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LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 3, 1893.
is by them known to contain matter of the highest
historical, topographical, and genealogical importCONTENT 8,-N° 75.
ance. Take, for instance, the Pipe Rolls, that NOTES :-Our Public Records, 421.– Rebellion of '98, 422 magnificent series of documents on which from the
“Chouse"-Sir John Falstaff, 425-Sir T. Jones—“Grasswidow" - Cornish or Chinese? - Tennysoniana, 426-May- middle of the twelfth century until well on in the day-False Dice, 427.
nineteenth we have a perfect account of the Crown QUERIES :-Picture by Jacques Jordaens—" Fimble"-Sir
T. Robinson-Austrian Flag at Acre-Brigadier-General revenue, rendered by the sheriffs of the different
history, made as much use as they might of these -Royal Lusitanian Legion-Sir Cornelius VermuydenMandragora, 429.
this feeble bringing forward of their many-sided REPLIES : – Metre of 'In Memoriam'-Massacre of Scio importance may do something towards promoting 430-Powell of Caer-Howell-Furye Family-John of Gaunt, 431-Silver in Bells-Joan of Arc-Chaucer's a more liberal use of them in the future. “Stilbon," 432_ Folk-tale—“Looking from under Brent Hill," 433–Dr. Todd-Motto for Theatrical Managers
The Pipe Rolls were prepared in the office of the Ambrose Gwinett-Tying Straw to a Door-Tithe-Barns, Pipe-an office known by this somewhat unofficial 434-Preposition followed by a Clause--W. Westall sounding name not from its convivial nature, but Epiphany Offering-Kilburn Wells--One Pound ScotsThe Pleasant History, &c.--Lindsay and Crawford | from the diversity of the business there transMonastic Rules, 435– Ale-daggers "Judges Robes, acted, "for," says an old writer, Old Gloves-Misuse of Scientific Terms, 436-Penal Laws
-“ Dimanche de Quasimodo "-" Engendrure"-Novel " as water is conveyed from many fountains and springe, Notions of Heraldry, 437—Postil-Westmorland and Cum- by a pipe, into the cistern of a house......80 this golden berland Wills—“Engines with Paddles "--Dibdin's Songs and silver stream (of money) is drawn from several
-Works of King Alfred-Silver Swan, 438.
courts (as fountains of justice and other springs of roGower's, Joan of Aro – Thompson's 'Handbook of Palæo venue), reduced and collected into one
pipe, and by that graphy' - Cox's Cinderella - Pennells' • Sentimental conveyed into the cistern of his Majesty's receipt." Journey' Dowden's • Introduction to Shakespeare'. Kivind's . Finnish Legend'-Basile's • Pentamerone
There is a Pipe Rollfor each year from 2 Henry II. M'Knight's Lydiard Manor.'
to the reign of William IV., and, as a rule, each roll Notices to Correspondents.
consists of an account from every county; these,
often containing two or three skins of parchment, Notes,
are fastened together at the head and rolled, the
end of the longest account being utilized as an outer OUR PUBLIC RECORDS.
cover for the roll. It is wasting words to describe (Continued from p. 382.)
the contents of these documents. The Pipe Roll Quite as important as the records of Chancery, Society (secretary, C. Trice Martin, F.S.A., Pablic treated of in the two preceding articles, are those Record Office) has printed in extenso the first of the Exchequer—a word derived from the few rolls, and from this work the roader can see chequered cloth, resembling a chess-board, which the arrangement of the entries, which is practically covered a table in the room or chamber of the the same to the end of the series. royal palace where the sovereign's revenue was known as the Chancellor's Rolls are really duplianciently dealt with. On this chequered cloth cates of the Pipe Rolls; they exist from 36 ben. the king's accounts were made up, the sums being III. to 3 William IV. marked or scored by counters.
The Foreign Accounts, which are somewhat The Exchequer consisted of two branches, the akin to the Pipe Rolls, received the title "Foreign" Administrative, which managed the revende, and as being foreign to the ordinary jurisdiction of the the Judicial, the primary intention of which was sheriff, and the accounts of which they consist to call the king's debtors to account; this last may be described more as occasional than regular being again subdivided into a Court of Equity and such as issues from escheats. Besides these, the Court of Common Law. In process of time actions rolls consist of accounts rendered by the Custodes of every kind, and in which the sovereign was in Cambii, the Keepers of the Royal Wardrobe, of no way concerned, came to be brought in the Ex- the Treasurers of Ireland, and a number of other chequer, though-by a legal fiction—the plaintiffs miscellaneous accounts. There are twenty-three were all supposed to be the sovereign's debtors, distinct rolls of “Foreign ” Accounts, extending and, by the matters complained of, less able to from the time of Henry III. to that of Henry VI.; answer their debts.
but the earlier accounts will be found at the end Let us speak first of the records on the Ad- of the Pipe Roll. There is at present no calendar ministrative side of the Exchequer, chiefly in the to the entries on the Foreign Accounts. nature of accounts. The value of these documents The next most important series of Exchequer is, I think, appreciated only by persons familiar records is that known as “Ministers' Accounts." with the contents of the Public Record Office, and In this vast series are included, and rendered often
in the most minate detail, the accounts of bailiffs, subsidy returns, lay and clerical, extending from farmers, reeves, collectors, and receivers of the the time of Henry III. to that of Charles II., are various property, &c., which came into the Crown's made on rolls and referred to by a MS. Calendar. hands by reason of escheat, forfeitare, or otherwise. They give (or some of them give, for many furnish At first these appeared in rolls of Foreign Accounts ; only the sum total assessed) the names of those on but as time went on they became too bulky to be whom the subsidy was levied and the amount of thus incorporated, and were formed into a class by the levy. Hence we get a most valuable help from themselves.
them in the compilation of pedigrees. Amongst It will be readily understood, by any one who these returns will be found many that I may considers the matter, how greatly the mass of term "historic” taxations, such as the Poll Tax, Ministers' Accounts must have been increased by the contribution for raising forces to resist the Ara the dissolution of the monasteries—that wonderful mada, the lovy of ship-money,&c. Nearly akin to the stroke of policy that placed ball the land in Eng- “subsidies” are the Master Rolls or Certificates. land and Wales in the royal bands. What is made during the regin of Henry VIII., which known as the “first” Minister's Account of the furnish the names of able-bodied men in the difpossessions of any particular religious house is ferent counties between the ages of sixteen and generally a very important document, giving wbat sixty. is practically a verbal survey of the possessions of I said at the outset of this paper that the records that house.
of the Administrative side of the Exchequer were The Ministers' Accounts are now divided into chiefly in the nature of accounts; but I must not two series—that which has been christened the conclude it without calling attention to the very “Territorial,” extending from the reign of Henry III. valuable collections of surveys and rentals of proto that of Richard III.,
and that christened the perties permanently or temporarily in the Crown's. “ Chronological” series, Henry VII. to Charles II. bands to be found amongst these Exchequer There is no particularly satisfactory calendar to records, especially in those of that subdivision of either series ; but the former is honoured with a it known as the Court of Augmentations of the printed inventory, arranged ander counties and Revenues of the Crown," which was founded in 27 somewhat confusing in form, whilst the latter Henry VIII., and which was necessitated by the has an exceedingly meagre MS. inventory, giving huge increase in the royal possessions, caused by only the title of the first account on the roll. the general confiscation of Church property. In this
It should, perhaps, be particularly mentioned class will be found the well-knownParliamentary that the accounts in which were answered the Surveys," or surveys taken between 1649 and issues from the alien priories—religious houses in 1653 of the lands of " King Charlas I., his Queen England established by, or subordinate to, foreign and Prince.”. There is a temporary MŚ. Calendar monasteries—are included in the “Territorial” to Surveys placed in the Literary Search Room. series. The accounts of the issues of bishoprics
W. J. HARDY. whilst in the Crown's hands during vacancy or
(To be continued.) seizure are included, such as are prior in date to the reign of Henry VII., in the “Territorial series of Ministers' Accounts; those of Henry
THE REBELLION OF '98. VII.'s reign and later are still to be found in Mr. Lecky, in the smaller edition of his ‘Hisa class of documents known as Bishops' Tem- tory of Ireland,' has brought together in an accesporalities, which include sundry miscellaneous sible form the accounts of the several historians who records relating to episcopal lands—extents, in- have written on this subject, now seldom to be met quisitions, &c., of considerable value. There is a with outside a public library. With his fourth. MS. calendar to this class, placed in the Literary volume as a guide-book I recently went over the Search Room. Whilst on the subject, it may be localities in Wexford, with a view to seeing what mentioned that the deeds of sale of the Church places and buildings can now be identified with lands, made after the outbreak of the Civil War, the incidents of the rebellion. A "note" of the are enrolled on the Close Rells, and referred to by result may possibly be found interesting to some of a special MS. Calendar and Index (Palmer's ‘In- your readers. dicos,' vols. lxxx, and lxxxi.). Allusion to this Scullabogue House is still standing, two or three ought to have been made in the first of these bundred yards off the high road leading from articles, when speaking of the Close Rolls, Wexford to New Ross, about five miles from the
It is quite impossible, within limited space, to latter town, at the foot of Carrick-burne—a large. give any details of the numerous classes of docu- white house, of some pretensions, with six windows ments which are to be found amongst the records in a row on two floors, and garrets in the roof, of the Administrative side of the Exchequor ; but, considerably above the rank of an ordinary Irish to mention some, other than those already spoken farmhouse. In 1798 it belonged to, and was of, there are the subsidy and muster returns." The occupied by, a family of the name of King, but at
the outbreak of the rebellion they deserted it and is odd how often it happens that insurrection, Aed to England, and it fell into the bands of the successful at the outset, is ruined by drink. Poorebels, who used it as a prison. It is about two session of New Ross would have given the rebels hundred years old ; the most modern part is the the bridge to Kilkenny, and access down the river roof; but that I was informed by the present occupier it crosses to Waterford, both counties ripe for rowas pat on in the year previous to the outbreak. bellion ; and it is certain now that no troops the The house itself, therefore, in its entirety is an un. Government could have got together at the time doubted and most interesting relic of the rebellion. could have stamped out the rebellion before the It was to the existing hall-door of this house that French landed at Killala two months later, which some thirty or forty prisoners confined in it by the would inevitably have led to Ireland changing rebels were brought out and piked, or shot, in cold masters; and who can say for how long? But, blood, on the news arriviog of the first repulse of fortunately for us, the Irish drank the English oat the rebels at New Ross (Tuesday, June 5, 1798). of this dangerous crisis, and whilst in their second
The barn at the back, in which the great tragedy bout of intoxication the royalist troops crept back of the rebellion was enacted, totally consumed by into the town, and took it, and kept it; and the fire at the time, has never been rebuilt. Its site opportunity thus lost to the rebels never recurred. was pointed out to me, now occupied by a fragant By far the most interesting and tangible relic is crop of last year's bay.. How many prisoners at Enpiscorthy, whore Vinegar Hill rises near the perished in the flames in this barn was never suburbs of the town, with its old historic windmill accurately known. Taylor, in his history, written near the summit-not quite on the highest point, at that time, and almost on the spot, puts the but still standing out well against the sky-lino. number at 184, and gives the names of several of It must have been a massive structure at the time, them. When Bagenal Harvey saw the ruins, im- as the walls in the basement are nearly a yard in mediately after the fire, the charred bodies could thicknese. The old doorway is still in existence, be seen in a standing position closely packed to with one old grey granite step leading into it, worn gether. The site of the building is, however, only with the marks of many feet. I failed to find any eleven yards by five, and this, with two persons to trace of the second doorway mentioned by Taylor, a square pyard, would not give more than 110 who says that “to all windmills there are two doorvictims. The barn must, therefore, have been ways, one opposite the other"- --a point that is now very closely packed indeed if what Taylor tells to me, and which I take the liberty of doubting. us is true, that 184“ skeletons" were cleared out There are now only twelve or fifteen feet of this from the ruins the following Saturday, as at least windmill left, and there is a small and increasing three persons are understood to have escaped. It hole in the side of it, from which the stones aro is well known that Bagepal Harvey never recovered slowly dropping. A fow shillings in cement and from the shock of this sight, or the anguish of mind a pound in labour would make the ruins safe for it caused bim, and after Scullabogue he seemed to many years to come, without which I doubt if the lose all heart and all bope in the rising. It would tower, exposed as it is to every wind that blows, be difficult to find in the whole of Ireland a spot will last out the present century. The Enniswith so tragic a history as the site of Scullabogue corthians do not seem to set much store on tho barn.
undoubted historic relic they have at their doors, In the neighbouring town of New Ross, the as in the whole town I was unable to meet with a wooden bridge over the Barrow, on and near photograph of it, or any person to take one, and which the battle on June 5 raged the whole day, eventually bad to send a photographer over from was destroyed by ice some years ago, and has been Wexford specially for the purpose. The same replaced by a båndsome structure of granite and difficulty applied to Scollabogue House, the Throo iron, which the inhabitants proudly point to as Rocks, and Vinegar Hill. From this spot there is "the finest in Ireland." It may be 80; but I an extensive view on a clear day of the neighshould have preferred the old wooden erection, bouring country and surrounding hills, Carrigrua, built by Lemuel Cox, with the history attaching Carrick-byrne, the Three Rocks, Oulart, all within to it. Traces are to be found of some of the old a day's march of this bill, and all with a history, gates (it was near the Three-Bullet Gate that Lord Here the rebels under Father John Murphy held Mountjoy was killed), but the streets have been their camp for some weeks, and many were tho rebuilt, and the only interest in them now is in atrocities committed on it by his orders. Tho their names. Curiously enough, the present, and summit of Vinegar Hill comprises several acros, principal, inn in the town stands exactly on the same and therefore it cannot be said, comparing surfaco spot as the old one, and in elevation is not unlike with surface, to be “the most blood-stained spot it, according to the plan and drawing given in in Ireland," as the palm in that respect must inMusgrave. Twice on June 5 was this town taken disputably be given to the site of Scullabogue by the rebels under Bagenal Harvey, 46d: wice barn; but buried beneath its turf there must now Lost by them under General John Barleycorn. It be lying thousands of human bones. Cynical Sir
Jonah Barrington tells us in his ‘Memoirs' that site of the small public-house to which he was afterho visited the hill shortly after the rebellion, wher wards removed can be traced from the plan of the bodies had been buried, and that the ground old Wexford given' in Musgrave, but the house seemed “elastic" with them, at which time the itself bas long since disappeared. Here for many doorway of this windmill was still spattered with anxious days and nights Lord Kingsborough led blood and brains. What would the state of the a very parlous life indeed, until June 21, with & ground have been if on the morning of June 21 crowd almost constantly under his windows General Needham had only come up to time, and clamouring for his blood; managiog at last to had not left that loophole, through which the escape, not only with his life, but with a whole skin, rebels escaped in such numbers, in post-rebel- which, as Hay quaintly says, was truly astonisha lion controversy known as “Needham's Gap”? ing," so strong against him was the hatred of the
In the neighbouring towns of Arklow and Gorey populace on account of the pitch-caps he was said to there is absolutely nothing to be traced now con- have introduced. He narrowly escaped having a nected with the rebellion, so far as I could see or pitch-cap placed on his own head, if we may believe learn, and even the roads do not seem to run in Hay, and was only saved at the last moment by the old directions, the explanation of which, I be- Hay's intercessions, which probably went somelieve, is that some of the present ones are famine what towards saving the life of the rebel historian a roads. I noticed this particularly one day driving few months later. to Oulart Hill. It was at Arklow that the rebels Close by Wexford are the Three Rocks, where were beaten back from the road to Dublin, and the rebels under Father Pbilip Roche, their only that Father Michael Marpby was killed--the priest general with brains, encamped for some time, who boasted he could catch Protestant bullets in and whence one day they poured down on his hands without harm.
General Fawcett's unsuspecting troops and caused In the town of Wexford the local interest great bavoc. A clump of trees close to the high centred on another wooden bridge, also built by road, at the foot of these rocks, is still pointed out Lomuel Cox, with some eighty narrow arches or as the barial-place of the royalist soldiers. thereabouts, across the estuary, the scene of the The weather unfortunately prevented me making ruthless massacres by Dixon and his wife. This a personal investigation of the Saltee Islands, bridge is no longer standing ; but the stone cause- which lie off the Wexford coast, where Bagenal way or pier leading to it from the town is still left
, Harvey, with John Colclough, and the wife and and forms a convenient promenade for the nautical child of the latter, took refuge in a cave, propopulation. This bridge was the scene of many a visioned for some months, with their plate and foul marder at the time of the rebellion, after- valuables, hoping to get away to France. They wards interspersed, now and again, with an were betrayed, as is well known, by the trickling occasional judicial murder at the hands of the of soapsuds from the mouth of the cave, and were royalists ; Cornelius Grogan, for instance, made to brought to the quay at Wexford, near which Harbobble to his death here on cratches, in his flannelsvey and Colclough, with Cornelius Grogad, were and goat, concerning whom it was said at the time afterwards executed, “on the bridge over the river, that nothing was quite certain except his wealth. in which all of them were large shareholders.” BarThere is a very fair engraving of this bridge given rington in his 'Memoirs' makes fun at the fatile in Taylor, with the massacres in progress, the only endeavours of an English judge (Lord Redesdale) one I have seen showing the bridge as it stood at to pronounce the name “Colclough." I was told at that date. Also a terribly realistic one in Max. Wexford the proper pronunciation is “Coakley." well, drawn by Cruikshank. Mr. Lecky more A word as to the historians of the rebellion. than once alludes to the executions of rebels and Musgrave's quarto is a painstaking work, bat spoilt others as taking place “off” the bridge, as if over by strong royalist and Protestant bias. From it the parapet; but nothing can be more certain than be reaped but small profit, much controversy, that they took place "it,—“On the entrance Castlereagh's contempt, Barrington's speers, and a to the bridge," says Hay, the rebel historian, "on duel that brought him nearly to death's door. an ornamental iron arch, intended for lamps, and But his plans are excellent; and whatever may be springing from the two wooden piers of the gate, said as to Sir Richard's facts, there is no reason for next the town." And Hay ought to know, as his doubting the accuracy of his plans. Hay, the chief brother John Hay, the rebel general, was hanged historian on the rebel side, seems a truthful, but there, and he himself narrowly escaped the same rather tedious writer, and gives, what is valuable fate and on the same spot.
a good map of the rebellion district, and Taylor Near this bridge was moored the old and rotten a rabid Protestant (a Methodist preacher, I think), sloop used as a guard-ship, where Lord Kings- one of the bridge at Wexford as it stood in those borough who had been picked up at sea by ite days. From these three, taken together, reprerebels prowling abont in an open boat, was brought senting both sides of the story, and Craiksbank's and confined terribly incommoded by rats. The drawings as given in Maxwell, a very fair idea of
the rebellion can be derived ; without them, very till two centuries after the alleged occurrence. little. Of personal narratives by far the most MR. Mount's inquiry elicited no answor, and the interesting is that of Charles Jackson. Jackson authority for Gifford's statement has still to be got early into the rebels' power, and to save his life discovered. In addition to the dictionaries cited was made by them to execute some of their by Mr. Mount, I have turned to the recentlyprisoners, his fellow townsmen, with his own hands. published 'Stanford Dictionary of Anglicized He appears to have been the last man, in the last Words and Phrases,' in the hope of gaining some batch, on the last day, brought down to the bridge further information. This dictionary merely reat Wexford by Dixon's orders to be piked; and iterates the statement of its predecessors, and adds was kneeling there tremblingly expecting his turn to the Jonson citation the following lines from when orders came that every able-bodied
rebel was 'Hudibras,' part iii. canto i. (1678) :wanted at Vinegar Hill. So in a dazed sort of a Youl'd find yourself an arrant Chousa condition he was taken back to gaol, the safest If y' were but at a Meeting House, place for him. From gaol the next day he some- An earlier quotation might have been given how or other managed to pass safely through the from Wycherley's comedy of Love in a Wood, hands of the infuriated soldiers to his wife and Act I. sc. i., in which Lady Flippant tells her children and his burnt-out home, to pick up after- estimable friend Mrs. Joyner that she is wards what precarious living he could as a carver better than a chouse, a cheat." This play was, in and gilder in impoverished Wexford, and to all probability, first produced on the stage of write his parrative.
W. 0. WOODALL. Drury Lane Theatre in the spring of 1671, but Scarborough.
may have been written some years earlier.* The P.8.-If it should so happen that any one in word was, therefore, in vogue soon after the Restoraterested in this rebellion history should care tion; but is there any evidence that it was emabout having photographs of the places I have men- ployed at an earlier date? The Turkish incident tioned, I may state that the negatives of the must have occurred in 1609, and it seems extremely photographs taken for me are (I believe) still in the improbable that a word of the “boycott" class possession of the photographer wbo took them, should have lain dormant for a period of fifty or Mr. Andrews, 13, High Street, Wexford. sixty years from the date of the events out of which
it originated, and should then bave come into com
If the theory of Mr. Sala and the dic"CHOUSE." —Mr. G. A. Sala, in his “Echoes of tionary-makers is to be substantiated, I submit the Week,” printed in the Sunday Times of May 14, that it is necessary for some evidence to be prorefers to an article on Americanisms which recently duced showing that the word was employed in its appeared in the Daily News, in which the writer modern sense between the days of Ben Jonson and observed that many words ordinarily supposed to those of Wycherley and Batler. Otherwise, I think be of Transatlantic coinage are not American at all. it would be safer to assume that chouse is a colOne of these words is chouse, which, according to loquialism of English, perhaps provincial, origin, the Daily News writer, is “perfectly good English.” to which the freedom of the Restoration drama On this Mr. Sala remarks :
gave some kind of literary currency. "I should say that chouse can only be considered good
W. F. PRIDEAUX. English in the same sense that burke, macadamize, boy- 29, Avenue Road, N.W. cott, bowdlerize, and grangerize can be held to be English. Chouse has a very curious origin, of which the writer in SIR JOHN FALSTAFF.-At the commencement the Daily Neros does not seem to be aware. It was for- of Balzac's historical novel entitled 'Sur Catherine morly spelled chiaus, chiaua, and chaous; various corruptions of the Turkish word for a messenger, agent, and do Médicis,' occurs the following remarkable interpreter. It happened that a Turkish commercial in passage : London, in the reign of James I., swindled some of the “ Par suite d'un caprice de Shakspeare, et peut-être merchants trading with Turkey out of large sums of fut-ce une vengeance comme celle de Beaumarchais contre money; and from the notoriety of the circumstance the Bergasse (Bergeares), Falstaff est, en Angleterre, le type du word came to mean a cheat, and so gave rise to the verb ridicule ; son nom provoque le rire. C'est le roi des clowns. to chouse. Ben Jonson mentione a chiaus in the 'Al. Au lieu d'être énormément replet, sottement amoureux, chemist.''
vain, ivrogne, vieux, corrupteur, Falstaff était un des porI do not feel sure that the matter is so certain sonnages les plus importants de son siècle, chevalier do as Mr. Sala assumes it to be. Some years ago supérieur. A l'avénement de Henri V.
au trône, Sir Fal.
l'ordre de la Jarretière, et revêtu d'un commandement (“N. & Q.,' 76 8. vi. 387) MR. C. B. Mount staff avait au plus trente-quatre ans. Co général qui se dealt with the word in a very interesting note, signala pendant la bataille d'Azincourt et y fit prisonA which he traced its dictionary, pedigree, and wound up by asking for further information re
* Wycherley uses the same expression in his 'Gentlegarding the history of the swindling chiaus, which chouse, a cheat" are put into the mouth of Mrs. Caution.
man Dancing - Master,' III. i., where the words “ 80 far seemed to rest upon the authority of Gifford, This play was first printed in 1673, but was probably whose notes to Jonson's plays were not written produced a year or two earlier.