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his sisters, who kept a seminary near St. Jobn's On Sunday, July 1, 1838, in conjunction with Street Road. He was educated under Henry Joseph Last and Charles Pitcher, a man of fortune Butter, the well-known author of the 'Etymological and a sporting character, he started the Crown, Spelling-Book,' which went to a two bundred and a weekly paper supporting the beer-sellers, which thirty-eighth edition in 1860. At the age of with No. 42, on April 14, 1839, came to an twelve he was apprenticed for three years to a untimely end. pawnbroker in High Street, Shadwell, and from On June 13, 1839, he took a benefit at the that period till 1830 was employed in various Queen's Theatre, Tottenham Street (afterwards pawnbrokering establishments. About Marcb, 1830, known as the Prince of Wales's), when an extravahe started in business as a jeweller at 99, Quad- ganza called 'The Town,' and a farce entitled "The rant, Regent Street; but on Dec. 1, 1831, he Licensed Victualler,' both pieces written by the became an insolvent, and paid the first of his bénéficiaire, were produced, and the net proceeds many visits to the King's Bench Prison. Quickly were upwards of 4001. following on this event he was incarcerated in In conjunction with Thomas Bartlett Simpson, Whitecross Street Prison, on emerging from which in 1841, he opened the Garrick's Head and Town he was in such an absolute state of poverty that Hotel, 27, Bow Street, Covent Garden, and in a for several nights be slept on the doorstep of the large room in this house, on Monday, March 8, Bishop of London's house in St. James's Square. 1841, established the well-known Judge and Jury He was next connected with “brown money Society, where he himself soon after commenced gambling rooms, and then with billiard rooms, presiding under the title of “The Lord Chief while in the summer months he went speeling, an Baron." On the first occasion of wearing his amusement on a racecourse, consisting of playing ermine robes he had among bis audience John roulette in a tent. About 1836 be married, and Adolphus, the father of the English bar. Memtook a cigar shop in Warwick Street, Regentbers of both houses of Parliament, statesmen, Street, which bad a room behind it where the poets, actors, and others visited the Garrick's customers gambled and were supplied with strong Head, and it was not an uncommon occurrence to drinkg. He is next found as a wine merchant in see the jury composed of noble lords and members Leicester Place, Leicester Square; but this estab- of the lower house of the legislature. The trials lishment did not last long, as on April 22, 1836, were humorous, yet gave occasion for serious he was made a bankrupt.
eloquence, glowing repartee, and fluent satire. He was now fortunate enough to make the ac- Truth compels me to say that too frequently the quaintance of Joseph Last, printer, Edward Street, cases taken related to seduction or crim. con., Hampstead Road, who employed him to edit and when men dressed in female attire were crossbring out the Town, a weekly paper, the first examined, and the judge, counsel, plaintiffs, and number of which appeared on Saturday, June 3, defendants all indulged in double entente and 1837. This paper, a kind of society journal deal other language of an immoral nature. The attening with the phenomena of flash life, was a success tion of the public was kept directed to this mimic from the first, and although some of its contents court of law by advertisements containing amusing were not of a bighly moral nature, it contained a sham law reports, by poetical broadsides, and by great deal of information and exposed many the exhibition of an immense painting at the swindling companies. The Town contained some corner of Wellington Street, Strand. This picture, illustrations for which “Gillray the younger a work of artistic merit, by Archibald Henning, made the sketches on wood, and Ebenezer Landells cost nearly 2001. It contained portraits of many engraved them. In the earlier numbers Nicholson of the celebrities of the day, and contioued as an wrote the greater part of the paper; after that ornament of the thoroughfare for a great number he bad as contributors, among others, Mr. Ander. of years. The most popular of the counsel was sod, late editor of the Marylebone Journal; John Henry Pellatt, always known as Henry Brougham, Dalrymple, the writer of burlesques in wbich while Jobp George Canding was equally good as Mrs. Honey appeared (in 1839 when on his a prisoner, a witness, or a suitor. Nicholson's death-bed, he was taken out of bis house and shut position as a mock judge was one of the sternest ap in Newgate on a false charge of forgery, and realities of eccentric history. Attorneys when died the following morning); Benry Pellatt, after-suing him said, “Well, my lord"; sheriffs' officers wards known as the double of Lord Brougham ; when executing a writ apologized for the disJohn George Canning, who wrote under the signa- agreeable duty they were compelled to perform ture of Theophilus Pole, and died in 1847 ; Dr. " on the court”; and even the highest judges of William Magion, dramatic writer, who died the land recognized him and his office while actJan. 19, 1842, aged forty-nine ; and Edward ing judicially in their own courts. In a case in Leman Blanchard, who deceased so recently as the Common Pleas, Bickley, an attorney, v. Tasker, Sept. 4, 1889. No. 156, Saturday, May 23, 1840, a wine mercbant, the newspapers of the day reappears to have been the last issue of the Town, ported a very amusing conversation between
Nicholson, a witness, and Sir John Jervis, the to the establishment, and wrote poetical and proge Lord Chief Justice.
puffs of the theatre. Smith, who died Nov. 26, In the Ingoldsby Legend of 'The Ghost,' Bar. 1877, aged seventy-three, immortalized himself by ham says of the judge and jury :
refusing to permit several members of his company It more resembled one of later date
to perform before Her Majesty at Windsor. And tenfold talents, as I'm told, in Bow Street,
The Lord Chief Baron made his last removeWhere kindlier-natured souls do congregate; And though there are who deom the same a low street, 20, Maiden Lane-on Jan. 16, 1858, and opened
namely, from the Coal Hole to the Cider Collar, Yet I'm assured, for frolicsome debate And genuine bumour it's surpassed by no street,
his court and bis exhibition of poses plastiques on When the “Chief Baron" enters and assumes
Jan. 22. Here, in March, taking advantage of To "rule" o er mimic“Thesigers"and “Brougbams." a discussion in the newspapers on the social evil, In 1844 the Judge and Jury Society was removedbe produced a case on that vexed question, and to the Coal Hole, Fountain Court, 103, Strand, was rewarded with crowded audiences. Thé adand the entertainment was varied by the introduc- dress of his leading counsel, Richard Hart, was tion of mock elections and mock parliamentary printed, and many thousand copies of it were cirdebates. At various times Nicholson "went culated. circuit," and held bis court at Southampton, The chequered and extraordinary career of the Canterbury, Manchester, Glasgow, and in many Baron came to an end by his death from dropsy other large towns. During the summer months he and beart disease, at the house of his daughter, attended Epsom, Ascot, Hampton, and other Miss Eliza Nicholson, proprietress of the Gordon races, with a very large tent, in which he dis- Tavern, 3, Piazza, Covent Garden, on May 18, pensed refreshments, and was, as be says himself, 1861, aged only fifty-two; and he was buried in the first judge who ever sold beef on a racecourse, Brompton Cemetery on May 22. He left two and perbaps the only poet ever engaged in such a daughters, who had for some time helped him in novel commercial undertaking. He was also a his hotel business. The elder was afterwards the caterer at Camberwell and other fairs, where he manager of E. T. Smith's Cremorne Restaurant, had dancing-booths.
at the corner of Wardour Street, Leicester Square. On July 31 and Aug. 1 and 2, 1843, he gave
Nicholson was the author of a three days' fête at Cremorne Gardens. It was 1. Cockney Adventures. 1838. called the Thousand Guinea Fête, and, by means
2. Niebolson's Noctes ; or, Nights and Sights of ingenious advertisements, large crowds were in London. 1842. No. XI., Saturday, May 14, attracted to the gardens. At Easter in the follow. 1842, is the last number that I have seen of this ing year he gave a similar fête, and then opened periodical. the grounds on Sunday afternoons for promenade 3. Dombey and Daughter: a Moral Picture. and refreshments. In October, 1844, he was again in 1858. the Queen's Bench, and Cremorne Gardens fell to 4. The Lord Chief Baron Nicholson : an AutoT. B. Simpson, who, being favoured with a series biography. 1860. of fine summers, made 100,000l. in ten years. He The Judga and Jury did not die with its died June 22, 1872, aged sixty-six.
founder, for Mr. H. G. Brooks, who had for some In 1846 Nicholson was again back at the time acted as deputy baron, succeeded to the Garrick's Head, wbere he added to his usual ermine, and continued to hold the court at the attractions poses plastiques and tableaux vivants in Cider Cellar till 1864. It was afterwards removed connexion with a musical entertainment, in which to a house on the eastern side of Leicester Square, he delivered a lecture on poetry and song. In the which is now known as M. Phillippe's Cavour same year he brought out a troupe of female Hostel and Restaurant. It was advertised at night serenaders at the St. James's Rooms (formerly by men having on their heads square boxes with Crockford's), St. James's Street. His wife died at canvas sides and lights in the interior, thus Boulogne, on Sept. 15, 1849, and shortly after this enabling the lettering on the canvas to be seen in date he is found located at the Justice Tavern, in the dark. About 1878 the Judge and Jury Society Bow Street. By this time he was again in poverty, came to an end, and it does not seem probable and. was glad to receive an annual salary to that such an exhibition will again be permitted. preside at the Garrick's Head, where, in company Views of the interior of the court will be found in with Farquharson Smith, the vocalist, he managed The Bachelor's Guide to Life in London,' p. 8, the entertainments till July, 1851. At this period and in the Illustrated Sporting News, May 21, he quarrelled with Simpson, and Edward Tyrrel 1864, pp. 129 and 133. GEORGX C. BOASE. Smith advanced him the money to take the Coal
36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W. Hole Tavern, where he beld his court three times a night. As fast as it was emptied it was crowded SHAKSPEARE IN OXFORD. — The biographers of again. When E. T. Smith took Drury Lane Sir William Davenant give no reason, nor even Theatre in 1852, Nicholson became poet laureate suggestion, wby Shakespeare, in bis journey from London to Stratford and back, chose the “ Crown Buckstone succeeded bim, and conducted the house Ind," at Oxford, for his resting-place. I think I with great spirit. His staple trade was the legitihave found out the reason. The Avenants, or mate drama, and the plays of Sbakspere, SheriDavenants, were an old and numerous family in dan, Talfourd, and others were the standing dish. Warwickshire, and the lipes quoted in the Dic- Lord Lytton's 'Money' was first produced here, tionary of National Biograpby' from Gondibert with Macready, Wrench, David Rees, B. Webster, have reference to Avenants deriving their name J. Webster, H. Howe, Miss Fauoit, Mrs. Fitzfrom the Avon, or Aven, as the river was always william, and Miss P. Horton filling the principal formerly called As the name Davenant does characters.
W. WRIGHT. not occur among the former generations of Oxford 10, Little College Street, Westminster, S.W. tradesmen, the Avenants must bave migrated from Warwickshire very little, if at all, earlier than
ARCHBISHOP WHATELY : “ PRISONER."— The Queen Elizabeth's reign, and Shakespeare may not following note will be found at p. 20 of the instruconly have been an old acquaintance, but an actual tive little work by Archbishop Whately entitled connexion of the Oxford Davenants. I can show 'English Synonims':several writs relating to the Avenants of county ing one who receives a confession) and one other ...,
“It is curious that this word ["confessor” when meanWarwick, tempp. Hen. VI. and Edward IV.
'prisoner’-present almost the only exceptions to the
general rule in our language, that the terminations or' “The Zoo.”—The tendency among English
ander' indicate an agent, and not a passive recipient.” people to clip long words into short opes, or even
Though somewhat of a helluo librorum, the into monosyllables, is notorious. Thus, “cabriolet" archbishop seems not to have been aware that long bas become cab, "omnibus" bus, and so on. But ago
prisoner " meant jailor, and not, as now, the change of “zoological " into zoo is, to any one
"jail-bird." That this is so, however, is clearly who knows the origin of the word, the most seen in the following excerpt from The Story of exasperating of all; and yet we now meet with Genesis and Exodus, an Early English Song,' "* 200” in well-written journals like the Saturday written about the end of the thirteenth centary :Review; and I see the word is being advertised as
Potifar trewith hise wife's tale, the title of a book. There is another variation,
And haved doomt Josef to bale ;*
He bad bim ben sperdt faste doon, which comes simply from bad pronunciation, as
And bolden harde in prisun. when a cockney holiday-maker tells you he bas
An litel stund, I quile be was ther, been to the " slogical.” If " zoological” is to
So gan bim luven the pribuner, $ undergo a shortening, like that which has befallen
And him the chwartrell baveth bitagt omnibus” and “cabriolet,” let it at least become
With the prisunes** to liven in hagt.tt
Those who wish for further information on the would not be so excruciating as the detestable zoo.
matter should betake themselves to a study of the J. Dixon. ‘Song' as edited for the Early English Text
Society by Mr. R. Morris, 1865. THE HAYMARKET THEATRE, PAST AND PRE
Besides “prisoner," as used in modern times, SENT.-Foote was the first lessee of the old house. are not "pensioner
"exbibitioner In 1747 he made his first appearance in a piece additional examples of persons with passive called “The Diversions of the Morning '; he after- functions ?
J. wards presented 'An Auction of Pictures.' From Glasgow, 1752 to 1761 his success continued uninterrupted. He died at Dover in 1777. He wrote some twenty
THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM. -An American pieces.
astronomer, Mr. J. N. Stockwell, of Cleveland, George Colman followed bim at the Haymarket, Ohio, has recently been attempting to revive the and continued the management of that house till theory that the celestial appearance commonly the time of bis death. Born at Florence, 1733, called “the Star of the Magi”
was in fact caused died at Paddington, 1794.
by a conjunction of planets. This theory, it will George Colman the Younger (1762-1836) in be remembered, was first started by Kepler, and 1784. produced his first play at the Haymarket, the planets supposed to be Jupiter and Saturn. and in 1789 took the whole management upon Mr. Stockwell, however, finds that a conjunction of himself. In 1824 he was appointed Examiner of Jupiter and Venus (closer than that of Jupiter and Plays, and retained that office till his death in Saturn in B.c. 7) took place in B.C. 6 on May 8, 1836.
when those planets were visible in the morning The present house was opened July 4, 1821. about two hours before sunrise, Jupiter only 32' In 1830 the lessees were Morris and Winston. They were followed by Benjamin Webster, who
|| Prison, guard-house. carried on the house successfully for some years,
** Prisoners. producing many of Sheridan Knowles's plays. & Jailer,
(or about the apparent diameter of the sun or moon) KILMESTON Manor House.-I seek information to the north ward of Venus. It is obvious that concerning the old manor house of Kilmesthere is the same fundamental objection to the ton, Hants, seven miles east of Winchester, four acceptance of this theory as in the case of the miles south of Alresford, not far from Tichborne, other conjunction, to which I referred in ‘N. & Q.,' and the battle-field of Cheriton. This was lately 66 S. vii. 4. How could a conjunction of planets, the property of Mr. Walter Long, of Presbore, or any star in the astronomical sense of the word, and previously was in the bands of a family called appear to stand over a particular house, as seen by Ridge. The house is apparently Jacobean. Who those who were near it? Nor is it any con- were the original owners; and what is its history? firmation of this view (as might seem to be at
TAUPE. first sight) that Jupiter and Venus were visible in the eastern heavens about the time of their con; of sea-gulls which were flying in Chelsea reach
STORMY PETREL. — Among the great numbers jonction. For by seeing the “star in the East,' the Magi probably meant that they saw it when during the present frost, there was at least one they left their home in the East. It is impossible bing up and down over and on the little waves
stormy petrel, which, curiously enough, was bobto place the nativity of Christ so early as B.C. 6, caused by the easterly wind in the very place consistently with Lake iii. 23; and I must remain where the two whales appeared who came up the of opinion that it occurred in the late autumn of Thames at the time of the Naval Exhibition. Is B.C. 5.
W. T. Lynn.
the petrel a frequent visitor to the metropolis ! Blackheath,
S. P. A.
readers We must request correspondente desiring information direct me to the German original of a short but on family matters of only privato interest to affix their clever poem on the water mill, the refrain of names and addresses to their queries, in order that the which, according to a MS. translation I have answers may be addressed to them direct.
The mill will never grind DORSET MARRIAGE LICENCES.—Can any reader
With the water that has passed ? of ‘N. & Q.’inform me if there are any allegations
G. B. P. on the granting of marriage licences for the county
Athenæum Club. of Dorset from 1780 to 1810 in existence—if so,
A VIEW OF LIFE.—I found the following graffito where—other than a small bundle, dated in the on a pavement in the Roman city of Thamugas years 1802 and 1803, which is now in the registry (mod. Timegad), Algeria, lately exhumed by the at Blandford ? The registry was broken into at the French Government: “ Uepari lauari lvdere ridere time of the Reform Riots in 1831, when a large occ est uiuere.” I wonder what would-be viveur number of public papers were destroyed.
can have written it. One who was old enough and W. J. G.
rich enough to have such experience of high life Crouch End.
would scarcely have sat down on the steps of the PERSSE FAMILY.-Will some genealogical reader Forum to give this vent to his enthusiasm with of ‘N. & Q.' be so kind as to let me know what hammer and chisel. Was it a schoolboy emulous arms are borne by the Persse family of Moyode, of the prowess of big brothers; or some Tittlebat and of Roxborough, co. Galway? Though they Titmouse out for a holiday, and dreaming himself are a fairly old and certainly well-known family in the possessor of 10,0001. a year? One scarcely that county, I can find their arms neither in Burke's dares to suggest that the h-less ncc may gmack • Landed Gentry'nor in the General Armory.'
of the City apprentice. Possibly the words are a KATHLEEN WARD. quotation. Does any one know?
C. B. Mount. LINES ON TENNyson.'—Will any one who possesses Mortimer Collins's ‘Letters to Mr. Dis
GROTTO AT MARGATE. — Could any correraeli' be kind enough to copy for me some lines spondent give me information about the soon Tennyson which occur in it?
called grotto at Margate ? Were not shell grottoes TANG JE PUVS.
rather a fashionable fancy at the time of Horace
Walpole; and were they as elaborate as this speciARMS.- Could any reader of N. & Q.' tell me men ?
D. TOWNSHEND. what are the arms of the family of Purscombe ; and of what families the following three coats are
MORETON FAMILY.-I am desirous of filling up the arms: (1) Gu., a chevron between 3 pears or ; the gaps from William, And, and Sarah Moreton (2) Arg., a chevron between torteaux az.; (3) Gu., to the Visitation. William and Ann stated to my 3 harts trippant or ?
father that they were cousins to the first Lord F. B. D. BICKERSTSAFFE-DREW. Ducie, who died in 1735. On the back of an old 5, Holyrood Place, The Hoe, Plymouth.
letter I have a pen-and-ink sketch of the following
arms and crest:-On a bend three bucklos, and in and storehouse” of pirates. He gives many sugthe left top corner of the shield a rose. Crest, a gestions for destroying their traffic, and full pargoat's head. William Moreton, of Upper Gower ticulars of their chief haunts, and deprecates Street, and Southgate, Middlesex, a mercbant of clemency on the king's part when any were London, died Sept. 29, 1834, aged seventy-five, apprehended.
H. married Sophia and had issue a son, William Coulson Moreton, Captain 2nd Life Guards, and
TITAE COMMUTATION AWARDS.-Can any reader 13th Light Dragoons, married at Hampton, Feb. 10, of N. & Q.’tell me whether the evidences adduced 1810, Elizabeth, daughter of W. Griffen hoofe ; she during the course of commutation, as to prescripdied Oct. 27, 1865, aged seventy-five. Capt. tion, exemption, &c., are still preserved anywhere; Moreton died March 9, 1862, aged seventy-five, and whether they are consultable, on payment of a and left issue Charles, William, Henry, and Eliza fee or otherwise ? The documents would bave, of beth, who are all dead. And, the sister of William, course, only an historical interest, as having afforded married about 1779, John Coulson, who died in the Commissioners the facts on which they based
W. C. W. 1780, aged thirty, and left issue a son and daughter. their definitive apportionment. Mrs. Coulson married secondly Thomas Bettes
MEDIÆVAL DIPTYCHS OF THE DECALOGUE.—Is worth, of Billingshurst, Sussex, a merchant of there any medieval diptych known to exist among London, and who died in 1795, aged forty-five, the art treasures of Jewish synagogues or of Mrs. Bettesworth died in 1844, aged eighty-five. Christian churches, upon which the Ten ComAnother sister of William (Sarah ?), married
mandments are inscribed, either in Hebrew or in Smith, of Sydenham, Kent, and left issue. These the Greek or Latin version, to serve as a record of Moretons are all buried in a vault in Hornsey the two talbets given to Moses on Mount Sinai ? Churchyard. Any information relating to this
Z. family will be very acceptable.
J. 0. 51, Marlborough Hill, London, N.W.
“COMMENCED M.A."—What is the meaning of Z. COZENS.—Can any of your readers give me known Athenæ Cantabrigienses,' e. g.,
this phrase, which is often used in Cooper's wellinformation respecting Z. Cozens, who is mentioned in the 'Bibliotbeca Cantiana 'as the author
M. commenced M.A. in 1542 ?” E. Masun. of twelve contributions to the Gentleman's Maga- Blow FAMILY.–Would you kindly give me zine, chiefly on Kentish antiquarian matters, and some information about the Blow family prior to the also of A Tour through the Isle of Thanet, and year 1694, at which time they came to Belfast to some of the parts of East Kent,' pp. 507, 4to., start the printing trade in that town? I believe Nicholls, London, 1793? Singular to say, there is they came from either Fife or Perthshire. There no account of him in the new Dictionary of is å tradition that the name was changed from National Biography. of his chief work I am Johnstone to Blow after one of the old clan fights; told there are only fourteen copies extant, the rest if this is so, could you give me the date and place ? having been burnt. C. S. F.
J. C. M. B. PORTRAIT MINIATURE.— I have a very beautiful TENNYSON AND “The Gem.' — Mr. Henry J. and perfect miniature by Oliver, of a gentleman, Jennings, in his popular biography of Lord Tennyanno 1629, with fine lace collar, gold chain, son, states, 'The Gem' for 1831 contained three strongly marked features, reddish brown hair, of his poems, in one of which, entitled 'No More, pointed close beard. On his right cheek is the may be traced the germ of Violet's song in 'The scar of a great sword.cut. Is there any chance of Princess.' In my copy of 'The Gem,' 1831, there identifying the person represented ? J. C. J.
are only two puems, 'No More’and Anacreontics,' MAINWARING'S 'DISCOURSE OF PIRATES.'-I
acknowledged by A. Tennyson, Esq.
W. A. HENDERSON. shall gladly learn if the MS. hereunder mentioned
Dublin. has been printed, and whether anything is known of the author or the circumstances which led to its THE HOLLOW SWORD-BLADE COMPANY.-This composition. Folio MS. of twenty-four leaves (in company purchased estates in Ireland early in the contemporary bandwriting) entitled
last century. What was the peculiarity of these A Discourse written by SHenrie Mainwaringe knight sword-blades; and what is briefly the history of the and by him presented unto Kinge James An° D'ni 1618 company?
W. 8. PATTERSON. wherein are discovered the beginninges and proceedinges Belfast. of Pyrats, wib theire vsuall places of aboad at all tymes of the Yeare, together wth his advise and direction for Stewart's Rooms were in Piccadilly. What surprisinge and suppressinge of them.
part? The Rev. J. Brand's books were sold there The pirates alluded to were Englishmen, many of about 1835 ; and Dr. Gossett was examining before whom hailed from the mouth of the Thames. But purchase a Latin Dictionary in three volumes, folio. Mainwaring says that Ireland was the "nursery He found two leaves folded together, and in them