc Walton's Life, Keble's Ed., p. 37. tions, to amuse his hearers, and get glory to Ibid. p. 67.

himself; but glory only to God. Which inten

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