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legal records, with the exception of the Agenda to these there is a MS. Index. The Decrees, which Books, are kept in the “ Legal" Seach Room at the exist for the latter part of the reign of Henry VIII. Public Record Office, the Agenda Books are in the and for that of Edward VI., are contained in ‘Aug. "Literary” Room. Amongst the uncalendared Mis. Bks.,' vole. xci. to cv., to these there is a elasses of records on this, the Equity, side of the calendar ; whilst Informations and various other Excbequer may be mentioned Affidavits (1572 to proceedings are entered in vols. clxv. of the same 1841), ‘Informations (Eliz. to William IV.), and series. The Pleadings in the Court of General Reports and Certificates (1648 to 1841).

Surveyors are contained in a box, the reference On the Common Law side of the Exchequer the to which is " Exchequer Treasury of Receipt, bost-known, and certainly the most important class No. 111,” The Decrees and Orders (34 to 38 Henry of records is the “ Plea Rolls,” which extends over VIII.) are entered in the ‘Augmontation Office a period of nearly 600 years, from 53 Henry III. to Miscell

. Books,' vol. cvi. ; a calendar to this ap1855. The greatest variety of entries relating both pears on pp. 166-196 of the Appendix to the to ecclesiastical and civil matters occur on these Thirtieth Report of the Deputy Keeper.

The rolls, but there is no complete calendar to what is records of the Court of First Fruits and Tenths entered upon them. The calendar, which exists in consist of Plea Rolls (Mary to Geo. II., to which two forms, chronological and alphabetical, is, how there is a volume of index), Process Books (29 ever, an exceedingly useful one ; it is to be found in Henry V!II. to 1817, 13 vols.), and several packthe "Literary." Search Room. On the Common ages of miscellaneous documents (Henry VIII. to Law side of the Exchequer there are forty-seven William IV.).

W. J. HARDY. rolls (3 Hep. III. to 14 Edward I.) known as the

(To be continued.) “ Jews' Rolls," on which are entered the Pleas held before the Justices of the Jews; there are also “ Order Books" (Edward VI. to 1830) and Minute

A CURIOUS BELFRY CUSTOM. Books, 1657 to 1830.

At Treswell, Lanebam, and East Drayton, three I have not yet spoken of the records of the Lord Nottinghamshire villages situated in close proximity Treasurer's Rembrancer's (Exchequer L.T.R.) to each other, and not far from the Trent side, it branch of the Exchequer. In these we have was formerly a custom for the bell-ringers to record important material relatiog to claims of various marriages on the belfry walls of their respective kinds, such as claims to markets or fairs, wreck, parish churches. &c., and also to accounts of the sheriffs, and as to On one of my summer visits to Treswell when a fines, issues, or amerciaments due to the Es. boy, quite thirty-five years ago, Mr. Daniels, the chequer from the courts at Westminster. The then rector, pointed out to me certain red-ochre principal class of records in this division is the marks, squares and rings, on the interior walls of * Memoranda” Rolls, which exist from 1 Henry the tower, where the bells were rung from the floor III. to 5 William IV.

of the church. I have a dim recollection that my No very satisfactory calendar exists to these informant said these markings were called "cakes," rolls ; that most frequently used is known as because they were put there as memorials of gifts of “Jones's Index” (printed), which is a calendar cakes to the ringers on wedding days. But having to selections from entries on the rolls from Henry never met with such-like records of marriages oa III. to Geo. II., arranged alphabetically under church walls elsewhere, nor, indeed, of any printed places with an indec nominum at the end. Be- account of such a custom, and thinking memory side this index there are numerous repertories might have played me false, I recently made and agenda books, which serve as a guide to those inquiries from the clergymen of those parishes, who desire to consult the rolls ; a list of these who have kindly furnished me with information of is set out in Mr. Bird's 'Handbook,' p. 205. There a very interesting character. are also on the “ L.T.R." side the Exchequer Dr. Stott, the present rector of Treswell, says Entry Books of Orders and Minute Books. that the old belfry records were covered over with

The Judicial Proceedings of the Court of Aug. plaster at the restoration of that church about mentations, the Court of General Surveyors, and thirty years ago, and that only a few traces of porthe Court of First Fruits and Tenths—whicb were tions of circles encro

croacbing upon the stonework of branches of the Exchequer—also demand attention. the belfry arch are now visible. In these we have Writs, Pleadings, Informations, Strarge to say, at Rampton, less than two miles and Decrees, which, though they contain matter away, and about half way between Treswell and of much topographical and genealogical interest, Laneham, there are no evidences of such marks on are but seldom consulted.

any part of the walls of the church, and no one In the Court of Augmentations there are five remembers such a custom to have been observed volumes of Pleading8 (temp. Henry VIII., 'Aug. in that village. Mis. Bks,' vols. xix. to xxiii.), Depositions (Henry At Lanebam, however, only two miles further, VIII. to Edward IV., ibid., vols. cviii. to cxxxiii.); there are still to be seen on the belfry walls twenty

seven or twenty-eight examples of ring-marke, church, and, in the case of a better-class wedding, dating from 1813 to 1838. These records, roughly the “best man ” carried a basket containing a plum scratched on the walls and coloured with red-ochre, loaf, a cheese, and a knife, all wrapped in a white were locally known as “cheeses,” because, as the cloth. Amongst the poorer class the bridegroom vicar says, it was the custom of the Lanebam bimself carried under his arm a cake wrapped up ringers to mark out the form of a cheese on the in the same way. This gift was taken to the belfry wall, and then place within the round the initials and delivered to the oldest ringer, who cut the of the married persons and the year of our Lord.

cake and cheese and distributed to all the assembly, About two miles west of Laneham, and three but first of all to the village children, who came in miles south of Treswell, is the village of East a fow at a time and were arranged in a row with Drayton, and there, as the vicar, the Rev. Mr. their hands folded, the idea being that they must Wilkinson, informs me, there are no fewer than a be orderly and well behaved in the belfry. When hundred of those curious markings, not scored, but all bad partaken of the simple feast, the wedding simply painted on the belfry walls. They are party paraded down the four streets of the village known as

rings” or “rounds”; sometimes they with the attendant throng until they reached the are called "cakes," as they used to be at Tresweli

, bride's house, where all went merry as a marriage but never “ cheeses," as at Laneham. East Draybell, and where the church ringers were entertained ton ring-marks, which are still fresh and undis. at supper in the evening. turbed (in fact, they were retouched at the restora

At a wedding at East Drayton in April, 1891, tion of the church), contain three initial letters and the bridegroom took a plum loaf and a piece of

cheese to the ringers in the belfry ; but no record the four figures of the year, dating from W.D. to was placed on the belfry, walle, although,” says B.


Mr. Wilkinson, “I believe the bride's sisters' R. M. and probably to even a still later date. The rings are on the walls.” The custom of painting 1865,

the rounds seems to have coased when the floor top letter stands for the bride's Christian name, of the ringiog loft was raised some years ago. the lower letters for the Cbristian and surname

Readers of N. & Q.' are familiar with the comof the bridegroom, and the figures, of course, for mon practice in former days of newly married the year of the marriage. The old village carpenter people making gifts to friends and neighbours*. now living was the last to put up" marriage lines

à usage that has been completely reversed in our such as these, and, according to the testimony of own times — but this apparently local custom his wife," he was a good letterer and did a many." of recording marriages on belfry walls may not be

The castom was that every married couple who generally known ; indeed, I fiod it has even brought the ringers a large plam loaf of six or escaped the notice of Mr. Briscoe, a Nottinghameight pounds weight, and rich according to the shire antiquary, in his interesting compilation of wealth of the giver, a cheese, often a

• Curiosities of the Belfry.' JAMES HALL. sage

Lindum House, Nantwich. cheese," such as is still not unknown in that neighbourhood, and a certain sum of money for beer, had not only a "ring o' bells” on the wedding POLLS AT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS morn, but also a “ ring” with their respective

BEFORE 1832. initials put up on the belfry walls by the ringer

(Continued from p. 303.) who was best skilled in that art. In course of

Herefordshire. time, as the walls became covered with these de- Polls in Smith, 1722, 1754, 1774, 1776, 1796, 1802, 1818. vices, it was found necessary to efface the older

Hereford. records in order to paint now ones in their place, 1661 Sir Henry Lingen, Knt. and evidences of half-obliterated “rings

Sir Edward Hopton, Knt.


233 traceable underneath more modern ones.

Herbert Westfaling

This was a double return, and the whole election was Dwellers in towns and cities, whose knowledge declared by the House void, and a new writ ordered, of a village wedding is derived from Luke Fildes's 1689 Vice Sir William Gregory, made a Judge of tho celebrated picture, may be interested to know

Court of Common Pleas. what was the old-fashioned way of keeping up a Henry Cornewall

372 Wedding in these remote parts of Nottinghamshire.

Edward Gwyn

143 Everybody was apprized of the coming event three

* In a Yorkshire village, not many miles from East weeks before by a peal rung after the morning ser-Drayton, it is ueuul to have competitive races, and the vice on the Sunday when the banns were first pub- wedded couple to give the prizes : a pound of tobacco lisbed—a custom which, by the way, is still prac- for old men, a pound of tea for old women, a silk handtised at East Drayton. When the day came the kerchief for young men, a ribbon for young girls. If village was en fête. The nuptials having been be found at the door the next morning, the idea being

these sports and prizes were not provided, a besom would solemnized, and the wedding breakfast over in the that if the bridal couple did not give anything to race for morning, the whole bridal party walked back to they were too poor to buy a besom.


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1714 Thomas Foley


Yiscount Scudamore

777 1689 Sir Thomas P. Blount, Bart.
Nicholas Philpot
550 Sir Charles Cæsar, Knt.

Herbert R. Westfaling
375 Ralph Freeman

1368 1716 Vice Lord Scudamore, dead.

This was a double return of Cæsar and Freeman, and Herbert R. Westfaling

634 Freeman was declared elected. Timothy Geers

421 1695 Sir Thomas P. Blount, Bart. 1784 Thomas Foley, Jun.

Thomas Halsey

1428 Sir John Morgan, Bart.


Robert Cecil
Herbert R. Westfaling

522 Ralph Freeman 1764 Vice Jobo Symons, dead.

1698 Ralph Freeman, Jun.

1699 John Scudamore 237 Thomas Halsey

1565 Hopton


1239 Titus ...

1084 Polls in Smith, 1741, 1747, 1761, 1818, 1826.

1714 Sir Thomas S. Sebright, Bart.

1807 Leominster. Ralph Freeman

1787 1705 Lord Coningsby 296 Sir Ralph Ratcliffe, Knt. ...

1158 Edward Harley 136 1722 Ralph Freeman

1614 John Dutton Colt

Sir Thomas S. Sebright, Bart.

1464 1713 Edward Harley

Charles Cæsar

Henry Gorges
186 1727 Charles Cæsar

2021 Jobn Dutton Colt 88 Sir Thornas S. Sebright, Bart.

1424 1716 Vice Lord Coningsby, made a peer of Great Ralph Freeman

1012 Britain.

1736 Vice Sir T. S. Sebright, dead.
George Caswall

Charles Cæsar

1078 Richard Gorges

Henshaw Halsey

1019 Henry Gorges

20 Polls in Smith, 1754, 1761, 1774, 1784, 1790, 1796, 1802, This election was declared voiu.

1805. 1722 Sir Archer Croft, Bart.


Sir George Caswall, Knt.
205 1679 Sir William Cowper, Bart.

Edward Harley
92 Sir Thomas Byde, Knt,

228 James Clarke

Henry Danston

220 John Raby ...

16 1681 Sir Thomas Byde, Knt. 1727 Sir George Caswall, Kat..

265 Sir William Cowper, Bart.
Viscount Bateman
262 Sir William Leman, Bart.

23 Sir Archer Croft, Bart.

109 It is said that Byde and Cowper each polled more than 1742 Vice Mr. John Caswall, dead.

300, but the exact figures are not found.
Robert Harley
210 1701 Charles Cæsar

452 Sir Robert Cornewall, Bart.

Richard Goulston

303 George Hanbury

Wiliam Monson

01705 Charles Cæsar.

348 Polls in Smith, 1700, 1701, 1714, 1741, 1747, 1780,

Richard Goulston

319 1784, 1790, 1796, 1797, 1802, 1812, 1818,1820, 1826, 1830, Thomas Clarke

256 1831' (two elections).

Clarke vice Goulaton on petition.
1708 Sir Thomas Clarke, Knt.

246 1691 Vice John Birch, dead.

William Monson

229 John Birch

Charles Cæsar

207 Thomas Foley


159 This was a double return, and Foley was declared 1710 Charles Cæsar

376 elected.

Ricbard Goulston

364 1698 Robert Price

Sir Thomas Clarke, Knt.

271 Thomas Foley

William Monson

258 40 Jobn Birch

35 1713 Charles Cæsar

Richard Goulston This was a double return. Foley was declared elected and the election of Price was not disputed.

Sir Thomas Clarke, Knt. 1722 Nicholas Philpott


1714 Charles Cæsar 7

373 215 Richard Goulston 66

15 Serjeant John Birch

362 201 Edward Hughes

Sir Thomas Clarke, Knt. 26 26

281 275 Jobo Carpenter

John Boteler 24 25

272 266

The first poll is that by the Mayor, the second that The first poll was that taken by the old legal constables; after the honorary freemen, and other illegal votes had the second that by the new constables,

been taken from the other poll, according to a statement 1732 On the expulsion of Baron John Birch (a Cursitor in the Flying Post for January 25, signed by Clarke and Baron of the Court of Exchequer)

Boteler, who were declared elected on petition. James Cornewall

55 1770 Vice William Cowper, dead. Baron John Birch

Paul Feilde ...

244 Paul Foley

Lionel Lyde...

122 Polls in Smith, 1729, 1734, 1747, 1754.

Polls in Smith, 1722, 1780, 1784, 1790, 1826, 1831.





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St. Albans.


293 Jobo Gape

Writing on this subject some years ago in Joshua Lomax

188 "N. & Q (6ub S. vii. 515), MR. W. T. Lynn, in Thomas Lomax

70 giving his adherence to the opinion that the birth James Wittewrong..

37 of Christ probably took place in the autumn of 1705 George Churchill

B.C. 5, makes the following observation :
Joha Gape


“ But I wish to point out that it by no means follows Henry Killegrew


from this that if we could now revert to a correct Killegrew vice Gape on petition.

reckoning from the birth of Christ the present year would 1708 Jobo Gape

372 be not 1883 but 1888. It is remarkable how often mis Joshua Lomax

258 takes of this kind are made from not recollecting that George Churchill

254 chronologists have no year 0, but pass at once from B.0.1 1713 William Grimston

to A.D. 1. Admitting the birth of Christ to bave been in William Hale

308 B.C. 5, from then to the same day in B.C. 1 would be four John Gape

294 years, and to A.D. 1, five years, and to A.D. 1883, 1887 On petition Gape vice Hale.

years. So that our present reckoning is not five, but

only four years in error," 1717 Vice William Hale, Joshu, Lomax


Although I have duly consulted the indexes to Jennings

253 N. & Q.;'I do not find that this very oppbatic 1722 William Gore

461 238 statement of MR. Lynn's has been challenged ; William Clayton

461 238 and as the point is one of no little interest and Viscount Grimston ...


331 MR. Lynn's authority on such matters deservedly Joshua Lomax


258 of great weight, I trust he will pardon me for The second poll is that after deducting the honorary requesting him to review the matter in the light of freemon and paupers. Gore and Clayton were returned. the following considerations. 1727 Viscount Grimston


By a parity of reasoning, from a day in A.D. 1 to Caleb Lomax

447 Thomas Gape


the same day in A.D. 2 would be one year ; to 1729 Vice Lomax, dead.

A.D. 3 two years, and to the present year 1892 Thomas Gape, Jun.

399 years only; but both A.D. 1 and A.D. 2—not the Brassey

165 interval between a day in the one and the same 1734 Sir Thomas Aston, Bart.

499 day in the other-must be reckoned, and similarly Thomas Asbby

471 B.C. 5 and B.C. 4 are respectively the first and Viscount Grimston

888 second years of the era on the supposition that the 1742 Vice Thomas Ashby, dead.

birth of Christ took place in B.C. 5. Consequently Hans Stanley

325 five years is really the amount of the error, as the Hon, James Grimston


whole of B.C. 5 must be reckoned, even if the Polls in Smith, 1761, 1784, 1790, 1796, 1807, 1809, 1812, event from which the era takes its rise bad 1818, 1820, 1821, 1830, 1831.

happened on the last day of that year. Huntingdonshire.

The present year is 6606 of the Julian period; 1729 Vice Marquis of Hartington becoming Duke of deduct 1893, and the quotient, 4713, is the year of Devonshire.

the Julian period for B.c. 1, the year prior to the Robert Pigott Sir John Bernard, Bart. ...

638 beginning of the era ; and in like manner, subtract1739 Vice Lord Robert Montagu becoming Duke of ing 1898 (1893+5) from the Julian period for this Manchester.

year, we obtain 4708= B.C. 6, the year prior to the Charles Clarke

692 true commencement of our era. Whether the latter William Mitchell

521 be reckoned from the Annunciation (as I underPolls in Smith, 1741, 1768, 1807, 1818, 1826, 1830, 1831. stand it to be) or from the birth of Christ is im

material to my point. I contend that if the latter Huntingdon.

event took place late in B.C. 5 (should a correct 1702 Hon. Charles Boyle

91 reckoning of the era be reverted to the present Anthony Hamond

89 Francis Wortley

year would be A.D. 1898.

34 John Pocklington

MR. Lynn's averment seems explicit enough,

41 Lord Orrery


but I may have misunderstood him. Should he do 1705 Sir Joba Cotton, Bart.

73 me the honour of reconsidering the matter, any Edward Wortley Montagu

73 observations of his on the subject cannot fail to bo John Pedley

64 of interest. On petition Pedley vice Cotton.

The other day Mr. Lynn drew attention to an Polls in Smith, 1741, 1820, 1824, 1831.

error in L'Art de Vérifier les Dates. Although

W. W. BEAN. not bearing directly upon the subject of this note, 4, Montague Place, Bedford Square.

I may point out that this most valuable work, in (To be continued.)

treating of the date of Christ's birth (vol. ii. p. 233),

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gives the year of Rome 747 as 4708 of the Julian land is described in English as " bastler land." period and 6 B.C., instead of 4707 and 7 B.C., The rod, or symbol of iovestiture whereby copybold wbilst the year of Rome 749 is given as 42 of the land was conveyed, might have been hastula, but I Julian era and 4 B.C., in place of 41 and 5 B.C. doubt whether servitium hastilare is in any way respectively. These errors can hardly have arisen connected with this symbol, especially as in these from the existence of the astronomical year 0; in villages copy bold lands are said to be held " by any case the correct dates are to be found in the the straw.

S. 0. ADDY. chronological tables contained in the first volume, 3, Westbourne Road, Sheffield, and may be verified otherwise througbout the volumes cited.



Suffolk Times and Mercury of Friday, Nov. 4,

1892, under the heading of 'A Norfolk SuperTHE ROYAL MARRIAGE.— The fact of the direct stition,' gives the followiog :heir to the throne marrying an Englishwoman is

“ Last week (writes our Thetford correspondent) in. so rare an event that it seems worth noting. I can formation was received at Thetford that a middle-aged only recall two instances since the Conquest, viz., and had been seen at Thetford. Her friends naturally

woman had been missing from Brandon since Oct. 11, Edward, the Black Prince, and Edward, Prince of became alarmed about her, and had serious fears as to Wales, son of Henry VI., who married Aon of her rafely, and as they could bear nothing about her, Warwick, subsequently the Queen of Richard III. they asked that the river between Thetford and Brandon Apn of Warwick, however, was not of royal blood; might be dragged. Instead of this

, recourse was bad to but the Black Prince and Joanna of Kent were people really believe. On Tuesday afternoon the Naviga

a very curious procedure, in which it appears somo equally descended from Edward I., and, oddly tion Superintendent got a boat and rowed down the enough, as in our present royal marriage, the bride river, accompanied by a policeman, who was mildly and was a generation older than the bridegroom. slowly beating a big drum. It was stated that, if they Edward, the Black Prince, was great-grandson of came to any part of the river in which there might be a Edward'I.; Joanna of Kent was granddaughter of be distinctly noticed. The experiment, bowever, was a

dead body, a difference in the sound of the drum would the same king ; the Duke of York is great-great. failure, and later on, it was reported that a person an. grandson of George III.; while the Princess May swering to the description of the missing woman was at is only great-granddaughter of the good old king. Elvedon. This proved to be correct, and she was ulti

Several of our kings bave married English wives, mately taken home, to the great relief of her friends." but, so far as I can remember, no direct heir to the I fancy this belief is uncommon; at least, I have throne has ever done so except those I bave men

never met with it before. W. B. GERISA. tioned. CHARLOTTE G. BOGER.

South Town, Great Yarmouth. St. Saviour's, Southwark.

THE INVENTOR OF LUCIFER MATCHES. — ARCHILOCHUS.- Apparently the usually accepted “Mr. John Walker, chemist, of Stockton, and the epoch at which the great satirist of Paros flourished original inventor of lucifer matches, died in that town must be brought down about half a century. In the other day at the age of seventy-eight. For a con

siderable time he realized a handsome income from the one of the fragments which alone remain of the sale of his matches in boxes at 1s, 6d. each."- Vide works admired by Horace, he speaks of Zeus turn- Baptist Reporler, Juno, 1859. ing midday into night, a phenomenon so remark

Joan T. PAGE. able that he thinks no one ought afterwards to be Holmby House, Forest Gate. surprised at anything-not even if the dolphins and land animals should change places. An Italian

RELICS IN A LONDON CAORCH.—The following astronomer, Prof. Millosevich, of Rome, has appears in the City Press:recently re-examined the question of explaining closed during the next few weeks, and used only as a

“ As the church of St. Mary, in the Minories, will be this by the occurrence of a total eclipse of the sun in the locality where Archilocbus resided, with the ago for the amalgamation of the parish with that of St.

mission room, a faculty having been obtained some time result that one only in the seventh century before Botolph, Aldgate, what is going to be done with the Christ will perfectly correspond with the circum- interesting relics? Notably among those is the head of stances. This was the eclipse of April 6, B.C. 648, the Duke of Norfolk, which is kept in a black box under which was total over Thasos about ten o'clock in a glass cover in the vestry. The story goes that, im

mediately after his execution on Tower Hill, the duke's the morning, and thus fixes the date of the com. friends obtained possession of the head and secreted it position of the poem.

W. T. LYNN. in the chapel attached to his family mansion. This Blackbeatb,

family mansion really comprised the buildings of the

Ancient Priory of Holy Trinity, as founded by Matilda, HASTLER LAND.-In some villages in the neigh-Queen of Henry, I., in 1108, and wbich, together with bourhood of Sheffield land was anciently described the precincts, bad been given, at the dissolution of the as being held of the lord in seruició hastilari. monasteries by Henry VIII., to Thomas Audley, Lord This expression occurs in documents of the twelfth church, made the place' his residence until his death, in

Chancellor of England, who, after pulling down the and thirteenth centuries, and at a later period the the year 1554. Thereupon, ia virtue of his marriage

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